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2014

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Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

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Articles 31 - 60 of 127

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Rapid: Effect Of A Very Low Nao Event On The Abundance Of The Lipid-Rich Planktonic Copepod, Calanus Finmarchicus, In The Gulf Of Maine, Jeffrey Runge Aug 2014

Rapid: Effect Of A Very Low Nao Event On The Abundance Of The Lipid-Rich Planktonic Copepod, Calanus Finmarchicus, In The Gulf Of Maine, Jeffrey Runge

University of Maine Office of Research Administration: Grant Reports

Test the hypothesis that a distinctly lower abundance of the planktonic copepod, Calanus finmarchicus in the Gulf of Maine follows the occurrence of very negative winter phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). In 2010, the station-based winter NAO index was -4.64, even more intense than the negative (-3.78) 1996 NAO winter index. If a two-year lagged relationship between very negative NAO winter indices and Calanus abundance in the Gulf of Maine is valid, cooler water from the Labrador Sea should replace Atlantic Temperate Slope Water in the GoM in 2012, inducing a major climatic ecosystem event on ...


Developing Tools To Evaluate Spawning & Fertilization Dynamics Of The Giant Sea Scallop — Phase Ii: Field Trials In Experimental Populations, Richard A. Wahle, Peter Jumars Aug 2014

Developing Tools To Evaluate Spawning & Fertilization Dynamics Of The Giant Sea Scallop — Phase Ii: Field Trials In Experimental Populations, Richard A. Wahle, Peter Jumars

University of Maine Office of Research Administration: Grant Reports

Objective 1 — Sperm advection-diffusion model: Develop a two-dimensional spatial model to predict the concentration o f sperm and effective range of fertilization in a sperm plume at varying distances from a source population of spawning males under scenarios of synchronous and asynchronous spawning.

Objective 2 — Fertilization assays in field populations: Conduct a time series of fertilization assays over experimental populations of scallops to (a) further develop the methodology to assess ambient sperm loads in scallop populations over the course of the spawning season, (b) compare model predictions about spatial patterns of sperm concentration and fertilization generated in Objective 1 to ...


Jellyfish Throwdown: Invasive Versus Native, Brooke Bemowski, Trisha Huynh, Lindsay J. Sullivan, Wim Kimmerer Aug 2014

Jellyfish Throwdown: Invasive Versus Native, Brooke Bemowski, Trisha Huynh, Lindsay J. Sullivan, Wim Kimmerer

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

The San Francisco Bay Estuary is home to many species of marine and wildlife that create a delicate ecological balance. Invasive jellyfish introduced to the bay though cargo shipping are believed to be competing with the endangered delta smelt for the same food source of copepods. Samples of zooplankton were taken from high and low salinity zones in the San Francisco Bay over three years in months June through February to correlate with the peak of the jellyfish lifecycle. The preserved samples are looked through and jellyfish are removed and recorded. The species of jellyfish is determined using features such ...


Salinity Distribution Of Microplankton In The San Francisco Estuary, Carrie Ann Sharitt, Lindsay Sullivan, Wim Kimmerer Aug 2014

Salinity Distribution Of Microplankton In The San Francisco Estuary, Carrie Ann Sharitt, Lindsay Sullivan, Wim Kimmerer

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Microplankton are a diverse group of planktonic organisms ranging from 0.02 to 0.2 millimeters. Since the group is defined solely by size, it spans numerous taxonomic groups, including both heterotrophs and autotrophs. Microplankton are abundant in all aquatic ecosystems and are important prey for many organisms, including bivalves, crustaceans, and fish. The San Francisco Bay is truly an estuary as saltwater enters the estuary under the Golden Gate Bridge and freshwater flows in from the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers. Thus, there is a gradient of salinity from freshwater (0) in the rivers to saltwater by the Golden ...


