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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Interactive Effects Of Climate Change With Nutrients, Mercury, And Freshwater Acidification On Key Taxa In The North Atlantic Landscape Conservation Cooperative Region, Alfred E. Pinkey, Charles T. Driscoll, David C. Evers, Michael J. Hooper, Jeffrey Horan, Jess W. Jones, Rebecca S. Lazarus, Harold G. Marshall, Andrew Milliken, Barnett A. Rattner, John Schmerfold, Donald W. Sparling Dec 2014

Interactive Effects Of Climate Change With Nutrients, Mercury, And Freshwater Acidification On Key Taxa In The North Atlantic Landscape Conservation Cooperative Region, Alfred E. Pinkey, Charles T. Driscoll, David C. Evers, Michael J. Hooper, Jeffrey Horan, Jess W. Jones, Rebecca S. Lazarus, Harold G. Marshall, Andrew Milliken, Barnett A. Rattner, John Schmerfold, Donald W. Sparling

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The North Atlantic Landscape Conservation Cooperative LCC (NA LCC) is a public-private partnership that provides information to support conservation decisions that may be affected by global climate change (GCC) and other threats. The NA LCC region extends from southeast Virginia to the Canadian Maritime Provinces. Within this region, the US National Climate Assessment documented increases in air temperature, total precipitation, frequency of heavy precipitation events, and rising sea level, and predicted more drastic changes. Here, we synthesize literature on the effects of GCC interacting with selected contaminant, nutrient, and environmental processes to adversely affect natural resources within this region. Using ...


Protein Recycling In Bering Sea Algal Incubations, Eli K. Moore, H. Rodger Harvey, Jessica F. Faux, David R. Goodlett, Brook L. Nunn Nov 2014

Protein Recycling In Bering Sea Algal Incubations, Eli K. Moore, H. Rodger Harvey, Jessica F. Faux, David R. Goodlett, Brook L. Nunn

OEAS Faculty Publications

Protein present in phytoplankton represents a large fraction of the organic nitrogen and carbon transported from its synthesis in surface waters to marine sediments. Yet relatively little is known about the longevity of identifiable protein in situ, or the potential modifications to proteins that occur during bloom termination, protein recycling and degradation. To address this knowledge gap, diatom-dominated phytoplankton was collected during the Bering Sea spring blooms of 2009 and 2010, and incubated under darkness in separate shipboard degradation experiments spanning 11 and 53 d, respectively. In each experiment, the protein distribution was monited over time using shotgun proteomics, along ...


Redox Active Motifs In Selenoproteins, Fei Li, Yuliya Pepelyayeva, Elias S. J. Arner, Craig A. Bayse, Sharon Rozovsky May 2014

Redox Active Motifs In Selenoproteins, Fei Li, Yuliya Pepelyayeva, Elias S. J. Arner, Craig A. Bayse, Sharon Rozovsky

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Selenoproteins use the rare amino acid selenocysteine (Sec) to act as the first line of defense against oxidants, which are linked to aging, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. Many selenoproteins are oxidoreductases in which the reactive Sec is connected to a neighboring Cys and able to form a ring. These Sec-containing redox motifs govern much of the reactivity of selenoproteins. To study their fundamental properties, we have used Se-77 NMR spectroscopy in concert with theoretical calculations to determine the conformational preferences and mobility of representative motifs. This use of Se-77 as a probe enables the direct recording of the properties of ...


Growth And Nitrogen Uptake Kinetics In Cultured Procentrum Donghaiense, Zhangxi Hu, Shunshan Duan, Margaret R. Mulholland Apr 2014

Growth And Nitrogen Uptake Kinetics In Cultured Procentrum Donghaiense, Zhangxi Hu, Shunshan Duan, Margaret R. Mulholland

OEAS Faculty Publications

We compared growth kinetics of Prorocentrum donghaiense cultures on different nitrogen (N) compounds including nitrate, ammonium urea, glutamic acid, dialanine, and cynate. P. donghaiense exhibited standard Monod-type growth kinetics over a range of nitrogen concentrations for all N. Compounds tested. Cultures grown on glu and urea had the highest maximum growth rates. However, cultures grown on cyanate had lower half saturation constants. Nitrogen uptake kinetics were measured in nitrate-deplete and replete batch cultures of P. donghaiense. In nitrate-deplete batch cultures, P. donghaiense exhibited Michaelis-Menten type uptake kinetics for nitrate, ammonium, urea and algal amino acids; uptake was saturated at or ...


