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Articles 1 - 16 of 16

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Reconstructing Vegetation Past: Pre-Euro-American Vegetation For The Midwest Driftless Area, Usa, Monika E. Shea, Lisa A. Schulte, Brian J. Palik Dec 2014

Reconstructing Vegetation Past: Pre-Euro-American Vegetation For The Midwest Driftless Area, Usa, Monika E. Shea, Lisa A. Schulte, Brian J. Palik

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Historical reference conditions provide important context for creating ecological restoration and management plans. The U.S. 19th Century Public Land Survey (PLS) records provide extensive ecological information for constructing such reference conditions. We used PLS records to reconstruct pre-Euro-American tree species cover class and vegetation structure types for the Midwest Driftless Area, a 55,000 km2 region currently experiencing multiple conservation threats. We related cover classes to soil texture, topographic roughness, and distance from waterway. Our analyses revealed that the landscape of the Driftless Area was mostly composed of savanna, with two large patches of closed forest and smaller, scattered ...


Book Review Of Conservation By Proxy: Indicator, Umbrella, Keystone, Flagship, And Other Surrogate Species, Tyler J. Grant, Peter G. Eyheralde, Melissa S. C. Telemeco, Amy L. Moorhouse, Rebecca A. Reeves, Karin Grimlund, Amy Podaril, Sarah E. Emeterio, Robert W. Klaver Dec 2014

Book Review Of Conservation By Proxy: Indicator, Umbrella, Keystone, Flagship, And Other Surrogate Species, Tyler J. Grant, Peter G. Eyheralde, Melissa S. C. Telemeco, Amy L. Moorhouse, Rebecca A. Reeves, Karin Grimlund, Amy Podaril, Sarah E. Emeterio, Robert W. Klaver

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

In the tallgrass prairies of the United States, the regal fritillary (Speyeria idalia) often is considered a reliable indicator of high quality remnant habitat. Purple milkweed (Asclepias purpurascens) is considered an indicator of high quality oak savanna habitat at the edge of prairie. Indicator and other surrogate species often are regarded as inescapable necessities in conservation, because limited budgets and the myriad pieces of an ecosystem render comprehensive monitoring impossible. Regardless of whether or not surrogate species are necessary, do they really work?


Histopathology Of Fathead Minnow (Pimephales Promelas) Exposed To Hydroxylated Fullerenes, Boris Jovanović, Elizabeth M. Whitley, Dušan Palić Nov 2014

Histopathology Of Fathead Minnow (Pimephales Promelas) Exposed To Hydroxylated Fullerenes, Boris Jovanović, Elizabeth M. Whitley, Dušan Palić

Veterinary Pathology Publications and Papers

Hydroxylated fullerenes are reported to be very strong antioxidants, acting to quench reactive oxygen species, thus having strong potential for important and widespread applications in innovative therapies for a variety of disease processes. However, their potential for toxicological side effects is still largely controversial and unknown. Effects of hydroxylated fullerenes C60(OH)24 on the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) were investigated microscopically after a 72-hour (acute) exposure by intraperitoneal injection of 20 ppm of hydroxylated fullerenes per gram of body mass. Cumulative, semi-quantitative histopathologic evaluation of brain, liver, anterior kidney, posterior kidney, skin, coelom, gills and the vestibuloauditory system revealed ...


Anthropogenic Disturbance And Environmental Associations With Fish Assemblage Structure In Two Nonwadeable Rivers, T. P. Parks, M. C. Quist, Clay L. Pierce Oct 2014

Anthropogenic Disturbance And Environmental Associations With Fish Assemblage Structure In Two Nonwadeable Rivers, T. P. Parks, M. C. Quist, Clay L. Pierce

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Nonwadeable rivers are unique ecosystems that support high levels of aquatic biodiversity, yet they have been greatly altered by human activities. Although riverine fish assemblages have been studied in the past, we still have an incomplete understanding of how fish assemblages respond to both natural and anthropogenic influences in large rivers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate associations between fish assemblage structure and reach-scale habitat, dam, and watershed land use characteristics. In the summers of 2011 and 2012, comprehensive fish and environmental data were collected from 33 reaches in the Iowa and Cedar rivers of eastern-central Iowa. Canonical ...