Temperature Alters Food Web Body-Size Structure, Jean P. Gibert, John P. Delong Aug 2014

Temperature Alters Food Web Body-Size Structure, Jean P. Gibert, John P. Delong

Faculty Publications in the Biological Sciences

The increased temperature associated with climate change may have important effects on body size and predator– prey interactions. The consequences of these effects for food web structure are unclear because the relationships between temperature and aspects of food web structure such as predator–prey body-size relationships are unknown. Here, we use the largest reported dataset for marine predator–prey interactions to assess how temperature affects predator–prey body-size relationships among different habitats ranging from the tropics to the poles. We found that prey size selection depends on predator body size, temperature and the interaction between the two. Our results indicate ...


Impacts Of Groundwater Discharge At Myora Springs (North Stradbroke Island, Australia) On The Phenolic Metabolism Of Eelgrass, Zostera Muelleri, And Grazing By The Juvenile Rabbitfish, Siganus Fuscescens, Thomas M. Arnold, Grace Freundlich, Taylor Weilnau, Arielle Verdi, Ian R. Tibbetts Jul 2014

Impacts Of Groundwater Discharge At Myora Springs (North Stradbroke Island, Australia) On The Phenolic Metabolism Of Eelgrass, Zostera Muelleri, And Grazing By The Juvenile Rabbitfish, Siganus Fuscescens, Thomas M. Arnold, Grace Freundlich, Taylor Weilnau, Arielle Verdi, Ian R. Tibbetts

Faculty and Staff Publications By Year

Myora Springs is one of many groundwater discharge sites on North Stradbroke Island (Queensland, Australia). Here spring waters emerge from wetland forests to join Moreton Bay, mixing with seawater over seagrass meadows dominated by eelgrass, Zostera muelleri. We sought to determine how low pH / high CO2 conditions near the spring affect these plants and their interactions with the black rabbitfish (Siganus fuscescens), a co-occurring grazer. In paired-choice feeding trials S. fuscescens preferentially consumed Z. muelleri shoots collected nearest to Myora Springs. Proximity to the spring did not significantly alter the carbon and nitrogen contents of seagrass tissues but did ...


Understanding Copepod Life-History And Diversity Using A Next-Generation Zooplankton Model, Andrew J. Pershing, Frederic Maps, Nicholas R. Record Jul 2014

Understanding Copepod Life-History And Diversity Using A Next-Generation Zooplankton Model, Andrew J. Pershing, Frederic Maps, Nicholas R. Record

University of Maine Office of Research Administration: Grant Reports

The main goal of our project is to understand the patterns of diversity and biogeography in marine copepods. To achieve this goal, we developed a unique modeling framework to simulate the trade-offs between growth, development, and fecundity in marine copepods.

We developed a new approach to modeling growth and development in metazoans. We applied this approach to marine copepods, and used it to understand relationships between copepod body size and temperature, copepod biodiversity patterns, and copepod biogeography. This project also provided support for experiments to look at how copepod body size impacts the particle size spectrum.

We used our model ...


Collaborative Research: Interactive Effects Of Chronic N Deposition, Acidification, And Phosphorus Limitation On Coupled Element Cycling In Streams, Kevin S. Simon, Ivan J. Fernandez, Stephen Norton Jul 2014

Collaborative Research: Interactive Effects Of Chronic N Deposition, Acidification, And Phosphorus Limitation On Coupled Element Cycling In Streams, Kevin S. Simon, Ivan J. Fernandez, Stephen Norton

University of Maine Office of Research Administration: Grant Reports

Human activity has doubled the amount of nitrogen on the landscape, creating a pollution problem and changing the balance among multiple nutrients that limit biological activity in ecosystems. At the same time, other disturbances, such as acidification, interact with nitrogen enrichment in ways that strongly influence the productivity and health of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. This project examines the interactions among multiple elements and disturbances (nitrogen, phosphorus, metals, and acidification) along a continuum from the atmosphere through soils to streams. This project takes advantage of two unique experiments in which entire watersheds have been experimentally enriched with nitrogen and acid ...