Basic Features Of A Cell Electroporation Model: Illustrative Behavior For Two Very Different Pulses, Reuben S. Son, Kyle C. Smith, Thiruvallur R. Gowrishankar, P. Thomas Vernier, James C. Weaver Jan 2014

Basic Features Of A Cell Electroporation Model: Illustrative Behavior For Two Very Different Pulses, Reuben S. Son, Kyle C. Smith, Thiruvallur R. Gowrishankar, P. Thomas Vernier, James C. Weaver

Bioelectrics Publications

Science increasingly involves complex modeling. Here we describe a model for cell electroporation in which membrane properties are dynamically modified by poration. Spatial scales range from cell membrane thickness (5 nm) to a typical mammalian cell radius (10 μm), and can be used with idealized and experimental pulse waveforms. The model consists of traditional passive components and additional active components representing nonequilibrium processes. Model responses include measurable quantities: transmembrane voltage, membrane electrical conductance, and solute transport rates and amounts for the representative "long" and "short" pulses. The long pulse-1.5 kV/cm, 100 μs-evolves two pore subpopulations with a valley ...


Estimating Sustainable Harvests Of Eastern Oysters, Crassostrea Virginica, Thomas M. Soniat, Nathan Cooper, Eric N. Powell, John M. Klinck, Mahdi Abdelguerfi, Shengru Tu, Roger Mann, Patrick D. Banks Jan 2014

Estimating Sustainable Harvests Of Eastern Oysters, Crassostrea Virginica, Thomas M. Soniat, Nathan Cooper, Eric N. Powell, John M. Klinck, Mahdi Abdelguerfi, Shengru Tu, Roger Mann, Patrick D. Banks

CCPO Publications

Sustainability of a fishery is traditionally and typically considered achieved if the exploited population does not decline in numbers or biomass over time as a result of fishing relative to biological reference point goals. Oysters, however, exhibit atypical population dynamics compared with many other commercial species. The population dynamics often display extreme natural interannual variation in numbers and biomass, and oysters create their own habitat--the reef itself. With the worldwide decline of oyster reef habitat and the oyster fisheries dependent thereon, the maintenance of shell has received renewed attention as essential to population sustainability. We apply a shell budget model ...


Krill, Climate, And Contrasting Future Scenarios For Arctic And Antarctic Fisheries, Margaret M. Mcbride, Padmini Dalpadado, Kenneth F. Drinkwater, Olav Rune Godø, Alistair J. Hobday, Anne B. Hollowed, Trond Kristiansen, Eugene J. Murphy, Patrick H. Ressler, Sam Subbey, Eileen E. Hofmann, Harald Loeng Jan 2014

Krill, Climate, And Contrasting Future Scenarios For Arctic And Antarctic Fisheries, Margaret M. Mcbride, Padmini Dalpadado, Kenneth F. Drinkwater, Olav Rune Godø, Alistair J. Hobday, Anne B. Hollowed, Trond Kristiansen, Eugene J. Murphy, Patrick H. Ressler, Sam Subbey, Eileen E. Hofmann, Harald Loeng

CCPO Publications

Arctic and Antarcticmarine systems have incommon high latitudes, large seasonal changes in light levels, cold air and sea temperatures, and sea ice. In other ways, however, they are strikingly different, including their: age, extent, geological structure, ice stability, and foodweb structure. Both regions contain very rapidly warming areas and climate impacts have been reported, as have dramatic future projections. However, the combined effects of a changing climate on oceanographic processes and foodweb dynamics are likely to influence their future fisheries in very different ways. Differences in the life-history strategies of the key zooplankton species (Antarctic krill in the Southern Ocean ...


