Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

2014

Series

Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Iowa State University

Keyword
Publication

Articles 1 - 30 of 127

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Reconstructing Vegetation Past: Pre-Euro-American Vegetation For The Midwest Driftless Area, Usa, Monika E. Shea, Lisa A. Schulte, Brian J. Palik Dec 2014

Reconstructing Vegetation Past: Pre-Euro-American Vegetation For The Midwest Driftless Area, Usa, Monika E. Shea, Lisa A. Schulte, Brian J. Palik

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Historical reference conditions provide important context for creating ecological restoration and management plans. The U.S. 19th Century Public Land Survey (PLS) records provide extensive ecological information for constructing such reference conditions. We used PLS records to reconstruct pre-Euro-American tree species cover class and vegetation structure types for the Midwest Driftless Area, a 55,000 km2 region currently experiencing multiple conservation threats. We related cover classes to soil texture, topographic roughness, and distance from waterway. Our analyses revealed that the landscape of the Driftless Area was mostly composed of savanna, with two large patches of closed forest and smaller, scattered ...


Satellite-Based Management Tool For Oak Savanna Ecosystem Restoration, Peter T. Wolter, Elizabeth A. Berkley, Scott D. Peckham, Aditya Singh Dec 2014

Satellite-Based Management Tool For Oak Savanna Ecosystem Restoration, Peter T. Wolter, Elizabeth A. Berkley, Scott D. Peckham, Aditya Singh

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

The structure and function of oak Quercus spp. savanna ecosystems in the North American Midwest were originally maintained by an active disturbance regime (often fire). Subsequent reductions in the frequency of disturbance after European settlement have facilitated rapid, regional conversion of these ecosystems to more closed-canopy forest. Hence, regional-scale management strategies are now needed to restore critical spatial gradients of light, temperature, soil moisture, and soil organic matter for recovery and sustenance of the unique mosaic of understory grass and forb species assemblages that define oak savannas. Tree species composition, distribution, mortality, basal area, and canopy cover are important forest ...


Book Review Of Conservation By Proxy: Indicator, Umbrella, Keystone, Flagship, And Other Surrogate Species, Tyler J. Grant, Peter G. Eyheralde, Melissa S. C. Telemeco, Amy L. Moorhouse, Rebecca A. Reeves, Karin Grimlund, Amy Podaril, Sarah E. Emeterio, Robert W. Klaver Dec 2014

Book Review Of Conservation By Proxy: Indicator, Umbrella, Keystone, Flagship, And Other Surrogate Species, Tyler J. Grant, Peter G. Eyheralde, Melissa S. C. Telemeco, Amy L. Moorhouse, Rebecca A. Reeves, Karin Grimlund, Amy Podaril, Sarah E. Emeterio, Robert W. Klaver

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

In the tallgrass prairies of the United States, the regal fritillary (Speyeria idalia) often is considered a reliable indicator of high quality remnant habitat. Purple milkweed (Asclepias purpurascens) is considered an indicator of high quality oak savanna habitat at the edge of prairie. Indicator and other surrogate species often are regarded as inescapable necessities in conservation, because limited budgets and the myriad pieces of an ecosystem render comprehensive monitoring impossible. Regardless of whether or not surrogate species are necessary, do they really work?


Reproductive Success Of The American Oystercatcher (Haematopus Palliatus) In Texas, Lianne M. Koczur, Alexandra E. Munters, Susan A. Heath, Bart M. Ballard, M. Clay Green, Stephen J. Dinsmore, Fidel Hernández Dec 2014

Reproductive Success Of The American Oystercatcher (Haematopus Palliatus) In Texas, Lianne M. Koczur, Alexandra E. Munters, Susan A. Heath, Bart M. Ballard, M. Clay Green, Stephen J. Dinsmore, Fidel Hernández

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

The American Oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus) is listed as a Species of High Concern in the United States Shorebird Conservation Plan due to a small population size and threats during its annual cycle. Previous studies of the American Oystercatcher have focused on Atlantic Coast populations; however, little is known about the reproductive success of the western Gulf Coast population. The objective of this study was to determine nest and brood survival of American Oystercatchers in Texas. A total of 337 nests and 121 broods were monitored on the Texas Gulf Coast during 2011–2013. The top model for nest survival in ...