Mass And Nutrient Loss In Decaying Hardwood Boles At Hubbard Brook, Chris E. Johnson Jul 2014

Mass And Nutrient Loss In Decaying Hardwood Boles At Hubbard Brook, Chris E. Johnson

Civil and Environmental Engineering

No abstract provided.


Rcn: Diadromous Species Restoration Research Network (Dsrrn), David Hart, Adria A. Elskus, Peter D. Vaux, Karen A. Wilson Jul 2014

Rcn: Diadromous Species Restoration Research Network (Dsrrn), David Hart, Adria A. Elskus, Peter D. Vaux, Karen A. Wilson

University of Maine Office of Research Administration: Grant Reports

The primary goal of the Diadromous Species Restoration Research Network (DSRRN) was to advance the science of diadromous fish restoration, promote state-of-the-art scientific approaches to multiple-species restoration on a watershed scale, and facilitate interactions among scientists, managers, and stakeholders throughout the North Atlantic region.

This goal was achieved by a series of conferences and workshops over a five-year period between 2008 and 2013. In all, DSRRN organized two multi-day conferences with over 160 participants in attendance and five multiday workshops with an average of 25 participants. The objective of these workshops was to produce new directions for restoration science by ...


Diet Alters Delayed Selfing, Inbreeding Depression, And Reproductive Senescence In A Freshwater Snail, Josh R. Auld, John F. Henkel Jul 2014

Diet Alters Delayed Selfing, Inbreeding Depression, And Reproductive Senescence In A Freshwater Snail, Josh R. Auld, John F. Henkel

Biology Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


A New Species Of Chiasmocleis (Microhylidae, Gastrophryninae) From The Atlantic Forest Of Espírito Santo State, Brazil, João Filipe Tonini, Maruicio Forlani, Rafael O. De Sá Jul 2014

A New Species Of Chiasmocleis (Microhylidae, Gastrophryninae) From The Atlantic Forest Of Espírito Santo State, Brazil, João Filipe Tonini, Maruicio Forlani, Rafael O. De Sá

Biology Faculty Publications

Among Neotropical microhylids, the genus Chiasmocleis is exceptionally diverse. Most species ofChiasmocleis were described in recent years based on external morphology, but recent studies using molecular data did not support the monophyly of the species groups clustered based on feet webbing. Furthermore, a phylogeographic study of C. lacrimae estimated high genetic divergence and low gene flow among populations across small geographic ranges. Increasing the molecular and geographic sampling, and incorporating morphological data, we identified new cryptic species. Herein, we used novel genetic and morphological data to describe a new species of Chiasmocleis.


Living Shoreline Implementation: Challenges And Solutions, Center For Coastal Resources Management, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science Jul 2014

Living Shoreline Implementation: Challenges And Solutions, Center For Coastal Resources Management, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science

Reports

Rivers & Coast is a periodic publication of the Center for Coastal Resources Management, Virginia Institute of Marine Science. The goal of Rivers & Coast is to keep readers well informed of current scientific understanding behind key environmental issues related to watershed rivers and coastal ecosystems of the Chesapeake Bay.


Symbiont Presence And Identity Influence Life History Strategies Of A Temperate Sea Anemone, Brian L. Bingham, James L. Dimond, Gisele Muller-Parker Jun 2014

Symbiont Presence And Identity Influence Life History Strategies Of A Temperate Sea Anemone, Brian L. Bingham, James L. Dimond, Gisele Muller-Parker

Environmental Sciences Faculty and Staff Publications

Along the North American Pacific coast, the common intertidal sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima engages in facultative, flexible symbioses with Symbiodinium muscatinei (a dinoflagellate) and Elliptochloris marina (a chloro- phyte). Determining how symbiotic state affects host fitness is essential to understanding the ecological significance of engaging in such flexible relationships with diverse symbionts. Fitness consequences of hosting S. muscatinei, E. marina or negligible numbers of either symbiont (aposymbiosis) were investigated by measuring growth, cloning by fission and gonad development after 8.5 – 11 months of sustained exposure to high, moderate or low irradiance under seasonal environmental conditions. Both symbiotic state and ...