Concordance Between Phylogeographic And Biogeographic Boundaries In The Coral Triangle: Conservation Implications Based On Comparative Analyses Of Multiple Giant Clam Species, Timery S. Deboer, Maria Rio Abdon Naguit, Mark V. Erdmann, Maria Carmen A. Ablan-Lagman, Ambariyanto, Kent E. Carpenter, Abdul Hamid A. Toha, Paul H. Barber Jan 2014

Concordance Between Phylogeographic And Biogeographic Boundaries In The Coral Triangle: Conservation Implications Based On Comparative Analyses Of Multiple Giant Clam Species, Timery S. Deboer, Maria Rio Abdon Naguit, Mark V. Erdmann, Maria Carmen A. Ablan-Lagman, Ambariyanto, Kent E. Carpenter, Abdul Hamid A. Toha, Paul H. Barber

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Marine habitats are in decline worldwide, precipitating a strong interest in marine conservation. The use of biogeographic data to designate ecoregions has had significant impacts on terrestrial conservation efforts. However, classification of marine environments into ecoregions has only become available in the last several years, based on biogeographic data supplemented by geomorphology, ocean currents, and water temperatures. Here we use a comparative phylogeographic approach to test for concordant phylogeographic patterns in three closely related species of Tridacna giant clams across the Coral Triangle, the most biodiverse marine region in the world and one of the most threatened. Data from a ...


Effects Of Predation Upon The Long-Spined Sea Urchin Diadema Antillarum By The Spotted Spiny Lobster Panulirus Guttatus, Meredith D. Kintzing, Mark J. Butler Iv Jan 2014

Effects Of Predation Upon The Long-Spined Sea Urchin Diadema Antillarum By The Spotted Spiny Lobster Panulirus Guttatus, Meredith D. Kintzing, Mark J. Butler Iv

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Sea urchins, important herbivores in marine ecosystems, are strongly impacted by both the direct and indirect effects of predation, and the long-spined sea urchin Diadema antillarum is no exception. Once abundant on Caribbean coral reefs, D. antillarum populations were decimated by disease in the early 1980s, and only where their natural predators have been over-fished has D. antillarum recovery been observed. Spiny lobsters (Palinuridae) are predators of sea urchins, and although there are several species of spiny lobster in the Caribbean, only the spotted spiny lobster Panulirus guttatus is restricted to coral reefs where D. antillarum dwells. We investigated the ...


Developing Important Marine Mammal Area Criteria: Learning From Ecologically Or Biologically Significant Areas And Key Biodiversity Areas, Collenn M. Corrigan, Jeff A. Ardron, Mia T. Comeros-Raynal, Erich Hoyt, Giuseppe Notarbartolo Di Sciara, Kent E. Carpenter Jan 2014

Developing Important Marine Mammal Area Criteria: Learning From Ecologically Or Biologically Significant Areas And Key Biodiversity Areas, Collenn M. Corrigan, Jeff A. Ardron, Mia T. Comeros-Raynal, Erich Hoyt, Giuseppe Notarbartolo Di Sciara, Kent E. Carpenter

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

1. This paper explores how criteria to identify important marine mammal areas (IMMAs) could be developed, and nested in existing global criteria. This process would consider 134 species of marine mammals. 2. Particular attention is given to two suites of global criteria to identify areas important for the persistence of marine biodiversity: Ecologically or Biologically Significant Areas (EBSAs) developed through the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), and Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs) in revision through the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). They are seen as mutually complementary in the development of IMMAs. 3. The specificities necessary for identifying ...


Design And Study Of The Efflux Function Of The Egfp Fused Mexab-Oprm Membrane Transporter In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Using Spectroscopy, Feng Ding, Kerry J. Lee, Ardeschir Vahedi-Faridi, Hiroshi Yoneyama, Christopher J. Osgood, Xiao-Hong Nancy Xu Jan 2014

Design And Study Of The Efflux Function Of The Egfp Fused Mexab-Oprm Membrane Transporter In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Using Spectroscopy, Feng Ding, Kerry J. Lee, Ardeschir Vahedi-Faridi, Hiroshi Yoneyama, Christopher J. Osgood, Xiao-Hong Nancy Xu