Luminate: Linking Agricultural Land Use, Local Water Quality And Gulf Of Mexico Hypoxia, Catherine L. Kling, Yiannis Panagopoulos, Sergey S. Rabotyagov, Adriana Valcu-Lisman, Philip W. Gassman, Todd D. Campbell, Michael J. White, Jeffrey G. Arnold, Raghavan Srinivasan, Manoj K. Jha, Jeffrey J. Richardson, L. Monika Moskal, R. Eugene Turner, Nancy N. Rabalais Jun 2014

Luminate: Linking Agricultural Land Use, Local Water Quality And Gulf Of Mexico Hypoxia, Catherine L. Kling, Yiannis Panagopoulos, Sergey S. Rabotyagov, Adriana Valcu-Lisman, Philip W. Gassman, Todd D. Campbell, Michael J. White, Jeffrey G. Arnold, Raghavan Srinivasan, Manoj K. Jha, Jeffrey J. Richardson, L. Monika Moskal, R. Eugene Turner, Nancy N. Rabalais

Economics Publications

In this paper, we discuss the importance of developing integrated assessment models to support the design and implementation of policies to address water quality problems associated with agricultural pollution. We describe a new modelling system, LUMINATE, which links land use decisions made at the field scale in the Upper Mississippi, Ohio and Tennessee Basins through both environmental and hydrological components to downstream water quality effects and hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. This modelling system can be used to analyse detailed policy scenarios identifying the costs of the policies and their resulting benefits for improved local and regional water quality ...


Widespread Rapid Reductions In Body Size Of Adult Salamanders In Response To Climate Change, Nicholas M. Caruso, Michael W. Sears, Dean C. Adams, Karen R. Lips Jun 2014

Widespread Rapid Reductions In Body Size Of Adult Salamanders In Response To Climate Change, Nicholas M. Caruso, Michael W. Sears, Dean C. Adams, Karen R. Lips

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Reduction in body size is a major response to climate change, yet evidence in globally imperiled amphibians is lacking. Shifts in average population body size could indicate either plasticity in the growth response to changing climates through changes in allocation and energetics, or through selection for decreased size where energy is limiting. We compared historic and contemporary size measurements in 15 Plethodon species from 102 populations (9450 individuals) and found that six species exhibited significant reductions in body size over 55 years. Biophysical models, accounting for actual changes in moisture and air temperature over that period, showed a 7.1 ...


Fish Assemblage Relationships With Physical Characteristics And Presence Of Dams In Three Eastern Iowa Rivers, Clay L. Pierce, N. L. Ahrens, A. K. Loan-Wilsey, G. A. Simmons, G. T. Gelwicks May 2014

Fish Assemblage Relationships With Physical Characteristics And Presence Of Dams In Three Eastern Iowa Rivers, Clay L. Pierce, N. L. Ahrens, A. K. Loan-Wilsey, G. A. Simmons, G. T. Gelwicks

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Fish assemblages in rivers of the Midwestern United States are an important component of the region's natural resources and biodiversity. We characterized the physical environment and presence of dams in a series of reaches in three eastern Iowa rivers tributary to the Mississippi River and related these characteristics to the fish assemblages present. Some physical characteristics were similar among the 12 study reaches, whereas others differed substantially. We found a total of 68 species across the 12 study reaches; 56 in the Turkey River, 51 in the Maquoketa River and 50 in the Wapsipinicon River. Seventeen species could be ...


Quality Over Quantity: Buffer Strips Can Be Improved With Select Native Plant Species, Kelly Ann Gill, R. Cox, Matthew E. O'Neal Apr 2014

Quality Over Quantity: Buffer Strips Can Be Improved With Select Native Plant Species, Kelly Ann Gill, R. Cox, Matthew E. O'Neal

Entomology Publications

Native plants attractive to beneficial insects may improve the value of buffer strips by increasing biodiversity and enhancing the delivery of insect-derived ecosystem services. In a 2-yr field experiment, we measured the response of insect communities across nine buffers that varied in plant diversity. We constructed buffers with plants commonly found in buffers of USDA-certified organic farms in Iowa (typically a single species), recommended for prairie reconstruction, or recommended for attracting beneficial insects. We hypothesized that the diversity and abundance of beneficial insects will be 1) greatest in buffers composed of diverse plant communities with continuous availability of floral resources ...


