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2014

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Ua1c11/55 Gordon Wilson Photo Collection, Wku Archives Dec 2014

Ua1c11/55 Gordon Wilson Photo Collection, Wku Archives

WKU Archives Collection Inventories

Photographs taken by and of Gordon Wilson.


Identifying Glioblastoma Gene Networks Based On Hypergeometric Test Analysis, Vasileios Stathias, Chiara Pastori, Tess Z. Griffin, Ricardo Komotar, Jennifer L. Clarke, Ming Zhang, Nagi G. Ayad Dec 2014

Identifying Glioblastoma Gene Networks Based On Hypergeometric Test Analysis, Vasileios Stathias, Chiara Pastori, Tess Z. Griffin, Ricardo Komotar, Jennifer L. Clarke, Ming Zhang, Nagi G. Ayad

Faculty Publications, Department of Statistics

Patient specific therapy is emerging as an important possibility for many cancer patients. However, to identify such therapies it is essential to determine the genomic and transcriptional alterations present in one tumor relative to control samples. This presents a challenge since use of a single sample precludes many standard statistical analysis techniques. We reasoned that one means of addressing this issue is by comparing transcriptional changes in one tumor with those observed in a large cohort of patients analyzed by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). To test this directly, we devised a bioinformatics pipeline to identify differentially expressed genes in ...


The Status Of Fishes In The Missouri River, Nebraska: Shoal Chub (Macrhybopsis Hyostoma), Sturgeon Chub (M. Gelida), Sicklefin Chub (M. Meeki), Silver Chub (M. Storeriana), Flathead Chub (Platygobio Gracilis), Plains Minnow (Hybognathus Placitus), Western Silvery Minnow (H. Argyritis), And Brassy Minnow (H. Hankinsoni), Kirk D. Steffensen, Dane A. Shuman, Sam Stukel Dec 2014

The Status Of Fishes In The Missouri River, Nebraska: Shoal Chub (Macrhybopsis Hyostoma), Sturgeon Chub (M. Gelida), Sicklefin Chub (M. Meeki), Silver Chub (M. Storeriana), Flathead Chub (Platygobio Gracilis), Plains Minnow (Hybognathus Placitus), Western Silvery Minnow (H. Argyritis), And Brassy Minnow (H. Hankinsoni), Kirk D. Steffensen, Dane A. Shuman, Sam Stukel

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

Throughout the past century, the Missouri River has been highly modified which has negatively affected the native fish community. Previous research quantified the reduction of several native Cyprinidae species and made several recommendations to aid in recovery. However, these recommendations were not implemented. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to assess the current population trends of eight native cyprinid species and develop the current management objectives. Over 335,000 fish were collected from the Missouri River along Nebraska’s eastern border with mini-fyke nets and otter trawls from 2003 to 2012. Target Cyprinidae species consisted of less than five ...


The Status Of Fishes In The Missouri River, Nebraska: Sauger (Sander Canadensis), Kirk D. Steffensen, Sam Stukel, Dane A. Shuman Dec 2014

The Status Of Fishes In The Missouri River, Nebraska: Sauger (Sander Canadensis), Kirk D. Steffensen, Sam Stukel, Dane A. Shuman

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

Early fisheries investigation of the Missouri River fish community indicated that Sauger were common throughout Nebraska, including all major Missouri River tributaries. However due to many factors, their current range is restricted to the Missouri River and the lower reaches of a few tributaries. Hesse (1994) recommended listing Sauger as a state endangered species but this recommendation was never implemented. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to reevaluate the current population status of Sauger in the Missouri River along Nebraska’s border. Over 2,100 Sauger have been captured from the Missouri River along Nebraska’s eastern border since ...