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Multidrug membrane transporters (efflux pumps) can selectively extrude a variety of structurally and functionally diverse substrates (e.g., chemotoxics, antibiotics), leading to multidrug resistance (MDR) and ineffective treatment of a wide variety of diseases. In this study, we have designed and constructed a fusion gene (egfp-mexB) of N-terminal mexB with C-terminal egfp, inserted it into a plasmid vector (pMMB67EH), and successfully expressed it in the Δ MexB (MexB deletion) strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosato create a new strain that expresses MexA-(EGFP-MexB)-OprM. We characterized the fusion gene using gel electrophoresis and DNA sequencing, and determined its expression in live ...


So, You Want To Use Next Generation Sequencing In Marine Systems? Insight From The Pan Pacific Advanced Studies Institute, D. A. Willette, F. W. Allendorf, P. H. Barber, D. J. Barshis, K. E. Carpenter, E. D. Crandall, W. A. Cresko, I. Fernandez-Silva, M. V. Matz, E. Meyer, M. D. Santos, L. W. Seeb, J. E. Seeb Jan 2014

So, You Want To Use Next Generation Sequencing In Marine Systems? Insight From The Pan Pacific Advanced Studies Institute, D. A. Willette, F. W. Allendorf, P. H. Barber, D. J. Barshis, K. E. Carpenter, E. D. Crandall, W. A. Cresko, I. Fernandez-Silva, M. V. Matz, E. Meyer, M. D. Santos, L. W. Seeb, J. E. Seeb

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The emerging field of next-generation sequencing (NGS) is rapidly expanding capabilities for cutting edge genomic research, with applications that can help meet marine conservation challenges of food security, biodiversity loss, and climate change. Navigating the use of these tools, however, is complex at best. Furthermore, applications of marine genomic questions are limited in developing nations where both marine biodiversity and threats to marine biodiversity are most concentrated. This is particularly true in Southeast Asia. The first Pan-Pacific Advanced Studies Institute (PacASI) entitled "Genomic Applications to Marine Science and Resource Management in Southeast Asia" was held in July 2012 in Dumaguete ...


Modelling Cholera In Periodic Environments, Drew Posny, Jin Wang Jan 2014

Modelling Cholera In Periodic Environments, Drew Posny, Jin Wang

Mathematics & Statistics Faculty Publications

We propose a deterministic compartmental model for cholera dynamics in periodic environments. The model incorporates seasonal variation into a general formulation for the incidence (or, force of infection) and the pathogen concentration. The basic reproduction number of the periodic model is derived, based on which a careful analysis is conducted on the epidemic and endemic dynamics of cholera. Several specific examples are presented to demonstrate this general model, and numerical simulation results are used to validate the analytical prediction.


Template-Based C8-Scorpion: A Protein 8 State Secondary Structure Prediction Method Using Structural Information And Context-Based Features, Ashraf Yaseen, Yaohang Li Jan 2014

Template-Based C8-Scorpion: A Protein 8 State Secondary Structure Prediction Method Using Structural Information And Context-Based Features, Ashraf Yaseen, Yaohang Li

Computer Science Faculty Publications

Background: Secondary structures prediction of proteins is important to many protein structure modeling applications. Correct prediction of secondary structures can significantly reduce the degrees of freedom in protein tertiary structure modeling and therefore reduces the difficulty of obtaining high resolution 3D models.

Methods: In this work, we investigate a template-based approach to enhance 8-state secondary structure prediction accuracy. We construct structural templates from known protein structures with certain sequence similarity. The structural templates are then incorporated as features with sequence and evolutionary information to train two-stage neural networks. In case of structural templates absence, heuristic structural information is incorporated instead ...


Automated Identification Of Cell Type Specific Genes In The Mouse Brain By Image Computing Of Expression Patterns, Rongjian Li, Wenlu Zhang, Shuiwang Ji Jan 2014

Automated Identification Of Cell Type Specific Genes In The Mouse Brain By Image Computing Of Expression Patterns, Rongjian Li, Wenlu Zhang, Shuiwang Ji

Computer Science Faculty Publications

Background: Differential gene expression patterns in cells of the mammalian brain result in the morphological, connectional, and functional diversity of cells. A wide variety of studies have shown that certain genes are expressed only in specific cell-types. Analysis of cell-type-specific gene expression patterns can provide insights into the relationship between genes, connectivity, brain regions, and cell-types. However, automated methods for identifying cell-type-specific genes are lacking to date.

