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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Exposure To Residual Concentrations Of Elements From A Remediated Coal Fly Ash Spill Does Not Adversely Influence Stress And Immune Responses Of Nestling Tree Swallows, Michelle L. Beck, William A. Hopkins, John J. Hallagan, Brian P. Jackson, Dana M. Hawley May 2014

Exposure To Residual Concentrations Of Elements From A Remediated Coal Fly Ash Spill Does Not Adversely Influence Stress And Immune Responses Of Nestling Tree Swallows, Michelle L. Beck, William A. Hopkins, John J. Hallagan, Brian P. Jackson, Dana M. Hawley

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Anthropogenic activities often produce pollutants that can affect the physiology, growth and reproductive success of wildlife. Many metals and trace elements play important roles in physiological processes, and exposure to even moderately elevated concentrations of essential and non-essential elements could have subtle effects on physiology, particularly during development. We examined the effects of exposure to a number of elements from a coal fly ash spill that occurred in December 2008 and has since been remediated on the stress and immune responses of nestling tree swallows. We found that nestlings at the site of the spill had significantly greater blood concentrations ...


Comparative Efficiency And Driving Range Of Light- And Heavy-Duty Vehicles Powered With Biomass Energy Stored In Liquid Fuels Or Batteries, Mark Laser, Lee R. R. Lynd Mar 2014

Comparative Efficiency And Driving Range Of Light- And Heavy-Duty Vehicles Powered With Biomass Energy Stored In Liquid Fuels Or Batteries, Mark Laser, Lee R. R. Lynd

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

This study addresses the question, "When using cellulosic biomass for vehicular transportation, which field-to-wheels pathway is more efficient: that using biofuels or that using bioelectricity?" In considering the question, the level of assumed technological maturity significantly affects the comparison, as does the intended transportation application. Results from the analysis indicate that for light-duty vehicles, over ranges typical in the United States today (e.g., 560-820 miles), field-to-wheels performance is similar, with some scenarios showing biofuel to be more efficient, and others indicating the two pathways to be essentially the same. Over the current range of heavy-duty vehicles, the field-to-wheels efficiency ...


Gene And Protein Sequence Optimization For High-Level Production Of Fully Active And Aglycosylated Lysostaphin In Pichia Pastoris, Hongliang Zhao, Kristina Blazanovic, Yoonjoo Choi, Chris Bailey-Kellogg, Karl E. Griswold Feb 2014

Gene And Protein Sequence Optimization For High-Level Production Of Fully Active And Aglycosylated Lysostaphin In Pichia Pastoris, Hongliang Zhao, Kristina Blazanovic, Yoonjoo Choi, Chris Bailey-Kellogg, Karl E. Griswold

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Lysostaphin represents a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of staphylococcal infections, in particular those of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). However, conventional expression systems for the enzyme suffer from various limitations, and there remains a need for an efficient and cost-effective production process to facilitate clinical translation and the development of nonmedical applications. While Pichia pastoris is widely used for high-level production of recombinant proteins, there are two major barriers to the production of lysostaphin in this industrially relevant host: lack of expression from the wild-type lysostaphin gene and aberrant glycosylation of the wild-type protein sequence. The first barrier can ...


Unintended Outcomes Of Farmers' Adaptation To Climate Variability: Deforestation And Conservation In Calakmul And Maya Biosphere Reserves, Claudia Rodriguez-Solorzano Jan 2014

Unintended Outcomes Of Farmers' Adaptation To Climate Variability: Deforestation And Conservation In Calakmul And Maya Biosphere Reserves, Claudia Rodriguez-Solorzano

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Minimizing the impact of climate change on farmer livelihoods is crucial, but adaptation efforts may have unintended consequences for ecosystems, with potential impacts on farmers’ welfare. Unintended outcomes of climate adaptation strategies have been widely discussed, however, empirical exploration has been neglected. Grounded in scholarship on climate adaptation, environmental governance, social–ecological systems, and land-use change, this paper studies whether farmers’ climate adaptation contributes to deforestation or forest conservation. The paper draws on interviews with 353 farmers from 46 communities in Calakmul Biosphere Reserve in Mexico and Maya Biosphere Reserve in Guatemala. Farmers in the area of study have implemented ...


Benthic And Pelagic Pathways Of Methylmercury Bioaccumulation In Estuarine Food Webs Of The Northeast United States, Celia Y. Chen, Mark E. Borsuk, Deenie M. Bugge, Terill Hollweg Jan 2014

Benthic And Pelagic Pathways Of Methylmercury Bioaccumulation In Estuarine Food Webs Of The Northeast United States, Celia Y. Chen, Mark E. Borsuk, Deenie M. Bugge, Terill Hollweg

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Methylmercury (MeHg) is a contaminant of global concern that bioaccumulates and bioamagnifies in marine food webs. Lower trophic level fauna are important conduits of MeHg from sediment and water to estuarine and coastal fish harvested for human consumption. However, the sources and pathways of MeHg to these coastal fisheries are poorly known particularly the potential for transfer of MeHg from the sediment to biotic compartments. Across a broad gradient of human land impacts, we analyzed MeHg concentrations in food webs at ten estuarine sites in the Northeast US (from the Hackensack Meadowlands, NJ to the Gulf of Maine). MeHg concentrations ...