Fish Sound Production In The Presence Of Harmful Algal Blooms In The Eastern Gulf Of Mexico, Carrie C. Wall, Chad Lembke, Chuanmin Hu, David A. Mann Dec 2014

Fish Sound Production In The Presence Of Harmful Algal Blooms In The Eastern Gulf Of Mexico, Carrie C. Wall, Chad Lembke, Chuanmin Hu, David A. Mann

University Libraries Open Access Fund Supported Publications

This paper presents the first known research to examine sound production by fishes during harmful algal blooms (HABs). Most fish sound production is species-specific and repetitive, enabling passive acoustic monitoring to identify the distribution and behavior of soniferous species. Autonomous gliders that collect passive acoustic data and environmental data concurrently can be used to establish the oceanographic conditions surrounding sound-producing organisms. Three passive acoustic glider missions were conducted off west-central Florida in October 2011, and September and October 2012. The deployment period for two missions was dictated by the presence of red tide events with the glider path specifically set ...


Fish Sound Production In The Presence Of Harmful Algal Blooms In The Eastern Gulf Of Mexico, Carrie C. Wall, Chad Lembke, Chuanmin Hu, David A. Mann Dec 2014

Fish Sound Production In The Presence Of Harmful Algal Blooms In The Eastern Gulf Of Mexico, Carrie C. Wall, Chad Lembke, Chuanmin Hu, David A. Mann

Marine Science Faculty Publications

This paper presents the first known research to examine sound production by fishes during harmful algal blooms (HABs). Most fish sound production is species-specific and repetitive, enabling passive acoustic monitoring to identify the distribution and behavior of soniferous species. Autonomous gliders that collect passive acoustic data and environmental data concurrently can be used to establish the oceanographic conditions surrounding sound-producing organisms. Three passive acoustic glider missions were conducted off west-central Florida in October 2011, and September and October 2012. The deployment period for two missions was dictated by the presence of red tide events with the glider path specifically set ...


Flow Cytometry For Rapid Detection Of Salmonella Spp. In Seed Sprouts, Bledar Bisha, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher Dec 2014

Flow Cytometry For Rapid Detection Of Salmonella Spp. In Seed Sprouts, Bledar Bisha, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Seed sprouts (alfalfa, mung bean, radish, etc.) have been implicated in several recent national and international outbreaks of salmonellosis. Conditions used for sprouting are also conducive to the growth of Salmonella. As a result, this pathogen can quickly grow to very high cell densities during sprouting without any detectable organoleptic impact. Seed sprouts typically also support heavy growth (~108 CFU g−1) of a heterogeneous microbiota consisting of various bacterial, yeast, and mold species, often dominated by non-pathogenic members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. This heavy background may present challenges to the detection of Salmonella, especially if this pathogen is present ...


U.S. Drought Monitor, December 30, 2014, Brad Rippey Dec 2014

U.S. Drought Monitor, December 30, 2014, Brad Rippey

US Ag in Drought Archive

Drought map of U.S. for December 30, 2014 (12/30/14) plus: U.S. crop areas experiencing drought (map), Approximate percentage of crop located in drought, by state (bar graph), Percent of crop area located in drought, past 52 weeks (line graph) for: Corn, Soybeans, Hay, Cattle, Winter wheat.


American Society Of Parasitologists Newsletter, V. 36, Nos. 3-4, Fall-Winter 2014, Scott Lyell Gardner Dec 2014

American Society Of Parasitologists Newsletter, V. 36, Nos. 3-4, Fall-Winter 2014, Scott Lyell Gardner

Newsletter of the American Society of Parasitologists

No abstract provided.