Comparison Of Cellulosic Ethanol Yields From Midwestern Maize And Reconstructed Tallgrass Prairie Systems Managed For Bioenergy, V. A. Nichols, F. E. Miguez, M. E. Jarchow, M. Z. Liebman, B. S. Dien Dec 2014

Comparison Of Cellulosic Ethanol Yields From Midwestern Maize And Reconstructed Tallgrass Prairie Systems Managed For Bioenergy, V. A. Nichols, F. E. Miguez, M. E. Jarchow, M. Z. Liebman, B. S. Dien

Agronomy Publications

Maize- and prairie-based systems were investigated as cellulosic feedstocks by conducting a 9 ha side-by-side comparison on fertile soils in the Midwestern United States. Maize was grown continuously with adequate fertilization over years both with and without a winter rye cover crop, and the 31-species reconstructed prairie was grown with and without spring nitrogen fertilization. Both maize stover and prairie biomass were harvested in the fall. We compared amounts of cellulosic biomass produced and harvested, carbohydrate contents as measured by both dietary and detergent methods, and estimated cellulosic ethanol yields per hectare. From 2009–2013, the cropping system with the ...


Fire Induced Reproductive Mechanisms Of A Symphoricarpos (Caprifoliaceae) Shrub After Dormant Season Burning, John Derek Scasta, David M. Engle, Ryan N. Harr, Diane M. Debinski Dec 2014

Fire Induced Reproductive Mechanisms Of A Symphoricarpos (Caprifoliaceae) Shrub After Dormant Season Burning, John Derek Scasta, David M. Engle, Ryan N. Harr, Diane M. Debinski

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Background: Symphoricarpos, a genus of the Caprifoliaceae family, consists of about 15 species of clonal deciduous shrubs in North America and 1 species endemic to China. In North American tallgrass prairie, Symphoricarpos orbiculatus (buckbrush) is the dominant shrub often forming large colonies via sexual and asexual reproductive mechanisms. Symphoricarpos shrubs, in particular S. orbiculatus, use a unique sexual reproductive mechanism known as layering where vertical stems droop and the tips root upon contact with the soil. Because of conflicting societal values of S. orbiculatus for conservation and agriculture and the current attempt to restore historical fire regimes, there is a ...


Flow Cytometry Is A Promising And Rapid Method For Differentiating Between Freely Suspended Escherichia Coli And E. Coli Attached To Clay Particles, Xiao Liang, Michelle L. Soupir, Shawn M. Rigby, Laura R. Jarboe, Wei Zhang Dec 2014

Flow Cytometry Is A Promising And Rapid Method For Differentiating Between Freely Suspended Escherichia Coli And E. Coli Attached To Clay Particles, Xiao Liang, Michelle L. Soupir, Shawn M. Rigby, Laura R. Jarboe, Wei Zhang

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Aim: A standard procedure does not exist to distinguish between attached and unattached micro-organisms. In this study, we compared two methods to quantify between Escherichia coli attached to clay particles and E. coli freely suspended in solution: flow cytometry (attachment assay and viability assay) and settling (or centrifugation followed by settling).

Methods and Results: Methods were tested using three environmental strains collected from swine facilities (A, B and C) and one purchased modified pathogenic strain (ATCC 43888); four clay particles: Hectorite, Kaolinite, Ca-Montmorillonite, Montmorillonite K-10; and a range of surface area ratios (particle surface area to E. coli surface area ...


Design And Evaluation Of Peptide Nucleic Acid Probes For Specific Identification Of Candida Albicans., H. J. Kim, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher Nov 2014

Design And Evaluation Of Peptide Nucleic Acid Probes For Specific Identification Of Candida Albicans., H. J. Kim, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Candida albicans is an important cause of systemic fungal infections, and rapid diagnostics for identifying and differentiating C. albicans from other Candida species are critical for the timely application of appropriate antimicrobial therapy, improved patient outcomes, and pharmaceutical cost savings. In this work, two 28S rRNA-directed peptide nucleic acid-fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH) probes, P-Ca726 (targeting a novel region of the ribosome) and P-CalB2208 (targeting a previously reported region), were evaluated. Hybridization conditions were optimized by using both fluorescence microscopy (FM) and flow cytometry (FCM), and probes were screened for specificity and discriminative ability against a panel of C. albicans ...