Assessing Landscape Constraints On Species Abundance: Does The Neighborhood Limit Species Response To Local Habitat Conservation Programs?, Christopher F. Jorgensen, Larkin A. Powell, Jeffrey J. Lusk, Andrew A. Bishop, Joseph J. Fontaine Jun 2014

Assessing Landscape Constraints On Species Abundance: Does The Neighborhood Limit Species Response To Local Habitat Conservation Programs?, Christopher F. Jorgensen, Larkin A. Powell, Jeffrey J. Lusk, Andrew A. Bishop, Joseph J. Fontaine

Nebraska Cooperative Fish & Wildlife Research Unit -- Staff Publications

Landscapes in agricultural systems continue to undergo significant change, and the loss of biodiversity is an ever-increasing threat. Although habitat restoration is beneficial, management actions do not always result in the desired outcome. Managers must understand why management actions fail; yet, past studies have focused on assessing habitat attributes at a single spatial scale, and often fail to consider the importance of ecological mechanisms that act across spatial scales. We located survey sites across southern Nebraska, USA and conducted point counts to estimate Ring-necked Pheasant abundance, an economically important species to the region, while simultaneously quantifying landscape effects using a ...


Luminate: Linking Agricultural Land Use, Local Water Quality And Gulf Of Mexico Hypoxia, Catherine L. Kling, Yiannis Panagopoulos, Sergey S. Rabotyagov, Adriana Valcu-Lisman, Philip W. Gassman, Todd D. Campbell, Michael J. White, Jeffrey G. Arnold, Raghavan Srinivasan, Manoj K. Jha, Jeffrey J. Richardson, L. Monika Moskal, R. Eugene Turner, Nancy N. Rabalais Jun 2014

Luminate: Linking Agricultural Land Use, Local Water Quality And Gulf Of Mexico Hypoxia, Catherine L. Kling, Yiannis Panagopoulos, Sergey S. Rabotyagov, Adriana Valcu-Lisman, Philip W. Gassman, Todd D. Campbell, Michael J. White, Jeffrey G. Arnold, Raghavan Srinivasan, Manoj K. Jha, Jeffrey J. Richardson, L. Monika Moskal, R. Eugene Turner, Nancy N. Rabalais

Economics Publications

In this paper, we discuss the importance of developing integrated assessment models to support the design and implementation of policies to address water quality problems associated with agricultural pollution. We describe a new modelling system, LUMINATE, which links land use decisions made at the field scale in the Upper Mississippi, Ohio and Tennessee Basins through both environmental and hydrological components to downstream water quality effects and hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. This modelling system can be used to analyse detailed policy scenarios identifying the costs of the policies and their resulting benefits for improved local and regional water quality ...


Evidence Of Climate-Induced Range Contractions In Bull Trout Salvelinus Confluentus In A Rocky Mountain Watersehd, U.S.A., Lisa A. Eby, Olga E. Helmy, Lisa M. Holsinger, Michael K. Young Jun 2014

Evidence Of Climate-Induced Range Contractions In Bull Trout Salvelinus Confluentus In A Rocky Mountain Watersehd, U.S.A., Lisa A. Eby, Olga E. Helmy, Lisa M. Holsinger, Michael K. Young

Wildlife Biology Faculty Publications

Many freshwater fish species are considered vulnerable to stream temperature warming associated with climate change because they are ectothermic, yet there are surprisingly few studies documenting changes in distributions. Streams and rivers in the U.S. Rocky Mountains have been warming for several decades. At the same time these systems have been experiencing an increase in the severity and frequency of wildfires, which often results in habitat changes including increased water temperatures. We resampled 74 sites across a Rocky Mountain watershed 17 to 20 years after initial samples to determine whether there were trends in bull trout occurrence associated with ...


