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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

High Intralocus Variability And Interlocus Recombination Promote Immunological Diversity In A Minimal Major Histocompatibility System, Anthony B. Wilson, Camilla M. Whittington, Angela Bahr Dec 2014

High Intralocus Variability And Interlocus Recombination Promote Immunological Diversity In A Minimal Major Histocompatibility System, Anthony B. Wilson, Camilla M. Whittington, Angela Bahr

Publications and Research

Background: The genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC/MH) have attracted considerable scientific interest due to their exceptional levels of variability and important function as part of the adaptive immune system. Despite a large number of studies on MH class II diversity of both model and non-model organisms, most research has focused on patterns of genetic variability at individual loci, failing to capture the functional diversity of the biologically active dimeric molecule. Here, we take a systematic approach to the study of MH variation, analyzing patterns of genetic variation at MH class IIα and IIβ loci of the seahorse ...


Sensory Abnormalities In Focal Hand Dystonia And Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation, Angelo Quartarone, Vincenzo Rizzo, Carmen Terranova, Demetrio Milardi, Daniele Bruschetta, Maria Felice Ghilardi, Paolo Girlanda Dec 2014

Sensory Abnormalities In Focal Hand Dystonia And Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation, Angelo Quartarone, Vincenzo Rizzo, Carmen Terranova, Demetrio Milardi, Daniele Bruschetta, Maria Felice Ghilardi, Paolo Girlanda

Publications and Research

It has been proposed that synchronous and convergent afferent input arising from repetitive motor tasks may play an important role in driving the maladaptive cortical plasticity seen in focal hand dystonia (FHD).This hypothesis receives support from several sources. First, it has been reported that in subjects with FHD, paired associative stimulation produces an abnormal increase in corticospinal excitability, which was not confined to stimulated muscles. These findings provide support for the role of excessive plasticity in FHD. Second, the genetic contribution to the dystonias is increasingly recognized indicating that repetitive, stereotyped afferent inputs may lead to late-onset dystonia, such ...


The Insulin/Igf Signaling Regulators Cytohesin/Grp-1 And Pip5k/Ppk-1 Modulate Susceptibility To Excitotoxicity In C. Elegans, Nazila Tehrani, John Del Rosario, Moises Dominguez, Robert Kalb, Itzhak Mano Nov 2014

The Insulin/Igf Signaling Regulators Cytohesin/Grp-1 And Pip5k/Ppk-1 Modulate Susceptibility To Excitotoxicity In C. Elegans, Nazila Tehrani, John Del Rosario, Moises Dominguez, Robert Kalb, Itzhak Mano

Publications and Research

During ischemic stroke, malfunction of excitatory amino acid transporters and reduced synaptic clearance causes accumulation of Glutamate (Glu) and excessive stimulation of postsynaptic neurons, which can lead to their degeneration by excitotoxicity. The balance between cell death-promoting (neurotoxic) and survival-promoting (neuroprotective) signaling cascades determines the fate of neurons exposed to the excitotoxic insult. The evolutionary conserved Insulin/IGF Signaling (IIS) cascade can participate in this balance, as it controls cell stress resistance in nematodes and mammals. Blocking the IIS cascade allows the transcription factor FoxO3/DAF-16 to accumulate in the nucleus and activate a transcriptional program that protects cells from ...


Activity-Based Therapies For Repair Of The Corticospinal System Injured During Development, Kathleen M. Friel, Preston T. J. A. Williams, Najet Serradj, Samit Chakrabarty, John H. Martin Nov 2014

Activity-Based Therapies For Repair Of The Corticospinal System Injured During Development, Kathleen M. Friel, Preston T. J. A. Williams, Najet Serradj, Samit Chakrabarty, John H. Martin

Publications and Research

This review presents the mechanistic underpinnings of corticospinal tract (CST) development, derived from animal models, and applies what has been learned to inform neural activity-based strategies for CST repair.We first discuss that, in normal development, early bilateral CST projections are later refined into a dense crossed CST projection, with maintenance of sparse ipsilateral projections. Using a novel mouse genetic model, we show that promoting the ipsilateral CST projection produces mirror movements, common in hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP), suggesting that ipsilateral CST projections become maladaptive when they become abnormally dense and strong.We next discuss howanimal studies support a developmental ...


Freeze Dried Blueberry Powder Fortification Improves The Quality Of Gluten Free Snacks, Sikha Bhaduri, Khursheed Navder Nov 2014

Freeze Dried Blueberry Powder Fortification Improves The Quality Of Gluten Free Snacks, Sikha Bhaduri, Khursheed Navder

Publications and Research

Since Quinoa flour is an excellent source of natural antioxidant compounds and blueberries are rich in polyphenolic anthocyanins, this study was undertaken to improve and evaluate the quality of two blueberry powder fortified gluten free products, muffins and cookies. Control products were made with 100% Rice flour and Rice flour was replaced by 50% and 100% Quinoa flour to prepare muffin and cookies. 10% freeze dried Blueberry powder was used for fortification. Effect of flour replacements and Blueberry fortification on moisture content, water activity, antioxidant value, shelf life, sensory quality and textural properties were studied. Blueberry fortification improved the shelf ...