Evolutionary Genomics And Adaptive Evolution Of The Hedgehog Gene Family (Shh, Ihh And Dhh) In Vertebrates, Joana Pereira, Warren E. Johnson, Stephen J. O'Brien, Erich D. Jarvis, Guojie Zhang, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Vitor Vasconcelos, Agostinho Antunes Dec 2014

Evolutionary Genomics And Adaptive Evolution Of The Hedgehog Gene Family (Shh, Ihh And Dhh) In Vertebrates, Joana Pereira, Warren E. Johnson, Stephen J. O'Brien, Erich D. Jarvis, Guojie Zhang, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Vitor Vasconcelos, Agostinho Antunes

Biology Faculty Articles

The Hedgehog (Hh) gene family codes for a class of secreted proteins composed of two active domains that act as signalling molecules during embryo development, namely for the development of the nervous and skeletal systems and the formation of the testis cord. While only one Hh gene is found typically in invertebrate genomes, most vertebrates species have three (Sonic hedgehog – Shh; Indian hedgehog – Ihh; and Desert hedgehog – Dhh), each with different expression patterns and functions, which likely helped promote the increasing complexity of vertebrates and their successful diversification. In this study, we used comparative genomic and adaptive evolutionary analyses to ...


Modelling Non-Euclideanmovement And Landscape Connectivity In Highly Structured Ecological Networks, Chris Sutherland, Angela Fuller, J. Royle Dec 2014

Modelling Non-Euclideanmovement And Landscape Connectivity In Highly Structured Ecological Networks, Chris Sutherland, Angela Fuller, J. Royle

Environmental Conservation Faculty Publication Series

1. Movement is influenced by landscape structure, configuration and geometry, but measuring distance as perceived by animals poses technical and logistical challenges. Instead, movement is typically measured using Euclidean distance, irrespective of location or landscape structure, or is based on arbitrary cost surfaces. Arecently proposed extension of spatial capture-recapture (SCR)models resolves this issue using spatial encounterhistories of individuals to calculate least-cost paths (ecological distance: Ecology, 94, 2013, 287) thereby relaxingthe Euclidean assumption. We evaluate the consequences of not accounting for movement heterogeneity whenestimating abundance in highly structured landscapes, and demonstrate the value of this approach for estimatingbiologically realistic space-use ...


Integration Of Developmental And Environmental Signals Via A Polyadenylation Factor In Arabidopsis, Man Liu, Ruqiang Xu, Carrie Merrill, Liwei Hong, Carol Von Lanken, Arthur G. Hunt, Qingshun Q. Li Dec 2014

Integration Of Developmental And Environmental Signals Via A Polyadenylation Factor In Arabidopsis, Man Liu, Ruqiang Xu, Carrie Merrill, Liwei Hong, Carol Von Lanken, Arthur G. Hunt, Qingshun Q. Li

Plant and Soil Sciences Faculty Publications

The ability to integrate environmental and developmental signals with physiological responses is critical for plant survival. How this integration is done, particularly through posttranscriptional control of gene expression, is poorly understood. Previously, it was found that the 30 kD subunit of Arabidopsis cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (AtCPSF30) is a calmodulin-regulated RNA-binding protein. Here we demonstrated that mutant plants (oxt6) deficient in AtCPSF30 possess a novel range of phenotypes--reduced fertility, reduced lateral root formation, and altered sensitivities to oxidative stress and a number of plant hormones (auxin, cytokinin, gibberellic acid, and ACC). While the wild-type AtCPSF30 (C30G) was able to ...


Winter Activity Of Bats In Southeastern Nebraska: An Acoustic Study, Jeremy A. White, Brett R. Andersen, Hans W. Otto, Cliff A. Lemen, Patricia W. Freeman Dec 2014

Winter Activity Of Bats In Southeastern Nebraska: An Acoustic Study, Jeremy A. White, Brett R. Andersen, Hans W. Otto, Cliff A. Lemen, Patricia W. Freeman

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

Many North American bats are active outside hibernacula in winter, but no information on winter activity has been reported for Nebraska. We recorded activity of bats during two winters (December-February 2012-2013 and 2013-2014) at one location in southeastern Nebraska with an acoustic detector. Bats were active throughout both winters and temperature at sunset was a good predictor of bat activity. Red bats (Lasiurus borealis) were active at our site in early December but were not recorded later in winter. We suspect these individuals were late migrants to more southern wintering sites. Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) were recorded in each ...