Assessing Cost-Effectiveness Of The Conservation Reserve Program And Its Interaction With Crop Insurance Subsidies, Ruiqing Miao, Hongli Feng, David A. Hennessy, Xiaodong Du Nov 2014

Assessing Cost-Effectiveness Of The Conservation Reserve Program And Its Interaction With Crop Insurance Subsidies, Ruiqing Miao, Hongli Feng, David A. Hennessy, Xiaodong Du

CARD Working Papers

Strong demand for agricultural commodities, high crop prices and pressure to reduce government budget deficits heighten the need for land retirement programs to be designed to maximize environmental benefits for any given budget outlay. The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) is the largest land retirement program while the federal crop insurance program (FCIP) is the largest federal program supporting U.S. agriculture. We examine the environmental and budgetary implications of alternative CRP enrollment mechanisms in the context of the program’s interactions with FCIP. We demonstrate that the current CRP enrollment mechanism is inconsistent with cost-effective targeting. We also identify a ...


The Impact Of An Eu-Us Transatlantic Trade And Investment Partnership Agreement On Biofuel And Feedstock Markets, John C. Beghin, Jean-Christophe Bureau, Alexandre Gohin Nov 2014

The Impact Of An Eu-Us Transatlantic Trade And Investment Partnership Agreement On Biofuel And Feedstock Markets, John C. Beghin, Jean-Christophe Bureau, Alexandre Gohin

CARD Working Papers

We assess the impact of a potential TTIP bilateral free trade agreement on the EU and US bio-economies (feedstock, biofuels, by-products, and related competing crops) and major trade partners in these markets. The analysis develops a multi-market model that incorporates bilateral trade flows (US to EU, EU to US, and similarly with third countries) and is calibrated to OECD-FAO baseline for 2013–2022 to account for recent policy decisions. The major policy reforms from a TTIP involve tariff and TRQ liberalization and their direct contractionary impact on US sugar supply, EU biofuel production, and indirect negative effect on US HFCS ...


Predator Exclosures, Predator Removal, And Habitat Improvement Increase Nest Success Of Snowy Plovers In Oregon, Usa, Stephen J. Dinsmore, David J. Lauten, Kathleen A. Castelein, Eleanor P. Gaines, Mark A. Stern Nov 2014

Predator Exclosures, Predator Removal, And Habitat Improvement Increase Nest Success Of Snowy Plovers In Oregon, Usa, Stephen J. Dinsmore, David J. Lauten, Kathleen A. Castelein, Eleanor P. Gaines, Mark A. Stern

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Management to increase reproductive success is commonly used to aid recovery of threatened and endangered species. The Western Snowy Plover (Charadrius nivosus nivosus) breeds from coastal Washington, USA, to Baja California, Mexico, and in disjunct interior sites. The Pacific coast population is federally listed as Threatened; habitat loss and nest loss to a suite of terrestrial and avian predators are thought to be primary factors limiting population growth in this species. In coastal Oregon, USA, a consortium of state and federal management agencies deployed nest exclosures on active Snowy Plover nests, initiated a lethal predator management program, and conducted local-scale ...


Success Stories In Sustainable Agriculture: Helping Iowa Producers, Arlene E. Enderton Nov 2014

Success Stories In Sustainable Agriculture: Helping Iowa Producers, Arlene E. Enderton

Leopold Center Publications and Papers

Leopold Center support over three years has helped Ajay Nair, assistant professor in Horticulture, set up the ISU Sustainable Vegetable Production Lab, a research and education program to help small producers in Iowa.


Abstracts Of Recent Leopold Center Projects, Leopold Center For Sustainable Agriculture Nov 2014

Abstracts Of Recent Leopold Center Projects, Leopold Center For Sustainable Agriculture

Leopold Center Publications and Papers

Read abstracts of research, education and demonstration projects that received funds from the Leopold Center. The 32-page document includes more than 350 grant projects completed from 1996 through 2014, listed by topic and year of completion.