Influence Of Landscape Characteristics On Retention Of Expandable Radiocollars On Young Ungulates, Troy W. Grovenburg, Robert W. Klaver, Christopher N. Jacques, Todd J. Brinkman, Christopher C. Swanson, Christopher S. Deperno, Kevin L. Monteith, Jaret D. Sievers, Vernon C. Bleich, John G. Kie, Jonathan A. Jenks Mar 2014

Influence Of Landscape Characteristics On Retention Of Expandable Radiocollars On Young Ungulates, Troy W. Grovenburg, Robert W. Klaver, Christopher N. Jacques, Todd J. Brinkman, Christopher C. Swanson, Christopher S. Deperno, Kevin L. Monteith, Jaret D. Sievers, Vernon C. Bleich, John G. Kie, Jonathan A. Jenks

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

One tool used for wildlife management is the deployment of radiocollars to gain knowledge of animal populations. Understanding the influence of individual factors (e.g., species, collar characteristics) and landscape characteristics (e.g., forested cover, shrubs, and fencing) on retention of expandable radiocollars for ungulates is important for obtaining empirical data on factors influencing ecology of young-of-the-year ungulates. During 2001–2009, we captured and radiocollared 198 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns, 142 pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) fawns, and 73 mule deer (O. hemionus) fawns in South Dakota, Minnesota, and California, USA. We documented 72 (36.4%), 8 (5.6%), and 7 ...


Swimming Against The Tide: Resilience Of A Riverine Turtle To Recurrent Extreme Environmental Events, Abigail M. Jergenson, David A. W. Miller, Lorin A. Neuman-Lee, Daniel A. Warner, Fredric J. Janzen Mar 2014

Swimming Against The Tide: Resilience Of A Riverine Turtle To Recurrent Extreme Environmental Events, Abigail M. Jergenson, David A. W. Miller, Lorin A. Neuman-Lee, Daniel A. Warner, Fredric J. Janzen

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Extreme environmental events (EEEs) are likely to exert deleterious effects on populations. From 1996 to 2012 we studied the nesting dynamics of a riverine population of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) that experienced seven years with significantly definable spring floods. We used capture–mark–recapture methods to estimate the relationships between more than 5 m and more than 6 m flood events and population parameters. Contrary to expectations, flooding was not associated with annual differences in survival, recruitment or annual population growth rates of the adult female segment of the population. These findings suggest that female C. pictaexhibit resiliency to ...


Disease And Predation: Sorting Out Causes Of A Bighorn Sheep (Ovis Canadensis) Decline, Joshua B. Smith, Jonathan A. Jenks, Troy W. Grovenburg, Robert W. Klaver Feb 2014

Disease And Predation: Sorting Out Causes Of A Bighorn Sheep (Ovis Canadensis) Decline, Joshua B. Smith, Jonathan A. Jenks, Troy W. Grovenburg, Robert W. Klaver

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Estimating survival and documenting causes and timing of mortality events in neonate bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) improves understanding of population ecology and factors influencing recruitment. During 2010–2012, we captured and radiocollared 74 neonates in the Black Hills, South Dakota, of which 95% (70) died before 52 weeks of age. Pneumonia (36%) was the leading cause of mortality followed by predation (30%). We used known fate analysis in Program MARK to estimate weekly survival rates and investigate the influence of intrinsic variables on 52-week survival. Model {S1 wk, 2–8 wks, >8 wks} had the lowest AICc (Akaike’s ...


Prairie Strips: Bringing Biodiversity, Improved Water Quality, And Soil Protection To Agriculture, Lisa A. Schulte Moore Jan 2014

Prairie Strips: Bringing Biodiversity, Improved Water Quality, And Soil Protection To Agriculture, Lisa A. Schulte Moore

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

The motivation for expanding the basket of goods that Midwestern farms produce is strong. While our current agricultural system achieves record productivity in crops and livestock, it is also associated with serious environmental shortcomings, including declines in water quality and biodiversity, increased flooding and greenhouse gas emissions, and even degradation of the foundation of agricultural productivity: the soil.