Coral-Fish Dynamics And Interactions: A Case Study Of Grand Cayman, Eileen Shea Davis Jun 2014

Coral-Fish Dynamics And Interactions: A Case Study Of Grand Cayman, Eileen Shea Davis

Lawrence University Honors Projects

To better understand the ecological interactions of coral reefs, it is important to understand the mechanisms that control the distribution and abundance of reef-building corals as well as the mechanisms that control the diversity and abundance of the fish community that inhabits these reef habitats. The purpose of this study was to identify specific coral-fish interactions among the reefs of Grand Cayman in order to gain insight into the biological effects of fish on the assemblage of hard corals. Using data collected by the Lawrence University Marine Program (LUMP), a number of exploratory statistical analyses were run in order to ...


Widespread Rapid Reductions In Body Size Of Adult Salamanders In Response To Climate Change, Nicholas M. Caruso, Michael W. Sears, Dean C. Adams, Karen R. Lips Jun 2014

Widespread Rapid Reductions In Body Size Of Adult Salamanders In Response To Climate Change, Nicholas M. Caruso, Michael W. Sears, Dean C. Adams, Karen R. Lips

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Reduction in body size is a major response to climate change, yet evidence in globally imperiled amphibians is lacking. Shifts in average population body size could indicate either plasticity in the growth response to changing climates through changes in allocation and energetics, or through selection for decreased size where energy is limiting. We compared historic and contemporary size measurements in 15 Plethodon species from 102 populations (9450 individuals) and found that six species exhibited significant reductions in body size over 55 years. Biophysical models, accounting for actual changes in moisture and air temperature over that period, showed a 7.1 ...


The Neotropical Genus Austrolebias: An Emerging Model Of Annual Killifishes, Nibia Berois, María J. Arezo, Rafael O. De Sá Jun 2014

The Neotropical Genus Austrolebias: An Emerging Model Of Annual Killifishes, Nibia Berois, María J. Arezo, Rafael O. De Sá

Biology Faculty Publications

Annual fishes are found in both Africa and South America occupying ephemeral ponds that dried seasonally. Neotropical annual fishes are members of the family Rivulidae that consist of both annual and non-annual fishes. Annual species are characterized by a prolonged embryonic development and a relatively short adult life.

Males and females show striking sexual dimorphisms, complex courtship, and mating behaviors. The prolonged embryonic stage has several traits including embryos that are resistant to desiccation and undergo up to three reversible developmental arrests until hatching. These unique developmental adaptations are closely related to the annual fish life cycle and are the ...


An Examination Of The Phylogenetic Diversity Of Green Algae (Chlorophyceae) That Symbiose With Spotted Salamanders (Ambystoma Maculatum) In The Egg Stage., Crystal Xue May 2014

An Examination Of The Phylogenetic Diversity Of Green Algae (Chlorophyceae) That Symbiose With Spotted Salamanders (Ambystoma Maculatum) In The Egg Stage., Crystal Xue

Honors Scholar Theses

In 1909, the species Oophila amblystomatis Lambert ex Wille was described for green algae that symbiose with salamanders in the egg stage (Wille). There are two hypotheses about the source of algae: 1) that algae enter from the surrounding water once the egg clutch is laid in a pond, and 2) that they are acquired from the maternal reproductive tract. We developed a third hypothesis developed to account for the salamander reproductive cycle. Male salamanders lay spermatophores, which are protein-filled capsules, on plant matter in and around ponds. Spermatophores are exposed to the environment before use by females in internal ...