Understanding Engineering Students' Perceptions And Knowledge About Sustainable Development And Sustainability, Bhavna Sharma, Brian L. Steward, Say K. Ong, Fernando E. Miguez Oct 2014

Understanding Engineering Students' Perceptions And Knowledge About Sustainable Development And Sustainability, Bhavna Sharma, Brian L. Steward, Say K. Ong, Fernando E. Miguez

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

The Sustainable Engineering and International Development course was first offered to engineering majors at the Iowa State University (ISU) in 2005. The course is focused on describing, discussing and comparing the key concepts of sustainability, sustainable development and sustainable engineering. In 2005, sustainability was not a major part of the engineering curricula and students had little to no knowledge about these concepts. Nine years later, sustainability has become an integral part of our daily lives. In this study, we wanted to understand student perceptions, knowledge, and understanding of sustainability, sustainable development and its implementation across various engineering systems. The assessment ...


Anthropogenic Disturbance And Environmental Associations With Fish Assemblage Structure In Two Nonwadeable Rivers, T. P. Parks, M. C. Quist, Clay L. Pierce Oct 2014

Anthropogenic Disturbance And Environmental Associations With Fish Assemblage Structure In Two Nonwadeable Rivers, T. P. Parks, M. C. Quist, Clay L. Pierce

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Nonwadeable rivers are unique ecosystems that support high levels of aquatic biodiversity, yet they have been greatly altered by human activities. Although riverine fish assemblages have been studied in the past, we still have an incomplete understanding of how fish assemblages respond to both natural and anthropogenic influences in large rivers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate associations between fish assemblage structure and reach-scale habitat, dam, and watershed land use characteristics. In the summers of 2011 and 2012, comprehensive fish and environmental data were collected from 33 reaches in the Iowa and Cedar rivers of eastern-central Iowa. Canonical ...


Characteristics Of 50–200-M Winds And Temperatures Derived From An Iowa Tall-Tower Network, Renee A. Walton, Eugene S. Takle, William A. Gallus Jr. Oct 2014

Characteristics Of 50–200-M Winds And Temperatures Derived From An Iowa Tall-Tower Network, Renee A. Walton, Eugene S. Takle, William A. Gallus Jr.

Geological and Atmospheric Sciences Publications

Limitations in skill of wind speed forecasts lead to conservative bids of wind-plant production in the dayahead energy market and usually to an underutilization of wind resources. Improvements are needed in understanding wind characteristics in the turbine-rotor layer (40–120 m) for developing refined forecast models. The seasonal and diurnal behavior of wind speed, wind direction, and temperature were analyzed from data taken on five tall meteorological towers across Iowa. Several significant high-shear events, which would have the potential to cause problems by inducing substantial stress on the infrastructure of the wind turbine, were observed, with vertical shear up to ...


Nonsyntenic Genes Drive Highly Dynamic Complementation Of Gene Expression In Maize Hybrids, Anja Paschold, Nick B. Larson, Caroline Marcon, James C. Schnable, Cheng-Ting Yeh, Christa Lanz, Dan Nettleton, Hans-Peter Piepho, Patrick S. Schnable, Frank Hochholdinger Oct 2014

Nonsyntenic Genes Drive Highly Dynamic Complementation Of Gene Expression In Maize Hybrids, Anja Paschold, Nick B. Larson, Caroline Marcon, James C. Schnable, Cheng-Ting Yeh, Christa Lanz, Dan Nettleton, Hans-Peter Piepho, Patrick S. Schnable, Frank Hochholdinger

Statistics Publications

Maize (Zea mays) displays an exceptional level of structural genomic diversity, which is likely unique among higher eukaryotes. In this study, we surveyed how the genetic divergence of two maize inbred lines affects the transcriptomic landscape in four different primary root tissues of their F1-hybrid progeny. An extreme instance of complementation was frequently observed: genes that were expressed in only one parent but in both reciprocal hybrids. This single-parent expression (SPE) pattern was detected for 2341 genes with up to 1287 SPE patterns per tissue. As a consequence, the number of active genes in hybrids exceeded that of their parents ...