Baseline Survey For Street Dogs In Guam, John D. Boone Dec 2014

Baseline Survey For Street Dogs In Guam, John D. Boone

Stray and Feral Animal Populations Collection

As is the case for many inhabited islands in Pacific region, dogs are common, including freeroaming street dogs that may be owned or unowned. Reproduction among dogs is largely unchecked, and many owned dogs do not receive adequate levels of basic care in the home or veterinary care when needed. For all of these reasons, Humane Society International (HSI) is exploring options for improving the management of street dog populations and promoting better treatment and care of all dogs on Guam and on the nearby islands of Rota and Saipan. One of the initial steps in this process was to ...


Dna-Guided Establishment Of Canonical Nucleosome Patterns In A Eukaryotic Genome, Leslie Y. Beh, Noam Kaplan, Manuel M. Muller, Tom W. Muir, Laura F. Landweber Dec 2014

Dna-Guided Establishment Of Canonical Nucleosome Patterns In A Eukaryotic Genome, Leslie Y. Beh, Noam Kaplan, Manuel M. Muller, Tom W. Muir, Laura F. Landweber

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

A conserved hallmark of eukaryotic chromatin architecture is the distinctive array of well-positioned nucleosomes downstream of transcription start sites (TSS). Recent studies indicate that trans-acting factors establish this stereotypical array. Here, we present the first genome-wide in vitro and in vivo nucleosome maps for the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. In contrast with previous studies in yeast, we find that the stereotypical nucleosome array is preserved in the in vitro reconstituted map, which is governed only by the DNA sequence preferences of nucleosomes. Remarkably, this average in vitro pattern arises from the presence of subsets of nucleosomes, rather than the whole array ...


High Rates Of Hiv Seroconversion In Pregnant Women And Low Reported Levels Of Hiv Testing Among Male Partners In Southern Mozambique: Results From A Mixed Methods Study, Caroline De Schacht, Heather J. Hoffman, Nedio Mabunda, Carlota Lucas, Catharina L. Alons, Ana Madonela, Adolfo Vubil, Orlando C. Ferreira, Nurbai Calu, Iolanda S. Santos, Ilesh V. Jani, Laura Guay Dec 2014

High Rates Of Hiv Seroconversion In Pregnant Women And Low Reported Levels Of Hiv Testing Among Male Partners In Southern Mozambique: Results From A Mixed Methods Study, Caroline De Schacht, Heather J. Hoffman, Nedio Mabunda, Carlota Lucas, Catharina L. Alons, Ana Madonela, Adolfo Vubil, Orlando C. Ferreira, Nurbai Calu, Iolanda S. Santos, Ilesh V. Jani, Laura Guay

Genomics and Precision Medicine Faculty Publications

Introduction

Prevention of acute HIV infections in pregnancy is required to achieve elimination of pediatric HIV. Identification and support for HIV negative pregnant women and their partners, particularly serodiscordant couples, are critical. A mixed method study done in Southern Mozambique estimated HIV incidence during pregnancy, associated risk factors and factors influencing partner's HIV testing.

Methods

Between April 2008 and November 2011, a prospective cohort of 1230 HIV negative pregnant women was followed during pregnancy. A structured questionnaire, HIV testing, and collection of dried blood spots were done at 2–3 scheduled visits. HIV incidence rates were calculated by repeat ...