Results: Here, we describe a set of computational methods for identifying cell-type-specific genes in the mouse brain by automated image computing of in situ hybridization (ISH) expression patterns. We applied invariant image feature ...


Tracing Beta Strands Using Strandtwister From Cryo-Em Density Maps At Medium Resolutions, Dong Si, Jing He Jan 2014

Tracing Beta Strands Using Strandtwister From Cryo-Em Density Maps At Medium Resolutions, Dong Si, Jing He

Computer Science Faculty Publications

Major secondary structure elements such as α helices and β sheets can be computationally detected from cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) density maps with medium resolutions of 5–10 A˚ . However, a critical piece of information for modeling atomic structures is missing, because there are no tools to detect β strands from cryo-EM maps at medium resolutions. We propose a method, StrandTwister, to detect the traces of β strands through the analysis of twist, an intrinsic nature of a β sheet. StrandTwister has been tested using 100 β sheets simulated at 10 A˚ resolution and 39 β sheets computationally detected from cryo-EM ...


A Coupled Geochemical And Biogeochemical Approach To Characterize The Bioreactivity Of Dissolved Organic Matter From A Headwater Stream, Rachel L. Sleighter, Rose M. Cory, Louis A. Kaplan, Hussain A.N. Abdulla, Patrick G. Hatcher Jan 2014

A Coupled Geochemical And Biogeochemical Approach To Characterize The Bioreactivity Of Dissolved Organic Matter From A Headwater Stream, Rachel L. Sleighter, Rose M. Cory, Louis A. Kaplan, Hussain A.N. Abdulla, Patrick G. Hatcher

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

The bioreactivity or susceptibility of dissolved organic matter (DOM) to microbial degradation in streams and rivers is of critical importance to global change studies, but a comprehensive understanding of DOM bioreactivity has been elusive due, in part, to the stunningly diverse assemblages of organic molecules within DOM. We approach this problem by employing a range of techniques to characterize DOM as it flows through biofilm reactors: dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations, excitation emission matrix spectroscopy (EEMs), and ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry. The EEMs and mass spectral data were analyzed using a combination of multivariate statistical approaches. We found that 45 ...


Phytoplankton And Nutrient Dynamics In A Tidally Dominated Eutrophic Estuary: Daily Variability And Controls On Bloom Formation, Ryan E. Morse, Margaret R. Mulholland, Todd A. Egerton, Harold G. Marshall Jan 2014

Phytoplankton And Nutrient Dynamics In A Tidally Dominated Eutrophic Estuary: Daily Variability And Controls On Bloom Formation, Ryan E. Morse, Margaret R. Mulholland, Todd A. Egerton, Harold G. Marshall

OEAS Faculty Publications

To better understand nutrient dynamics and factors that promote the initiation of algal blooms, the Lafayette River, a tidal subestuary of Chesapeake Bay that experiences seasonal algal blooms, was sampled daily for a period of 54 d in the fall of 2005. Three phytoplankton blooms (chl a concentrations exceeding twice the average of monthly measurements from 2000 to 2009) occurred during this period: a mixed bloom of Akashiwo sanguinea and Gymnodinium sp., a monospecific Skeletonema costatum bloom, and a monospecific Gymnodinium sp. bloom. Over the sampling period, nutrient concentrations increased following precipitation events and were elevated between bloom periods but ...


