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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Comparative Population Genetics And Evolutionary History Of Two Commonly Misidentified Billfishes Of Management And Conservation Concern, Andrea M. Bernard, Mahmood S. Shivji, Eric Prince, Fabio H.V. Hazin, Freddy Arocha, Andres Domingo, Kevin A. Feldheim Dec 2014

Comparative Population Genetics And Evolutionary History Of Two Commonly Misidentified Billfishes Of Management And Conservation Concern, Andrea M. Bernard, Mahmood S. Shivji, Eric Prince, Fabio H.V. Hazin, Freddy Arocha, Andres Domingo, Kevin A. Feldheim

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

Background: Misidentifications between exploited species may lead to inaccuracies in population assessments, with potentially irreversible conservation ramifications if overexploitation of either species is occurring. A notable showcase is provided by the realization that the roundscale spearfish (Tetrapturus georgii), a recently validated species, has been historically misidentified as the morphologically very similar and severely overfished white marlin (Kajikia albida) (IUCN listing: Vulnerable). In effect, no information exists on the population status and evolutionary history of the enigmatic roundscale spearfish, a large, highly vagile and broadly distributed pelagic species. We provide the first population genetic evaluation of the roundscale spearfish, utilizing nuclear ...


Book Review - Wild Connection: What Animal Courtship And Mating Tell Us About Human Relationships, J. Matthew Hoch Dec 2014

Book Review - Wild Connection: What Animal Courtship And Mating Tell Us About Human Relationships, J. Matthew Hoch

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

No abstract provided.


Comment On “Chemically Mediated Behavior Of Recruiting Corals And Fishes: A Tipping Point That May Limit Reef Recovery”, Andrew H. Baird, Vivian R. Cumbo, Joana Figueiredo, Saki Harii, Tom Hata, Joshua S. Madin Nov 2014

Comment On “Chemically Mediated Behavior Of Recruiting Corals And Fishes: A Tipping Point That May Limit Reef Recovery”, Andrew H. Baird, Vivian R. Cumbo, Joana Figueiredo, Saki Harii, Tom Hata, Joshua S. Madin

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

Dixson et al. (2014) report that coral larvae navigate towards chemical cues associated with healthy reefs and avoid cues from degraded reefs. However, the swimming capabilities of coral larvae and well-established patterns of recruitment and reef hydrodynamics indicate that coral larvae will not be able to use these cues to recruit to healthy reefs. Perfuming degraded reefs, as suggested by Dixson et al (2014), will not enhance recovery rather it will distract from the difficult task of reducing fishing effort and improving water quality.


Temperature-Induced Viral Resistance In Emiliania Huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae), B. Jacob Kendrick, Giacomo R. Ditullio, Tyler Cyronak, James M. Fulton, Benjamin A. S. Van Mooy, Kay D. Bidle Nov 2014

Temperature-Induced Viral Resistance In Emiliania Huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae), B. Jacob Kendrick, Giacomo R. Ditullio, Tyler Cyronak, James M. Fulton, Benjamin A. S. Van Mooy, Kay D. Bidle

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

Annual Emiliania huxleyi blooms (along with other coccolithophorid species) play important roles in the global carbon and sulfur cycles. E. huxleyi blooms are routinely terminated by large, host-specific dsDNA viruses, (Emiliania huxleyi Viruses; EhVs), making these host-virus interactions a driving force behind their potential impact on global biogeochemical cycles. Given projected increases in sea surface temperature due to climate change, it is imperative to understand the effects of temperature on E. huxleyi’s susceptibility to viral infection and its production of climatically active dimethylated sulfur species (DSS). Here we demonstrate that a 3°C increase in temperature induces EhV-resistant phenotypes ...


Marginal Coral Populations: The Densest Known Aggregation Of Pocillopora In The Galápagos Archipelago Is Of Asexual Origin, Iliana B. Baums, Meghann Devlin-Durante, Beatrice A. A. Laing, Joshua S. Feingold, Tyler B. Smith, Andrew Bruckner, Joao Monteiro Nov 2014

Marginal Coral Populations: The Densest Known Aggregation Of Pocillopora In The Galápagos Archipelago Is Of Asexual Origin, Iliana B. Baums, Meghann Devlin-Durante, Beatrice A. A. Laing, Joshua S. Feingold, Tyler B. Smith, Andrew Bruckner, Joao Monteiro

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

Coral populations at distributional margins frequently experience suboptimal and variable conditions. Recurrent El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) warming events have caused extensive mortality of reef-building corals in the Eastern Pacific, and particularly impacted branching pocilloporid corals in the Galápagos Islands. Pocillopora spp. were previously more common and formed incipient reefs at several locations in the archipelago but now occur as scattered colonies. Here, we report an unusually concentrated aggregation of colonies and evaluate their current genetic diversity. In particular we focus on a large population of 1614 live Pocillopora colonies found in a volcanic lagoon along the southern shore of Isabela ...