Re-Evaluating Neonatal-Age Models For Ungulates: Does Model Choice Affect Survival Estimates?, Troy W. Grovenburg, Kevin L. Monteith, Christopher N. Jacques, Robert W. Klaver, Christopher S. Deperno, Todd J. Brinkman, Kyle B. Monteith, Sophie L. Gilbert, Joshua B. Smith, Vernon C. Bleich, Christopher C. Swanson, Jonathan A. Jenks Sep 2014

Re-Evaluating Neonatal-Age Models For Ungulates: Does Model Choice Affect Survival Estimates?, Troy W. Grovenburg, Kevin L. Monteith, Christopher N. Jacques, Robert W. Klaver, Christopher S. Deperno, Todd J. Brinkman, Kyle B. Monteith, Sophie L. Gilbert, Joshua B. Smith, Vernon C. Bleich, Christopher C. Swanson, Jonathan A. Jenks

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

New-hoof growth is regarded as the most reliable metric for predicting age of newborn ungulates, but variation in estimated age among hoof-growth equations that have been developed may affect estimates of survival in staggered-entry models. We used known-age newborns to evaluate variation in age estimates among existing hoof-growth equations and to determine the consequences of that variation on survival estimates. During 2001–2009, we captured and radiocollared 174 newborn (≤24-hrs old) ungulates: 76 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Minnesota and South Dakota, 61 mule deer (O. hemionus) in California, and 37 pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) in South Dakota. Estimated age of ...


Impact Of Ethanol Mandates On Fuel Prices When Ethanol And Gasoline Are Imperfect Substitutes, Sebastien Pouliot, Bruce A. Babcock Sep 2014

Impact Of Ethanol Mandates On Fuel Prices When Ethanol And Gasoline Are Imperfect Substitutes, Sebastien Pouliot, Bruce A. Babcock

CARD Working Papers

Past studies that examine the impact of ethanol mandates on fuel prices make the assumption that ethanol and gasoline are perfect substitutes because they are both sources of energy in transportation fuels. These studies, however, have been of limited use in informing current policy debates because the short- to medium-run reality is one of strong regulatory and infrastructure rigidities that restrict how ethanol can be consumed in the United States. Our objective here is to improve understanding of how these rigidities change the findings of existing studies. We accomplish this by estimating the impacts of higher ethanol mandates using a ...


Estimation And Testing Of Gene Expression Heterosis, Tieming Ji, Peng Liu, Dan Nettleton Sep 2014

Estimation And Testing Of Gene Expression Heterosis, Tieming Ji, Peng Liu, Dan Nettleton

Statistics Publications

Heterosis, also known as the hybrid vigor, occurs when the mean phenotype of hybrid offspring is superior to that of its two inbred parents. The heterosis phenomenon is extensively utilized in agriculture though the molecular basis is still unknown. In an effort to understand phenotypic heterosis at the molecular level, researchers have begun to compare expression levels of thousands of genes between parental inbred lines and their hybrid offspring to search for evidence of gene expression heterosis. Standard statistical approaches for separately analyzing expression data for each gene can produce biased and highly variable estimates and unreliable tests of heterosis ...


Switchgrass Response To Nitrogen Fertilizer Across Diverse Environments In The Usa: A Regional Feedstock Partnership Report, C. O. Hong, V. N. Owens, D. Bransby, R. Farris, J. Fike, E. Heaton, S. Kim, H. Mayton, R. Mitchell, D. Viands Sep 2014

Switchgrass Response To Nitrogen Fertilizer Across Diverse Environments In The Usa: A Regional Feedstock Partnership Report, C. O. Hong, V. N. Owens, D. Bransby, R. Farris, J. Fike, E. Heaton, S. Kim, H. Mayton, R. Mitchell, D. Viands

Agronomy Publications

The Regional Feedstock Partnership is a collaborative effort between the Sun Grant Initiative (through Land Grant Universities), the US Department of Energy, and the US Department of Agriculture. One segment of this partnership is the field-scale evaluation of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) in diverse sites across the USA. Switchgrass was planted (11.2 kg PLS ha−1 ) in replicated plots in New York, Oklahoma, South Dakota, and Virginia in 2008 and in Iowa in 2009. Adapted switchgrass cultivars were selected for each location and baseline soil samples collected before planting. Nitrogen fertilizer (0, 56, and 112 kg N ha−1 ...