Real-Time Kinetic Studies Of Bacillus Subtilis Oxalate Decarboxylase And Ceriporiopsis Subvermispora Oxalate Oxidase Using Luminescent Oxygen Sensor, Laura Molina, Thomas Goodall, Umar Twahir, Ellen W. Moomaw Dec 2014

Real-Time Kinetic Studies Of Bacillus Subtilis Oxalate Decarboxylase And Ceriporiopsis Subvermispora Oxalate Oxidase Using Luminescent Oxygen Sensor, Laura Molina, Thomas Goodall, Umar Twahir, Ellen W. Moomaw

Faculty Publications

Oxalate decarboxylase (OxDC), an enzyme of the bicupin superfamily, catalyzes the decomposition of oxalate into carbon dioxide and formate at an optimal pH of 4.3 in the presence of oxygen. However, about 0.2% of all reactions occur through an oxidase mechanism that consumes oxygen while producing two equivalents of carbon dioxide and one equivalent of hydrogen peroxide. The kinetics of oxidase activity were studied by measuring the consumption of dissolved oxygen over time using a luminescent oxygen sensor. We describe the implementation of and improvements to the oxygen consumption assay. The oxidase activity of wild type OxDC was ...


Functional And Developmental Identification Of A Molecular Subtype Of Brain Serotonergic Neuron Specialized To Regulate Breathing Dynamics, Rachael D. Brust, Andrea E. Corcoran, George B. Richerson, Eugene Nattie, Susan M. Dymecki Dec 2014

Functional And Developmental Identification Of A Molecular Subtype Of Brain Serotonergic Neuron Specialized To Regulate Breathing Dynamics, Rachael D. Brust, Andrea E. Corcoran, George B. Richerson, Eugene Nattie, Susan M. Dymecki

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Serotonergic neurons modulate behavioral and physiological responses from aggression and anxiety to breathing and thermoregulation. Disorders involving serotonin (5HT) dysregulation are commensurately heterogeneous and numerous. We hypothesized that this breadth in functionality derives in part from a developmentally determined substructure of distinct subtypes of 5HT neurons each specialized to modulate specific behaviors. By manipulating developmentally defined subgroups one by one chemogenetically, we find that the Egr2-Pet1 subgroup is specialized to drive increased ventilation in response to carbon dioxide elevation and acidosis. Furthermore, this subtype exhibits intrinsic chemosensitivity and modality-specific projections-increasing firing during hypercapnic acidosis and selectively projecting to respiratory chemosensory ...


Spatial Clustering Of Physical Activity And Obesity In Relation To Built Environment Factors Among Older Women In Three U.S. States, Kosuke Tamura, Robin C. Puett, Jaime E. Hart, Heather A. Starnes, Francine Laden, Philip J. Troped Dec 2014

Spatial Clustering Of Physical Activity And Obesity In Relation To Built Environment Factors Among Older Women In Three U.S. States, Kosuke Tamura, Robin C. Puett, Jaime E. Hart, Heather A. Starnes, Francine Laden, Philip J. Troped

Kinesiology

Background

Identifying spatial clusters of chronic diseases has been conducted over the past several decades. More recently these approaches have been applied to physical activity and obesity. However, few studies have investigated built environment characteristics in relation to these spatial clusters. This study’s aims were to detect spatial clusters of physical activity and obesity, examine whether the geographic distribution of covariates affects clusters, and compare built environment characteristics inside and outside clusters.

Methods

In 2004, Nurses’ Health Study participants from California, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania completed survey items on physical activity (N = 22,599) and weight-status (N = 19,448). The ...


Molecular Targets Of Antihypertensive Peptides: Understanding The Mechanisms Of Action Based On The Pathophysiology Of Hypertension, Kaustav Majumder, Jianping Wu Dec 2014

Molecular Targets Of Antihypertensive Peptides: Understanding The Mechanisms Of Action Based On The Pathophysiology Of Hypertension, Kaustav Majumder, Jianping Wu

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

There is growing interest in using functional foods or nutraceuticals for the prevention and treatment of hypertension or high blood pressure. Although numerous preventive and therapeutic pharmacological interventions are available on the market, unfortunately, many patients still suffer from poorly controlled hypertension. Furthermore, most pharmacological drugs, such as inhibitors of angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE), are often associated with significant adverse effects. Many bioactive food compounds have been characterized over the past decades that may contribute to the management of hypertension; for example, bioactive peptides derived from various food proteins with antihypertensive properties have gained a great deal of attention. Some ...