Mammalian Keratin Associated Proteins (Krtaps) Subgenomes: Disentangling Hair Diversity And Adaptation To Terrestrial And Aquatic Environments, Imran Khan, Emanuel Maldonado, Vitor Vasconcelos, Stephen J. O'Brien, Warren E. Johnson, Agostinho Antunes Sep 2014

Mammalian Keratin Associated Proteins (Krtaps) Subgenomes: Disentangling Hair Diversity And Adaptation To Terrestrial And Aquatic Environments, Imran Khan, Emanuel Maldonado, Vitor Vasconcelos, Stephen J. O'Brien, Warren E. Johnson, Agostinho Antunes

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

Background: Adaptation of mammals to terrestrial life was facilitated by the unique vertebrate trait of body hair, which occurs in a range of morphological patterns. Keratin associated proteins (KRTAPs), the major structural hair shaft proteins, are largely responsible for hair variation.

Results: We exhaustively characterized the KRTAP gene family in 22 mammalian genomes, confirming the existence of 30 KRTAP subfamilies evolving at different rates with varying degrees of diversification and homogenization. Within the two major classes of KRTAPs, the high cysteine (HS) subfamily experienced strong concerted evolution, high rates of gene conversion/recombination and high GC content. In contrast, high ...


Possible Recovery Of Acropora Palmata (Scleractinia:Acroporidae) Within The Veracruz Reef System, Gulf Of Mexico: A Survey Of 24 Reefs To Assess The Benthic Communities, Elizabeth Anne Larson, David S. Gilliam, Mauricio Lopez Padierna, Brian K. Walker Sep 2014

Possible Recovery Of Acropora Palmata (Scleractinia:Acroporidae) Within The Veracruz Reef System, Gulf Of Mexico: A Survey Of 24 Reefs To Assess The Benthic Communities, Elizabeth Anne Larson, David S. Gilliam, Mauricio Lopez Padierna, Brian K. Walker

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

Recent evidence shows that Acropora palmata within the Veracruz Reef System, located in the southwestern Gulf of Mexico, may be recovering after the die off from the flooding of the Jamapa River and a dramatic cold water event in the 1970s. Since this decline, few surveys have documented the status of A. palmata. The 28 named reefs in the system are divided into 13 northern and 15 southern groups by the River. Between 2007 and 2013, we surveyed 24 reefs to assess the benthic communities. Seven of the 11 reefs surveyed in the northern group and all in the southern ...


Enhanced Acidification Of Global Coral Reefs Driven By Regional Biogeochemical Feedbacks, Tyler Cyronak, Kai G. Schulz, Isaac R. Santos, Bradley D. Eyre Aug 2014

Enhanced Acidification Of Global Coral Reefs Driven By Regional Biogeochemical Feedbacks, Tyler Cyronak, Kai G. Schulz, Isaac R. Santos, Bradley D. Eyre

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

Physical uptake of anthropogenic CO2 is the dominant driver of ocean acidification (OA) in the open ocean. Due to expected decreases in calcification and increased dissolution of CaCO3 framework, coral reefs are thought to be highly susceptible to OA. However, biogeochemical processes can influence the pCO2 and pH of coastal ecosystems on diel and seasonal time scales, potentially modifying the long‐term effects of increasing atmospheric CO2. By compiling data from the literature and removing the effects of short‐term variability, we show that the average pCO2 of coral reefs throughout the globe has increased ...


Environmental Variability And Biodiversity Of Megabenthos On The Hebrides Terrace Seamount (Northeast Atlantic), Lea-Anne Henry, Johanne Vad, Helen S. Findlay, Javier Murillo, Rosanna Milligan, J. Murray Roberts Jul 2014

Environmental Variability And Biodiversity Of Megabenthos On The Hebrides Terrace Seamount (Northeast Atlantic), Lea-Anne Henry, Johanne Vad, Helen S. Findlay, Javier Murillo, Rosanna Milligan, J. Murray Roberts

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

We present the first remotely operated vehicle investigation of megabenthic communities (1004–1695 m water depth) on the Hebrides Terrace Seamount (Northeast Atlantic). Conductivity-temperature-depth casts showed rapid light attenuation below the summit and an oceanographic regime on the flanks consistent with an internal tide, and high short-term variability in water temperature, salinity, light attenuation, aragonite and oxygen down to 1500 m deep. Minor changes in species composition (3–14%) were explained by changes in depth, substratum and oceanographic stability, whereas environmental variability explained substantially more variation in species richness (40–56%). Two peaks in species richness occurred, the first at ...