Changes In Fluxes Of Heat, H2o, And Co2 Caused By A Large Wind Farm, Daniel A. Rajewski, Eugene Takle, Julie K. Lundquist, John H. Prueger, Richard L. Pfeiffer, Jerry L. Hatfield, Kristopher K. Spoth, Russell K. Doorenbos Aug 2014

Changes In Fluxes Of Heat, H2o, And Co2 Caused By A Large Wind Farm, Daniel A. Rajewski, Eugene Takle, Julie K. Lundquist, John H. Prueger, Richard L. Pfeiffer, Jerry L. Hatfield, Kristopher K. Spoth, Russell K. Doorenbos

Geological and Atmospheric Sciences Publications

The Crop Wind-Energy Experiment (CWEX) provides a platform to investigate the effect of wind turbines and large wind farms on surface fluxes of momentum, heat, moisture, and carbon dioxide (CO2). In 2010 and 2011, eddy covariance flux stations were installed between two lines of turbines at the southwest edge of a large Iowa wind farm from late June to early September. We report changes in fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, latent heat, and CO2 above a corn canopy after surface air had passed through a single line of turbines. In 2010, our flux stations were placed within a field with ...


Identifying Sampling Locations For Field-Scale Soil Moisture Estimation Using K-Means Clustering, Zachary J. Van Arkel, Amy L. Kaleita Aug 2014

Identifying Sampling Locations For Field-Scale Soil Moisture Estimation Using K-Means Clustering, Zachary J. Van Arkel, Amy L. Kaleita

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Identifying and understanding the impact of field-scale soil moisture patterns is currently limited by the time and resources required to do sufficient monitoring. This study uses K-means clustering to find critical sampling points to estimate field-scale near-surface soil moisture. Points within the field are clustered based upon topographic and soils data and the points representing the center of those clusters are identified as the critical sampling points. Soil moisture observations at 42 sites across the growing seasons of 4 years were collected several times per week. Using soil moisture observations at the critical sampling points and the number of points ...


Unexpected Effects Of Chitin, Cellulose, And Lignin Addition On Soil Dynamics In A Wet Tropical Forest, Ann E. Russell Aug 2014

Unexpected Effects Of Chitin, Cellulose, And Lignin Addition On Soil Dynamics In A Wet Tropical Forest, Ann E. Russell

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Decades of studies on the role of decomposition in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling have focused on organic matter (OM) of plant origin. Despite potentially large inputs of belowground OM from fungal cell walls and invertebrate exoskeletons, studies of the decomposability of their major constituent, chitin, are scarce. To explore effects on soil C dynamics of chitin, in comparison with two plant-derived chemicals, cellulose and lignin, I conducted a field-based chemical-addition experiment. The design contained three chemical treatments plus a control, with four replicates in each of two species of tropical trees grown in plantations. The chemicals were added ...


Effects Of Native Perennial Vegetation Buffer Strips On Dissolved Organic Carbon In Surface Runoff From An Agricultural Landscape, Tomorra Elizabeth Smith, Randall K. Kolka, Xiaobo Zhou, Matthew J. Helmers, Richard M. Cruse, Mark D. Tomer Aug 2014

Effects Of Native Perennial Vegetation Buffer Strips On Dissolved Organic Carbon In Surface Runoff From An Agricultural Landscape, Tomorra Elizabeth Smith, Randall K. Kolka, Xiaobo Zhou, Matthew J. Helmers, Richard M. Cruse, Mark D. Tomer

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) constitutes a small yet important part of a watershed’s carbon budget because it is mobile and biologically active. Agricultural conservation practices such as native perennial vegetation (NPV) strips will influence carbon cycling of an upland agroecosystem, and could affect how much DOC enters streams in runoff, potentially affecting aquatic ecosystems. In a study conducted in Iowa (USA), four treatments with strips of NPV varying in slope position and proportion of area were randomly assigned among 12 small agricultural watersheds in a balanced incomplete block design. Runoff samples from 2008 to 2010 were analyzed for DOC ...