Distinct Gene Signatures In Aortic Tissue From Apoe-/- Mice Exposed To Pathogens Or Western Diet, Carolyn D. Kramer, Ellen O. Weinberg, Adam C. Gower, Xianbao He, Samrawit Mekasha, Connie Slocum, Lea M. Beaulieu, Lee Wetzler, Yuriy Alekseyev, Frank C. Gibson Iii, Jane E. Freedman, Robin R. Ingalls, Caroline A. Genco Dec 2014

Distinct Gene Signatures In Aortic Tissue From Apoe-/- Mice Exposed To Pathogens Or Western Diet, Carolyn D. Kramer, Ellen O. Weinberg, Adam C. Gower, Xianbao He, Samrawit Mekasha, Connie Slocum, Lea M. Beaulieu, Lee Wetzler, Yuriy Alekseyev, Frank C. Gibson Iii, Jane E. Freedman, Robin R. Ingalls, Caroline A. Genco

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease characterized by inflammation and accumulation of lipids in vascular tissue. Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) and Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cp) are associated with inflammatory atherosclerosis in humans. Similar to endogenous mediators arising from excessive dietary lipids, these Gram-negative pathogens are pro-atherogenic in animal models, although the specific inflammatory/atherogenic pathways induced by these stimuli are not well defined. In this study, we identified gene expression profiles that characterize P. gingivalis, C. pneumoniae, and Western diet (WD) at acute and chronic time points in aortas of Apolipoprotein E (ApoE-/-) mice.

RESULTS: At the chronic time point, we observed ...


Ontogenetic Scaling Patterns And Functional Anatomy Of The Pelvic Limb Musculature In Emus (Dromaius Novaehollandiae), Luis P. Lamas, Russell P. Main, John R. Hutchinson Dec 2014

Ontogenetic Scaling Patterns And Functional Anatomy Of The Pelvic Limb Musculature In Emus (Dromaius Novaehollandiae), Luis P. Lamas, Russell P. Main, John R. Hutchinson

Department of Basic Medical Sciences Faculty Publications

Emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) are exclusively terrestrial, bipedal and cursorial ratites with some similar biomechanical characteristics to humans. Their growth rates are impressive, as their body mass increases eighty-fold from hatching to adulthood whilst maintaining the same mode of locomotion throughout life. These ontogenetic characteristics stimulate biomechanical questions about the strategies that allow emus to cope with their rapid growth and locomotion, which can be partly addressed via scaling (allometric) analysis of morphology. In this study we have collected pelvic limb anatomical data (muscle architecture, tendon length, tendon mass and bone lengths) and calculated muscle physiological cross sectional area (PCSA) and ...


Gut Microbiota-Derived Short-Chain Fatty Acids, T Cells, And Inflammation, Chang Kim, Jeongho Park, Myunghoo Kim Dec 2014

Gut Microbiota-Derived Short-Chain Fatty Acids, T Cells, And Inflammation, Chang Kim, Jeongho Park, Myunghoo Kim

Department of Comparative Pathobiology Faculty Publications

T cells are central players in the regulation of adaptive immunity and immune tolerance. In the periphery, T cell differentiation for maturation and effector function is regulated by a number of factors. Various factors such as antigens, co-stimulation signals, and cytokines regulate T cell differentiation into functionally specialized effector and regulatory T cells. Other factors such as nutrients, micronutrients, nuclear hormones and microbial products provide important environmental cues for T cell differentiation. A mounting body of evidence indicates that the microbial metabolites short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have profound effects on T cells and directly and indirectly regulate their differentiation. We ...