The Air-Sea Interface And Surface Stress Under Tropical Cyclones, Alexander Soloviev, Roger Lukas, Mark A. Donelan, Brian K. Haus, Isaac Ginis Jun 2014

The Air-Sea Interface And Surface Stress Under Tropical Cyclones, Alexander Soloviev, Roger Lukas, Mark A. Donelan, Brian K. Haus, Isaac Ginis

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

Tropical cyclone track prediction is steadily improving, while storm intensity prediction has seen little progress in the last quarter century. Important physics are not yet well understood and implemented in tropical cyclone forecast models. Missing and unresolved physics, especially at the air-sea interface, are among the factors limiting storm predictions. In a laboratory experiment and coordinated numerical simulation, conducted in this work, the microstructure of the air-water interface under hurricane force wind resembled Kelvin-Helmholtz shear instability between fluids with a large density difference. Supported by these observations, we bring forth the concept that the resulting two-phase environment suppresses short gravity-capillary ...


Fine-Scale Features On The Sea Surface In Sar Satellite Imagery - Part 2: Numerical Modeling, Silvia Matt, A. Fujimura, Alexander Soloviev, S. H. Rhee, R. Romeiser Jun 2014

Fine-Scale Features On The Sea Surface In Sar Satellite Imagery - Part 2: Numerical Modeling, Silvia Matt, A. Fujimura, Alexander Soloviev, S. H. Rhee, R. Romeiser

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

With the advent of the new generation of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellites, it has become possible to resolve fine-scale features on the sea surface on the scale of meters. The proper identification of sea surface signatures in SAR imagery can be challenging, since some features may be due to atmospheric distortions (gravity waves, squall lines) or anthropogenic influences (slicks), and may not be related to dynamic processes in the upper ocean. In order to improve our understanding of the nature of fine-scale features on the sea surface and their signature in SAR, we have conducted high-resolution numerical simulations combining ...


Book Review - Abominable Science!: Origins Of The Yeti, Nessie, And Other Famous Cryptids, J. Matthew Hoch Jun 2014

Book Review - Abominable Science!: Origins Of The Yeti, Nessie, And Other Famous Cryptids, J. Matthew Hoch

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

No abstract provided.


Ecology Of The Oceanic Rim: Pelagic Eels As Key Ecosystem Components, Jennifer N. Feagans-Bartow, Tracey Sutton Apr 2014

Ecology Of The Oceanic Rim: Pelagic Eels As Key Ecosystem Components, Jennifer N. Feagans-Bartow, Tracey Sutton

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

Although 92% of the total volume of the world’s oceans occurs below a depth of 200 m, our understanding of deep-sea food webs lags far behind that of continental shelves. In particular, little is known about the exchange of biomass at the interface of continental margins and deep-sea ecosystems. Recent studies suggest that the transport of organic matter from continental shelves may influence deep-sea ecosystems more than previously thought. Here, we present results of a pelagic nekton survey along the southern slope of Georges Bank, NW Atlantic, a transition area between coastal and deep-sea environments. Specimens were collected as ...


Intraspecific Variation In Vertical Habitat Use By Tiger Sharks (Galeocerdo Cuvier) In The Western North Atlantic, Jeremy J. Vaudo, Bradley M. Wetherbee, Guy Harvey, Richard S. Nemeth, Choy Aming, Lucy A. Howey-Jordan, Mahmood S. Shivji Apr 2014

Intraspecific Variation In Vertical Habitat Use By Tiger Sharks (Galeocerdo Cuvier) In The Western North Atlantic, Jeremy J. Vaudo, Bradley M. Wetherbee, Guy Harvey, Richard S. Nemeth, Choy Aming, Lucy A. Howey-Jordan, Mahmood S. Shivji

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

Tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) are a wide ranging, potentially keystone predator species that display a variety of horizontal movement patterns, making use of coastal and pelagic waters. Far less, however, is known about their vertical movements and use of the water column. We used pop-up satellite archival tags with two data sampling rates (high rate and standard rate tags) to investigate the vertical habitat use and diving behavior of tiger sharks tagged on the Puerto Rico–Virgin Islands platform and off Bermuda between 2008 and 2009. Useable data were received from nine of 14 sharks tagged, tracked over a total ...