2014 North Central Regional Conference, C. Lee Burras Aug 2014

2014 North Central Regional Conference, C. Lee Burras

Agronomy Publications

Seventy-six pedologists and related professionals registered to learn about--and contribute to-- the topics of soil survey, soil health, and soil dynamic properties at the 2014 North Central Regional Cooperative Soil survey Conference, held June 2nd through 5th on the campus of Iowa State University. Forty-four of the registrants were USDA--NRCS employees (14 from Iowa, 2 from regional and MLRA offices, and 8 from national postings), and 24 were university employees (7 faculty from ISU, 9 faculty from cooperating universities, and 8 graduate students). The remaining eight registrants were with cooperating agencies from Iowa, Minnesota, or the Federal government. The meeting ...


Economic And Environmental Analysis Of Farm-Scale Integrated Ethanol And Biodiesel Production Using Locally-Available Biomass, Bailley A. Richardson, Patrick J. Benson, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jul 2014

Economic And Environmental Analysis Of Farm-Scale Integrated Ethanol And Biodiesel Production Using Locally-Available Biomass, Bailley A. Richardson, Patrick J. Benson, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

With increased technology and economic opportunities, demand for energy and fuels in developing countries is growing exponentially to run processes and improve lifestyles, but rural areas may not have access. It is thus important to identify possible sources of energy for developing rural areas, especially those sources which are renewable and locally produced. The objective of this study was to develop a computer model to assess the viability of developing integrated biofuel production systems using biomass materials specific to Mozambique and India. The models considered various system capacities and production scenarios. Estimates of processing costs, along with other economic factors ...


Effects Of Set-Aside Conservation Practices On Bird Community Structure Within An Intensive Agricultural Landscape, Ross Robert Conover, Stephen J. Dinsmore, L. Wes Burger Jr. Jul 2014

Effects Of Set-Aside Conservation Practices On Bird Community Structure Within An Intensive Agricultural Landscape, Ross Robert Conover, Stephen J. Dinsmore, L. Wes Burger Jr.

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Creating and restoring patches of noncrop early-succession vegetation within agricultural landscapes may mitigate grassland bird population declines caused by agricultural land use and intensification. Achieving this goal requires an ability to balance avian benefits with agronomics, which may be facilitated by understanding how bird communities respond to various conservation practices. We evaluated bird richness, abundance, Shannon diversity, and Total Avian Conservation Value in 20 replicates of four Conservation Reserve Program practices in an intensive rowcrop agricultural landscape in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley from May–Jul., 2005–2007. Conservation practices included: (1) large blocks of structurally-diverse early-succession vegetation (6–8 y ...


Economic And Environmental Analysis Of Farm-Scale Biodigesters To Produce Energy For Kitchen Stove Use, Zachary P. Bartlett, Alexandra Olivares, Yang Lu, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jul 2014

Economic And Environmental Analysis Of Farm-Scale Biodigesters To Produce Energy For Kitchen Stove Use, Zachary P. Bartlett, Alexandra Olivares, Yang Lu, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Developing countries throughout the world currently fuel kitchen stoves for cooking by burning wood which is responsible for many health and environmental problems. Producing fuel for cooking via anaerobic digestion is a very ecofriendly and resourceful solution that is being explored. To determine the sustainability of anaerobic digestion throughout these regions, multiple biodigester designs were tested under conditions specific to various third-world countries; the countries tested were Nicaragua, Bolivia, Nigeria, India and Indonesia. Factors to be considered included the use of local biomass resources and building materials. Determining the fueling efficiency of anaerobic digestion in comparison to burning wood consisted ...


Laboratory-Scale Fractionation Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs), Congmu Zhang, Kun Xie, Ming-Hsun Cheng, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jul 2014

Laboratory-Scale Fractionation Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs), Congmu Zhang, Kun Xie, Ming-Hsun Cheng, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

The objective of this project was to separate distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) into high protein and high fiber fractions, in order to improve value and utility as a livestock feed. This project used a laboratory-scale cylindrical blower (Iowa blower) and a laboratory-scale gravity table (Whippet V-80 separator, Sutton, Steele & Steele, Inc.). The raw DDGS was sieved into multiple streams using 10 mesh, 20 mesh and 40 mesh screens. The 10-20 mesh fraction and 20-40 mesh fraction were then run on the blower and the separator separately, using the same settings for air velocity in the range of 0 ...