Effects Of Barbell Deadlift Training On Submaximal Motor Unit Firing Rates For The Vastus Lateralis And Rectus Femoris, Matt S. Stock, Brennan J. Thompson Dec 2014

Effects Of Barbell Deadlift Training On Submaximal Motor Unit Firing Rates For The Vastus Lateralis And Rectus Femoris, Matt S. Stock, Brennan J. Thompson

Kinesiology and Health Science Faculty Publications

Previous investigations that have studied motor unit firing rates following strength training have been limited to small muscles, isometric training, or interventions involving exercise machines. We examined the effects of ten weeks of supervised barbell deadlift training on motor unit firing rates for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris during a 50% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) assessment. Twentyfour previously untrained men (mean age 524 years) were randomly assigned to training (n515) or control (n59) groups. Before and following the intervention, the subjects performed isometric testing of the right knee extensors while bipolar surface electromyographic signals were detected from the two ...


Mtorc2 Is Required For Rit-Mediated Oxidative Stress Resistance, Weikang Cai, Douglas A. Andres Dec 2014

Mtorc2 Is Required For Rit-Mediated Oxidative Stress Resistance, Weikang Cai, Douglas A. Andres

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Rit, a member of the Ras family of GTPases, has been shown to promote cell survival in response to oxidative stress, in part by directing an evolutionarily conserved p38 MAPK-Akt survival cascade. Aberrant Rit signaling has recently been implicated as a driver mutation in human cancer, adding importance to the characterization of critical Rit effector pathways. However, the mechanism by which Rit-p38 signaling regulated Akt activity was unknown. Here, we identify mTORC2 as a critical downstream mediator of Rit-dependent survival signaling in response to reactive oxygen species (ROS) stress. Rit interacts with Sin1 (MAPKAP1), and Rit loss compromises ROS-dependent mTORC2 ...


Indole Alkaloids From Fischerella Inhibit Vertebrate Development In The Zebrafish (Danio Rerio) Embryo Model, Katherine Walton, Miroslav Gantar, Patrick D.L. Gibbs, Michael C. Schmale, John P. Berry Dec 2014

Indole Alkaloids From Fischerella Inhibit Vertebrate Development In The Zebrafish (Danio Rerio) Embryo Model, Katherine Walton, Miroslav Gantar, Patrick D.L. Gibbs, Michael C. Schmale, John P. Berry

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry

Cyanobacteria are recognized producers of toxic or otherwise bioactive metabolite associated, in particular, with so-called “harmful algal blooms” (HABs) and eutrophication of freshwater systems. In the present study, two apparently teratogenic indole alkaloids from a freshwater strain of the widespread cyanobacterial genus, Fischerella (Stigonemataceae), were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation, specifically using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo, as a model of vertebrate development. The two alkaloids include the previously known 12-epi-hapalindole H isonitrile (1), and a new nitrile-containing variant, 12-epi-ambiguine B nitrile (2). Although both compounds were toxic to developing embryos, the former compound was shown to be relatively more potent ...


Broadband In Nebraska: Current Landscape And Recommendations, Nebraska Information Technology Commission, Nebraska Broadband Initiative, Nebraska Public Service Commission, University Of Nebraska-Lincoln, Nitc Community Council, Nebraska Department Of Economic Development, Aim Dec 2014

Broadband In Nebraska: Current Landscape And Recommendations, Nebraska Information Technology Commission, Nebraska Broadband Initiative, Nebraska Public Service Commission, University Of Nebraska-Lincoln, Nitc Community Council, Nebraska Department Of Economic Development, Aim

Publications of the Rural Futures Institute

N ebraska’s broadband vision is that residents, businesses, government entities, commu-nity partners, and visitors have access to affordable broadband service and have the necessary skills to effectively utilize broadband technologies.

Objectives

To increase economic development opportunities, create good-paying jobs, at-tract and retain population, overcome the barriers of distance, and enhance qual-ity of life in Nebraska by stimulating the continuing deployment of broadband technologies which meet the need for increasing connection speeds.

To increase digital literacy and the widespread adoption of broadband technolo-gies in business, agriculture, health care, education, government and by individu-al Nebraskans.

Goals

The following goals and targets ...