Trans-Gulf Of Mexico Loop Migration Of Tree Swallows Revealed By Solar Geolocation, David W. Bradley, Robert G. Clark, Peter O. Dunn, Andrew J. Laughlin, Caz M. Taylor, Carol M. Vleck, Linda A. Whittingham, David W. Winkler, D. Ryan Norris Jan 2014

Trans-Gulf Of Mexico Loop Migration Of Tree Swallows Revealed By Solar Geolocation, David W. Bradley, Robert G. Clark, Peter O. Dunn, Andrew J. Laughlin, Caz M. Taylor, Carol M. Vleck, Linda A. Whittingham, David W. Winkler, D. Ryan Norris

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

One of the greatest feats of avian migration is the non-stop crossing of extensive areas of inhospitable habitat such as deserts and seas. Differences in spring and autumn migration routes have been reported in species that cross such barriers, and are thought to have evolved in response to seasonal variation in prevailing wind direction. We tested the hypothesis that migration routes vary seasonally with respect to the Gulf of Mexico in the tree swallow Tachycineta bicolor using solar geolocators attached and retrieved at 4 breeding sites in central North America. We found that 100 % of birds (n = 10) made a ...


Biochar And Managed Perennial Ecosystems: Testing For Synergy In Ecosystem Function And Biodiversity, Lori A. Biederman, W. Stanley Harpole Jan 2014

Biochar And Managed Perennial Ecosystems: Testing For Synergy In Ecosystem Function And Biodiversity, Lori A. Biederman, W. Stanley Harpole

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Biochar is a carbon-rich material that is similar to charcoal. It is produced when biomass is burned in the absence of oxygen, a process otherwise known as pyrolysis. Pyrolysis and the production of biochar are currently being promoted as a means to both produce domestic fuel (bio-oil) while concurrently producing a co-product that increases crop yield and sequesters carbon in the soil (biochar). Although there may be many potential benefits in the application of biochar to agricultural soils, such as enhanced soil fertility and improved soil water status, there are no studies of higher-order ecological and ecosystem effects of biochar ...


Incorporating Detection Probability Into Northern Great Plains Pronghorn Population Estimates, Christopher N. Jacques, Jonathan A. Jenks, Troy W. Grovenburg, Robert W. Klaver, Christopher S. Deperno Jan 2014

Incorporating Detection Probability Into Northern Great Plains Pronghorn Population Estimates, Christopher N. Jacques, Jonathan A. Jenks, Troy W. Grovenburg, Robert W. Klaver, Christopher S. Deperno

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) abundances commonly are estimated using fixed-wing surveys, but these estimates are likely to be negatively biased because of violations of key assumptions underpinning line-transect methodology. Reducing bias and improving precision of abundance estimates through use of detection probability and mark-resight models may allow for more responsive pronghorn management actions. Given their potential application in population estimation, we evaluated detection probability and mark-resight models for use in estimating pronghorn population abundance. We used logistic regression to quantify probabilities that detecting pronghorn might be influenced by group size, animal activity, percent vegetation, cover type, and topography. We estimated pronghorn ...


Cost-Effective Targeting Of Conservation Investments To Reduce The Northern Gulf Of Mexico Hypoxic Zone, Sergey S. Rabotyagov, Todd D. Campbell, Michael White, Jeffrey G. Arnold, Jay Atwood, M. Lee Norfleet, Catherine L. Kling, Philip W. Gassman, Adriana Valcu-Lisman, Jeffrey Richardson, R. Eugene Turner, Nancy N. Rabalais Jan 2014

Cost-Effective Targeting Of Conservation Investments To Reduce The Northern Gulf Of Mexico Hypoxic Zone, Sergey S. Rabotyagov, Todd D. Campbell, Michael White, Jeffrey G. Arnold, Jay Atwood, M. Lee Norfleet, Catherine L. Kling, Philip W. Gassman, Adriana Valcu-Lisman, Jeffrey Richardson, R. Eugene Turner, Nancy N. Rabalais

Economics Publications

A seasonally occurring summer hypoxic (low oxygen) zone in the northern Gulf of Mexico is the second largest in the world. Reductions in nutrients from agricultural cropland in its watershed are needed to reduce the hypoxic zone size to the national policy goal of 5,000 km2 (as a 5-y running average) set by the national Gulf of Mexico Task Force’s Action Plan. We develop an integrated assessment model linking the water quality effects of cropland conservation investment decisions on the more than 550 agricultural subwatersheds that deliver nutrients into the Gulf with a hypoxic zone model. We ...