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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Differences In The Diversity Of Frogspecies Between Sierra Lloronaand El Valle, Panama, Kei Okabe Thurber Dec 2014

Differences In The Diversity Of Frogspecies Between Sierra Lloronaand El Valle, Panama, Kei Okabe Thurber

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Panama is home to the greatest diversity of species in all of Central America. It is home to 174 species of frogs, 35 of which are endemic to Panama. Frogs are a vital part of many ecosystems. They maintain insect populations and act as food sources for larger predators. Their job of maintaining insect populations is essential to curbing the spread of diseases. Additionally, scientists have found chemical compounds in the skin of frogs that can be used to treat pain and prevent infections. The main threat to the majority of frogs is the deadly fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), or ...


Comparing Disease Prevalence In Hard Corals At Four Different Reefs Near The Island Of Narganá In The Guna Yala Comarca Of Panamá, Connor Hinton Dec 2014

Comparing Disease Prevalence In Hard Corals At Four Different Reefs Near The Island Of Narganá In The Guna Yala Comarca Of Panamá, Connor Hinton

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Coral reefs harbor much of the world’s known marine biodiversity. For a number of reasons, coral reefs are becoming increasingly threatened. Large portions of the world’s reefs have already been lost, and the number of degrading reefs is constantly on the rise. One cause for the destruction of coral reefs are coral diseases, ultimately causing coral mortality. With the death of corals, a key species is lost, endangering the entire reef ecosystem. Documenting the presence of such diseases could be useful in assessing current reef health and ameliorating the growing threat of coral diseases. In this project, 18 ...


Evaluating The Progress Of A Mangrove Reforestation Project On Isla Galeta, Colon, Abigail Hope Outterson Dec 2014

Evaluating The Progress Of A Mangrove Reforestation Project On Isla Galeta, Colon, Abigail Hope Outterson

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Just off the Atlantic coast of Panama, a dynamic and self-renewing ecosystem takes advantage of the tropical climate and swampy conditions. Guarding Punta Galeta’s shores since before it was a U.S. navy base in the 1930’s, mangroves that have persisted here for centuries now draw scientists and tourists alike from all over the world to the Smithsonian Tropical Research Center. Once viewed as unproductive, distasteful environments, mangroves are increasingly recognized worldwide as critical habitat for endangered and commercially significant species, as well as for their ecological and aesthetic value. Uniquely adapted to survive in saline environments, mangroves ...


River Health In Puyo, Ecuador The Use Of Macroinvertebrates As Bioindicators Of Water Quality And Alternatives To Chlorine For Whitening Clothes In The Puyo River Watershed, Allison Rowe Dec 2014

River Health In Puyo, Ecuador The Use Of Macroinvertebrates As Bioindicators Of Water Quality And Alternatives To Chlorine For Whitening Clothes In The Puyo River Watershed, Allison Rowe

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Fresh water is an important resource in Puyo, Ecuador, a city named after the Kichwa word for ‘cloudy’ in reference to its overcast weather. However, the Puyo River watershed is the most contaminated in all of Pastaza Province. The objective of this investigation was first to evaluate the health of the Puyo River using macroinvertebrate analyses and measurements of chlorine concentrations, temperature, pH, turbidity, velocity, and flow rate. The second objective was to learn about practices used to whiten clothes in Puyo and perceptions of water quality in order to understand the magnitude of bleach pollution and the population’s ...


The Optimal Foraging Of Equus Burchelli At Enashiva Nature Refuge, Edward Haubenreiser Oct 2014

The Optimal Foraging Of Equus Burchelli At Enashiva Nature Refuge, Edward Haubenreiser

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Within the country of Tanzania lies a vast ecosystem known as the Serengeti. This unique landscape, primarily of grasslands and woodlands, shapes the seasonal feeding habits of the abundant wildlife that call the area home. While these feeding habits on a large spatial scale are well understood, such behavior within a specie’s specific environment remains of interest. With the theory of optimal foraging in mind, which considers how animals should look for and select food (Green, 1990), I studied the foraging habits of resident Burchell’s zebra (Equus burchelli) by observing if they move and forage among distinct resource ...


Demographic Survey Of The Sohisika (Schizolaena Tampoketsana) At Ankafobe, Madagascar, James Lucas Apr 2014

Demographic Survey Of The Sohisika (Schizolaena Tampoketsana) At Ankafobe, Madagascar, James Lucas

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

No abstract provided.


Trail Degradation In Parque Internacional La Amistad: An Intersection Of Design, Management And Use, Jordan Stark Apr 2014

Trail Degradation In Parque Internacional La Amistad: An Intersection Of Design, Management And Use, Jordan Stark

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

National parks are created and used for a variety of purposes but are primarily important for the conservation of natural resources and use by visitors. While park use is meant to be non-destructive, human interaction causes changes in ecosystems, leading to conflicts between these goals. Here, I examine the causes of trail degradation and impacts on surrounding forests in Parque Internacional la Amistad (PILA), Panama. This park is a world heritage site with the primary goal of preserving some of the world’s most diverse ecosystems including rare and endangered species. However, the park entrance in Las Nubes, Cerro Punta ...


Plant Community Structure Over An Elevation Gradient In Manongarivo Special Reserve, Madagascar, Scott Sugden Apr 2014

Plant Community Structure Over An Elevation Gradient In Manongarivo Special Reserve, Madagascar, Scott Sugden

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This study examines how plant community structure changes across an elevation gradient in Manongarivo Special Reserve, Madagascar. Three vegetation surveys were conducted at each of six different elevations (300m, 500m, 700m, 850m, 1000m, 1150m) on the southern slope of Bekolosy Mountain, near the southwestern border of the reserve. Each of these surveys focused on the diameter, height, and crown position of trees in a 156.25m2 plot, as well as the presence or absence of mosses and vines. At each of the six survey elevations, point-quadrat vertical structure data was also collected for the underbrush, up to a maximum height ...


Stars, Long Fingers, And Signals: A Study On Grass Species Diversity, Density, Frequency, And Veld Analysis At Ndarakwai Wildlife Ranch, Reena Walker, Theresa Schaffner Apr 2014

Stars, Long Fingers, And Signals: A Study On Grass Species Diversity, Density, Frequency, And Veld Analysis At Ndarakwai Wildlife Ranch, Reena Walker, Theresa Schaffner

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This study was the first step to assessing veld quality and grass species diversity at Ndarakwai Wildlife Ranch in West Kilimanjaro, Tanzania in an effort to better inform management decisions that affect grasses and grazers. Our study was performed from April 5 to April 26, 2014. We utilized compass line quadrat method (n=600) in six sub-populations within three sample frames to achieve non-representative, random data set on richness, diversity, frequency, and density, with metadata from which we extrapolated veld indicators through secondary-source knowledge. Across all sample frames, we found 43 specimens: identified 29 to species, 7 to genus, and ...


Influencias Antropogénicas En El Mantenimiento De Los Senderos En El Género De Hormigas Corta Hojas Atta, Glen Zinck Apr 2014

Influencias Antropogénicas En El Mantenimiento De Los Senderos En El Género De Hormigas Corta Hojas Atta, Glen Zinck

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Leaf-cutter ants have been shown to rigorously maintain their trunk trails throughout the year and regardless of if they have traffic. The behaviors of this clearing mechanism of the ants has been well-documented with different natural obstacles such as leaves and twigs, yet the comparative energy and time used by the ants with anthropogenic obstacles still remains unknown. In order to determine the differences in time and energy for moving these obstacles, both natural and artificial obstacles were tested in tandem during these trials. I used different sizes of blockers to see if the surface area and weight factored into ...