Metalloproteinase-Dependent Tlr2 Ectodomain Shedding Is Involved In Soluble Toll-Like Receptor 2 (Stlr2) Production, Patricia Langjahr, David Diaz-Jimenez, Marjorie De La Fuente, Estefhany Rubio, Douglas T. Golenbock, Francisca C. Bronfman, Rodrigo Quera, Maria-Julieta Gonzalez, Marcela A. Hermoso Dec 2014

Metalloproteinase-Dependent Tlr2 Ectodomain Shedding Is Involved In Soluble Toll-Like Receptor 2 (Stlr2) Production, Patricia Langjahr, David Diaz-Jimenez, Marjorie De La Fuente, Estefhany Rubio, Douglas T. Golenbock, Francisca C. Bronfman, Rodrigo Quera, Maria-Julieta Gonzalez, Marcela A. Hermoso

Open Access Articles

Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, a type I membrane receptor that plays a key role in innate immunity, recognizes conserved molecules in pathogens, and triggering an inflammatory response. It has been associated with inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Soluble TLR2 (sTLR2) variants have been identified in human body fluids, and the TLR2 ectodomain can negatively regulate TLR2 activation by behaving as a decoy receptor. sTLR2 generation does not involve alternative splicing mechanisms, indicating that this process might involve a post-translational modification of the full-length receptor; however, the specific mechanism has not been studied. Using CD14+ peripheral human monocytes and the THP-1 monocytic ...


Investigating The Links Between Ozone And Organic Aerosol Chemistry In A Biomass Burning Plume From A Prescribed Fire In California Chaparral, M. J. Alvarado, C. R. Lonsdale, Robert Yokelson, S. K. Akagi, H. Coe, J. S. Craven, E. V. Fischer, G. R. Mcmeeking, J. H. Seinfeld, T. Soni, J. W. Taylor, D. R. Weise, C. E. Wold Dec 2014

Investigating The Links Between Ozone And Organic Aerosol Chemistry In A Biomass Burning Plume From A Prescribed Fire In California Chaparral, M. J. Alvarado, C. R. Lonsdale, Robert Yokelson, S. K. Akagi, H. Coe, J. S. Craven, E. V. Fischer, G. R. Mcmeeking, J. H. Seinfeld, T. Soni, J. W. Taylor, D. R. Weise, C. E. Wold

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Within minutes after emission, rapid, complex photochemistry within a biomass burning smoke plume can cause large changes in the concentrations of ozone (O3) and organic aerosol (OA). Being able to understand and simulate this rapid chemical evolution under a wide variety of conditions is a critical part of forecasting the impact of these fires on air quality, atmospheric composition, and climate. Here we use version 2.1 of the Aerosol Simulation Program (ASP) to simulate the evolution of O3 and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) within a young biomass burning smoke plume from the Williams prescribed burn in chaparral ...


In The Social Amoeba, Dictyostelium Discoideum , Density, Not Farming Status, Determines Predatory Success On Unpalatable Escherichia Coli, Susanne Disalvo, Debra A. Brock, Jeff Smith, David C. Queller, Joan E. Strassmann Dec 2014

In The Social Amoeba, Dictyostelium Discoideum , Density, Not Farming Status, Determines Predatory Success On Unpalatable Escherichia Coli, Susanne Disalvo, Debra A. Brock, Jeff Smith, David C. Queller, Joan E. Strassmann

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

Background
The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum interacts with bacteria in a variety of ways. It is a predator of bacteria, can be infected or harmed by bacteria, and can form symbiotic associations with bacteria. Some clones of D. discoideum function as primitive farmers because they carry bacteria through the normally sterile D. discoideum social stage, then release them after dispersal so the bacteria can proliferate and be harvested. Some farmer-associated bacteria produce small molecules that promote host farmer growth but inhibit the growth of non-farmer competitors. To test whether the farmers’ tolerance is specific or extends to other growth inhibitory ...