Diversity And Ecology Of Host-Seeking Mosquitoes In Irrigated Agro-Ecosystems Of Clay County, Nebraska, Alister K. Bryson May 2014

Diversity And Ecology Of Host-Seeking Mosquitoes In Irrigated Agro-Ecosystems Of Clay County, Nebraska, Alister K. Bryson

Dissertations and Student Research in Entomology

In the United States, Nebraska has the third highest incidence of human West Nile virus (WNV). Since WNV was first detected in the state in 2002, 3,422 confirmed cases and 57 deaths have been reported. Irrigated agro-ecosystems, which have been associated with elevated WNV incidences in other states, are prevalent in Nebraska. The objectives of this investigation were to 1) characterize mosquito abundance and diversity in irrigated agro-ecosystems, and 2) evaluate associations of two primary vectors of WNV, Culex tarsalis and Culex pipiens, with irrigation methods (sprinkler vs. surface) and crop type (corn vs. soybean). Investigations were conducted ...


Response Of Large River Fishes To A Prolonged High Water Event In The Missouri River, Nebraska, Nicholas Paul Hogberg May 2014

Response Of Large River Fishes To A Prolonged High Water Event In The Missouri River, Nebraska, Nicholas Paul Hogberg

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Regulation and modification of large rivers to accommodate human uses have been a root cause of freshwater biodiversity declines. The Missouri River is among the most drastically-altered large river systems in North America, with a series of mainstem impoundments in the upper watershed altering flow characteristics downstream, and channelization throughout the lower river homogenizing instream habitat and reducing off-channel habitat. Precipitation events during the winter and spring 2010-2011 caused flooding of the greatest magnitude and duration since reservoir completion. The large magnitude and long duration of this flood made it unlike any flood in recent history and provided a unique ...


Accuracy Or Precision: Implications Of Sample Design And Methodology On Abundance Estimation, Lucas K. Kowalewski May 2014

Accuracy Or Precision: Implications Of Sample Design And Methodology On Abundance Estimation, Lucas K. Kowalewski

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Estimation of population size by spatially replicated counts (point-count method) has been used for many large-scale animal-monitoring programs, yet its application in aquatic environments has been limited. Multiple site-specific estimates of abundance can be averaged and combined with covariate data to predict total abundance across an area of interest. Covariate data also provide an understanding of the relationship between abundance and habitat use, which is a fundamental interest of many animal-population investigations. Design of sampling scenarios for point-count population-estimate surveys can influence the accuracy and precision of the population estimate. The first objective of this study was to examine how ...


Level Of Uv-B Radiation Influences The Effects Of Glyphosate-Based Herbicide On Fitness Of The Spotted Salamander, Nicholas A. Levis May 2014

Level Of Uv-B Radiation Influences The Effects Of Glyphosate-Based Herbicide On Fitness Of The Spotted Salamander, Nicholas A. Levis

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Numerous causes have been implicated in contributing to amphibian population declines since the 1980's, with habitat modification, ultraviolet radiation (UV-B) and environmental contaminants (such as glyphosate-based herbicide) being among the most common. This study identifies the effects of a generic glyphosate-based herbicide (GLY- 4 Plus) on mortality, immune function, body condition, and morphological plasticity of larvae of the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) under conditions that reflect open and closed canopy light regimes. Larval salamander responses to glyphosate-based herbicide varied depending on UV-B conditions. In general, it appears that an open canopy (i.e. greater UV-B exposure) may confer fitness ...


Macroinvertebrate Assemblages And Dynamic Soil Properties: Influence Of Dredging, Bianca Peixoto May 2014

Macroinvertebrate Assemblages And Dynamic Soil Properties: Influence Of Dredging, Bianca Peixoto

Senior Honors Projects

Bianca Peixoto

Senior Honors Project

Macroinvertebrate Assemblages and Dynamic Soil Properties: Influence of Dredging: Abstract

The habitat characterization of subaqueous soils is important for inventorying natural resources and monitoring changes in ecosystem processes. This project aimed to characterize benthic communities within coastal ponds of southern Rhode Island, and develop an understanding of how these communities change due to habitat alterations. I explored the distribution of benthic biology among a range of estuarine subaqueous soils and the effect of anthropogenic disturbance (dredging) on these distributions. The term “benthic” refers to the collection of organisms living in the substrate at the interface ...