Historical Reconstruction Of Population Density Of The Echinoid Diadema Antillarum On Florida Keys Shallow Bank-Barrier Reefs, Donald L. Kissling, William F. Precht, Steven Miller, Mark Chiappone Apr 2014

Historical Reconstruction Of Population Density Of The Echinoid Diadema Antillarum On Florida Keys Shallow Bank-Barrier Reefs, Donald L. Kissling, William F. Precht, Steven Miller, Mark Chiappone

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

The 1983–1984 caribbean-wide mass mortality of the once ubiquitous long-spined sea urchin Diadema antillarum Philippi, 1845, is one of several factors considered responsible for coral reef change throughout the region. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of pre-mortality event density data for D. antillarum in the Florida Keys, making it difficult to determine pre-1983 population density levels. results from surveys conducted during 1970–1973 in the lower Florida Keys, in shallow (<12 m) fore reef habitats, yielded relatively abundant and widespread D. antillarum densities in qualitative transects at five reefs prior to the 1983–1984 die-off. In quantitative surveys at one reef, Middle sambo reef in 1972, up to 7 ...


Drivers Of Pco2 Variability In Two Contrasting Coral Reef Lagoons: The Influence Of Submarine Groundwater Discharge, Tyler Cyronak, Isaac R. Santos, Dirk V. Erler, Damien T. Maher, Bradley D. Eyre Apr 2014

Drivers Of Pco2 Variability In Two Contrasting Coral Reef Lagoons: The Influence Of Submarine Groundwater Discharge, Tyler Cyronak, Isaac R. Santos, Dirk V. Erler, Damien T. Maher, Bradley D. Eyre

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

The impact of groundwater on pCO2 variability was assessed in two coral reef lagoons with distinct drivers of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). Diel variability of pCO2 in the two ecosystems was explained by a combination of biological drivers and SGD inputs. In Rarotonga, a South Pacific volcanic island, 222Rn‐derived SGD was driven primarily by a steep terrestrial hydraulic gradient, and the water column was influenced by the high pCO2 (5501 µatm) of the fresh groundwater. In Heron Island, a Great Barrier Reef coral cay, SGD was dominated by seawater recirculation through the ...


Perceived Risk Of Predation Affects Reproductive Life-History Traits In Gambusia Holbrooki, But Not In Heterandria Formosa, Shomen Kukherjee, Michael Heithaus, Joel C. Trexler, Jayanti Ray-Mukherjee, Jeremy Vaudo Feb 2014

Perceived Risk Of Predation Affects Reproductive Life-History Traits In Gambusia Holbrooki, But Not In Heterandria Formosa, Shomen Kukherjee, Michael Heithaus, Joel C. Trexler, Jayanti Ray-Mukherjee, Jeremy Vaudo

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

Key to predicting impacts of predation is understanding the mechanisms through which predators impact prey populations. While consumptive effects are well-known, non-consumptive predator effects (risk effects) are increasingly being recognized as important. Studies of risk effects, however, have focused largely on how trade-offs between food and safety affect fitness. Less documented, and appreciated, is the potential for predator presence to directly suppress prey reproduction and affect life-history characteristics. For the first time, we tested the effects of visual predator cues on reproduction of two prey species with different reproductive modes, lecithotrophy (i.e. embryonic development primarily fueled by yolk) and ...


Editorial Overview: Environmental Change Issues: Coral Reefs Sustainability And Its Challenges, Bernhard Riegl, Georgios Tsounis Jan 2014

Editorial Overview: Environmental Change Issues: Coral Reefs Sustainability And Its Challenges, Bernhard Riegl, Georgios Tsounis

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

No abstract provided.


Age And Growth Of Three Coastal-Pelagic Tunas (Actinopterygii: Perciformes: Scombridae) In The Florida Straits, Usa: Blackfin Tuna, Thunnus Atlanticus, Little Tunny, Euthynnus Alletteratus, And Skipjack Tuna, Katsuwonus Pelamis, Jessica L. Adams, David W. Kerstetter Jan 2014

Age And Growth Of Three Coastal-Pelagic Tunas (Actinopterygii: Perciformes: Scombridae) In The Florida Straits, Usa: Blackfin Tuna, Thunnus Atlanticus, Little Tunny, Euthynnus Alletteratus, And Skipjack Tuna, Katsuwonus Pelamis, Jessica L. Adams, David W. Kerstetter

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

Background. Understanding the life history of a species is essential for fully understanding its role within an ecosystem. However, many of the fish species of high ecological value have not been studied due to their less prominent roles in local recreational and commercial fisheries in comparison to other targeted species. These valuable fishes are also important trophic linkages between small neritic fishes and large, economically valuable apex predators. This study describes for the first time the yearly age and growth patterns of three small tuna species inhabiting South Florida (USA) waters: blackfin tuna, Thunnus atlanticus (Lesson, 1831); little tunny, Euthynnus ...