Can We Predict The Future: Juvenile Finfish And Their Seagrass Nurseries In The Chesapeake Bay, Cynthia M. Jones Jan 2014

Can We Predict The Future: Juvenile Finfish And Their Seagrass Nurseries In The Chesapeake Bay, Cynthia M. Jones

OEAS Faculty Publications

The importance of estuarine seagrass beds as nurseries for juvenile fish has become a universal paradigm, especially for estuaries that are as important as the Chesapeake Bay. Yet, scientific tests of this hypothesis were equivocal depending on species, location, and metrics. Moreover, seagrasses themselves are under threat and one-third of seagrasses have disappeared worldwide with 65 of their losses occurring in estuaries. Although there have been extensive studies of seagrasses in the Chesapeake Bay, surprisingly few studies have quantified the relationship between seagrass as nurseries for finfish in the Bay. Of the few studies that have directly evaluated the use ...


Lack Of Equivalence In The Elemental And Stable Isotope Chemistry Within The Sagittal Otolith Pair Of The Summer Flounder, Paralichthys Dentatus, Antranik Kajajian, Jason J. Schaffler, Cynthia M. Jones Jan 2014

Lack Of Equivalence In The Elemental And Stable Isotope Chemistry Within The Sagittal Otolith Pair Of The Summer Flounder, Paralichthys Dentatus, Antranik Kajajian, Jason J. Schaffler, Cynthia M. Jones

OEAS Faculty Publications

In fish that are not bilaterally symmetrical, the left and right sagittae are often not symmetrical, exhibiting divergent growth patterns and mass, and may have differences in chemical composition. We investigated this in the asymmetrical summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus, collected from different nursery habitats along the US east coast. Significant differences were detected in otolith mass, δ13C, δ18O, Li:Ca, Mg:Ca, and Sr:Ca, and overall chemical signatures. These results refute the hypothesis of left-right equivalence that is prevalent for bilaterally symmetrical fishes. We tested whether a specific side was better suited for classification. The ...


Reproductive Phase Determination In Male Meagre (Argyrosomus Regius, Sciaenidae): Testis Development And Histologic Corroboration Of A Gross Anatomical Scale, Nuno Prista, Leonel Gordo, José Lino Costa, Maria José Costa, Cynthia Jones Jan 2014

Reproductive Phase Determination In Male Meagre (Argyrosomus Regius, Sciaenidae): Testis Development And Histologic Corroboration Of A Gross Anatomical Scale, Nuno Prista, Leonel Gordo, José Lino Costa, Maria José Costa, Cynthia Jones

OEAS Faculty Publications

Reproductive stage determination of male gonads has received sparse attention in fish biology literature with few studies detailing the building of gross anatomical- and histologic scales. The meagre (Argyrosomus regius) is one of the world's largest sciaenids and supports a significant regional fishery in European and North African waters whose reproductive patterns are yet to be fully investigated. In the present study, we derive a macroscopic grading system for meagre testis using semi-quantitative graphs that feature the testis variability along the species size range and time of the year. We then describe the histological stages and reproductive phases of ...


Emergence Of Algal Blooms: The Effects Of Short-Term Variability In Water Quality On Phytoplankton Abundance, Diversity, And Community Composition In A Tidal Estuary, Todd A. Egerton, Ryan E. Morse, Harold G. Marshall, Margaret R. Mulholland Jan 2014

Emergence Of Algal Blooms: The Effects Of Short-Term Variability In Water Quality On Phytoplankton Abundance, Diversity, And Community Composition In A Tidal Estuary, Todd A. Egerton, Ryan E. Morse, Harold G. Marshall, Margaret R. Mulholland

OEAS Faculty Publications

Algal blooms are dynamic phenomena, often attributed to environmental parameters that vary on short timescales (e.g., hours to days). Phytoplankton monitoring programs are largely designed to examine long-term trends and interannual variability. In order to better understand and evaluate the relationships between water quality variables and the genesis of algal blooms, daily samples were collected over a 34 day period in the eutrophic Lafayette River, a tidal tributary within Chesapeake Bay's estuarine complex, during spring 2006. During this period two distinct algal blooms occurred; the first was a cryptomonad bloom and this was followed by a bloom of ...