Wire Netting Reduces African Elephant (Loxodonta Africana) Impact To Selected Large Trees In South Africa, Kelly Derham May 2014

Wire Netting Reduces African Elephant (Loxodonta Africana) Impact To Selected Large Trees In South Africa, Kelly Derham

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

African elephants (Loxodonta africana) are ecosystem engineers in that they substantially alter the environment through their unique foraging and feeding habits. At high densities, elephants potentially have negative impacts on the environment, specifically to large trees. Because of this, recent increases of elephants in the Associated Private Nature Reserves (APNR) on the Western Boundary of Kruger National Park, South Africa have caused concern regarding the health of several species of tree. My objective was to assess the effectiveness of wrapping protective wire netting around the trunk of the tree in preventing and reducing bark stripping by elephants. 2,668 trees ...


Fish Assemblage Relationships With Physical Characteristics And Presence Of Dams In Three Eastern Iowa Rivers, Clay L. Pierce, N. L. Ahrens, A. K. Loan-Wilsey, G. A. Simmons, G. T. Gelwicks May 2014

Fish Assemblage Relationships With Physical Characteristics And Presence Of Dams In Three Eastern Iowa Rivers, Clay L. Pierce, N. L. Ahrens, A. K. Loan-Wilsey, G. A. Simmons, G. T. Gelwicks

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Fish assemblages in rivers of the Midwestern United States are an important component of the region's natural resources and biodiversity. We characterized the physical environment and presence of dams in a series of reaches in three eastern Iowa rivers tributary to the Mississippi River and related these characteristics to the fish assemblages present. Some physical characteristics were similar among the 12 study reaches, whereas others differed substantially. We found a total of 68 species across the 12 study reaches; 56 in the Turkey River, 51 in the Maquoketa River and 50 in the Wapsipinicon River. Seventeen species could be ...


Modeling And Monitoring Terrestrial Primary Production In A Changing Global Environment: Toward A Multiscale Synthesis Of Observation And Simulation, Shufen Pan, Hanqin Tian, Shree R. S. Dangal, Zhiyun Ouyang, Bo Tao, Wei Ren, Chaoqun Lu, Steven W. Running Apr 2014

Modeling And Monitoring Terrestrial Primary Production In A Changing Global Environment: Toward A Multiscale Synthesis Of Observation And Simulation, Shufen Pan, Hanqin Tian, Shree R. S. Dangal, Zhiyun Ouyang, Bo Tao, Wei Ren, Chaoqun Lu, Steven W. Running

Ecosystem and Conservation Sciences Faculty Publications

There is a critical need to monitor and predict terrestrial primary production, the key indicator of ecosystem functioning, in a changing global environment. Here we provide a brief review of three major approaches to monitoring and predicting terrestrial primary production: (1) ground-based field measurements, (2) satellite-based observations, and (3) process-based ecosystem modelling. Much uncertainty exists in the multi-approach estimations of terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) and net primary production (NPP). To improve the capacity of model simulation and prediction, it is essential to evaluate ecosystem models against ground and satellite-based measurements and observations. As a case, we have shown the ...


Body Size And Species Richness Changes In Glyptosaurinae (Squamata: Anguidae) Through Climatic Transitions Of The North American Cenozoic, Sara Elshafie Apr 2014

Body Size And Species Richness Changes In Glyptosaurinae (Squamata: Anguidae) Through Climatic Transitions Of The North American Cenozoic, Sara Elshafie

Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

Poikilothermic vertebrates offer excellent climate proxies based on relationships between environment and measurable variables such as body size and species richness. Relationships of these variables in lizards to environmental transitions over long time scales are poorly understood. Here I show that patterns of body size and species richness in a lizard clade, Glyptosaurinae (Squamata: Anguidae), correspond to known histories of paleotemperatures through the Cenozoic of North America. Glyptosaurines have the richest fossil record among North American Cenozoic lizards and exhibit a wide range of skull sizes. In order to estimate body size for glyptosaurines and other fossil anguids, I collected ...