Reproductive Phase Determination In Male Meagre (Argyrosomus Regius, Sciaenidae): Testis Development And Histologic Corroboration Of A Gross Anatomical Scale, Nuno Prista, Leonel Gordo, Jose L. Costa, Maria J. Costa, Cynthia M. Jones Jan 2014

Reproductive Phase Determination In Male Meagre (Argyrosomus Regius, Sciaenidae): Testis Development And Histologic Corroboration Of A Gross Anatomical Scale, Nuno Prista, Leonel Gordo, Jose L. Costa, Maria J. Costa, Cynthia M. Jones

OEAS Faculty Publications

Reproductive stage determination of male gonads has received sparse attention in fish biology literature with few studies detailing the building of gross anatomical-and histologic scales. The meagre (Argyrosomus regius) is one of the world's largest sciaenids and supports a significant regional fishery in European and North African waters whose reproductive patterns are yet to be fully investigated. In the present study, we derive a macroscopic grading system for meagre testis using semi-quantitative graphs that feature the testis variability along the species size range and time of the year. We then describe the histological stages and reproductive phases of male ...


Evolution Of The Freshwater Sardinella, Sardinella Tawilis (Clupeiformes: Clupeidae), In Taal Lake, Philippines And Identification Of Iits Marine Sister-Species, Sardinella Hualiensis, Demian Willette, Kent E. Carpenter, Mudjekeewis Santos Jan 2014

Evolution Of The Freshwater Sardinella, Sardinella Tawilis (Clupeiformes: Clupeidae), In Taal Lake, Philippines And Identification Of Iits Marine Sister-Species, Sardinella Hualiensis, Demian Willette, Kent E. Carpenter, Mudjekeewis Santos

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

We identify the sister species of the world's only freshwater sardinella, Sardinella tawilis (Herre, 1927) of Taal Lake, Philippines as the morphologically-similar marine Taiwanese sardinella Sardinella hualiensis (Chu and Tsai, 1958). Evidence of incomplete lineage sorting and a species tree derived from three mitochondrial genes and one nuclear gene indicate that S. tawilis diverged from S. hualiensis in the late Pleistocene. Neutrality tests, mismatch distribution analysis, sequence diversity indices, and species tree analysis indicate populations of both species have long been stable and that the divergence between these two lineages occurred prior to the putative 18th century formation of ...


Microfluidic Electrical Sorting Of Particles Based On Shape In A Spiral Microchannel, John Dubose, Xinyu Lu, Saurin Patel, Shizhi Qian, Sang Woo Joo Jan 2014

Microfluidic Electrical Sorting Of Particles Based On Shape In A Spiral Microchannel, John Dubose, Xinyu Lu, Saurin Patel, Shizhi Qian, Sang Woo Joo

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

Shape is an intrinsic marker of cell cycle, an important factor for identifying a bioparticle, and also a useful indicator of cell state for disease diagnostics. Therefore, shape can be a specific marker in label-free particle and cell separation for various chemical and biological applications. We demonstrate in this work a continuous-flow electrical sorting of spherical and peanut-shaped particles of similar volumes in an asymmetric double-spiral microchannel. It exploits curvature-induced dielectrophoresis to focus particles to a tight stream in the first spiral without any sheath flow and subsequently displace them to shape-dependent flow paths in the second spiral without any ...


An Unexpected Particle Oscillation For Electrophoresis In Viscoelastic Fluids Through A Microchannel Constriction, Xinyu Lu, Saurin Patel, Meng Zhang, Sang Woo Joo, Shizhi Qian, Amod Ogale, Xiangchun Xuan Jan 2014

An Unexpected Particle Oscillation For Electrophoresis In Viscoelastic Fluids Through A Microchannel Constriction, Xinyu Lu, Saurin Patel, Meng Zhang, Sang Woo Joo, Shizhi Qian, Amod Ogale, Xiangchun Xuan

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

Electrophoresis plays an important role in many applications, which, however, has so far been extensively studied in Newtonian fluids only. This work presents the first experimental investigation of particle electrophoresis in viscoelastic polyethylene oxide (PEO) solutions through a microchannel constriction under pure DC electric fields. An oscillatory particle motion is observed in the constriction region, which is distinctly different from the particle behavior in a polymer-free Newtonian fluid. This stream-wise particle oscillation continues until a sufficient number of particles form a chain to pass through the constriction completely. It is speculated that such an unexpected particle oscillating phenomenon is a ...