Design And Development Of A Linked Open Data-Based Health Information Representation And Visualization System: Potentials And Preliminary Evaluation, Binyam Tilahun, Tomi Kauppinen, Carsten Keßler, Fleur Fritz Oct 2014

Design And Development Of A Linked Open Data-Based Health Information Representation And Visualization System: Potentials And Preliminary Evaluation, Binyam Tilahun, Tomi Kauppinen, Carsten Keßler, Fleur Fritz

Publications and Research

Background: Healthcare organizations around the world are challenged by pressures to reduce cost, improve coordination and outcome, and provide more with less. This requires effective planning and evidence-based practice by generating important information from available data. Thus, flexible and user-friendly ways to represent, query, and visualize health data becomes increasingly important. International organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO) regularly publish vital data on priority health topics that can be utilized for public health policy and health service development. However, the data in most portals is displayed in either Excel or PDF formats, which makes information discovery and reuse ...


Revisiting The Vanishing Refuge Model Of Diversification, Robert Damasceno, Maria L. Strangas, Ana C. Carnaval, Miguel T. Rodrigues, Craig Moritz Oct 2014

Revisiting The Vanishing Refuge Model Of Diversification, Robert Damasceno, Maria L. Strangas, Ana C. Carnaval, Miguel T. Rodrigues, Craig Moritz

Publications and Research

Much of the debate around speciation and historical biogeography has focused on the role of stabilizing selection on the physiological (abiotic) niche, emphasizing how isolation and vicariance, when associated with niche conservatism, may drive tropical speciation. Yet, recent re-emphasis on the ecological dimensions of speciation points to a more prominent role of divergent selection in driving genetic, phenotypic, and niche divergence. The vanishing refuge model (VRM), first described by Vanzolini and Williams (1981), describes a process of diversification through climate-driven habitat fragmentation and exposure to new environments, integrating both vicariance and divergent selection. This model suggests that dynamic climates and ...


Focal Cortical Thickness Correlates Of Exceptional Memory Training In Vedic Priests, Giridhar P. Kalamangalam, Timothy M. Ellmore Oct 2014

Focal Cortical Thickness Correlates Of Exceptional Memory Training In Vedic Priests, Giridhar P. Kalamangalam, Timothy M. Ellmore

Publications and Research

The capacity for semantic memory—the ability to acquire and store knowledge of the world—is highly developed in the human brain. In particular, semantic memory assimilated through an auditory route may be a uniquely human capacity. One method of obtaining neurobiological insight into memory mechanisms is through the study of experts. In this work, we study a group of Hindu Vedic priests, whose religious training requires the memorization of vast tracts of scriptural texts through an oral tradition, recalled spontaneously during a lifetime of subsequent spiritual practice. We demonstrate focal increases of cortical thickness in regions of the left ...


Family Of Flp Peptides In Caenorhabditis Elegans And Related Nematodes, Chris Li, Kyuhyung Kim Oct 2014

Family Of Flp Peptides In Caenorhabditis Elegans And Related Nematodes, Chris Li, Kyuhyung Kim

Publications and Research

Neuropeptides regulate all aspects of behavior in multicellular organisms. Because of their ability to act at long distances, neuropeptides can exert their effects beyond the conventional synaptic connections, thereby adding an intricate layer of complexity to the activity of neural networks. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a large number of neuropeptide genes that are expressed throughout the nervous system have been identified.The actions of these peptides supplement the synaptic connections of the 302 neurons, allowing for fine tuning of neural networks and increasing the ways in which behaviors can be regulated. In this review, we focus on a large ...


Effects Of Extreme Climate Events On Tea (Camellia Sinensis) Functional Quality Validate Indigenous Farmer Knowledge And Sensory Preferences In Tropical China, Selena Ahmed, John Richard Stepp, Colin M. Orians, Timothy S. Griffin, Corene Matyas, Albert Robbat, Sean Cash, Dayuan Xue, Chunlin Long, Uchenna Unachukwu, Sarabeth Buckley, Edward J. Kennelly Oct 2014

Effects Of Extreme Climate Events On Tea (Camellia Sinensis) Functional Quality Validate Indigenous Farmer Knowledge And Sensory Preferences In Tropical China, Selena Ahmed, John Richard Stepp, Colin M. Orians, Timothy S. Griffin, Corene Matyas, Albert Robbat, Sean Cash, Dayuan Xue, Chunlin Long, Uchenna Unachukwu, Sarabeth Buckley, Edward J. Kennelly

Publications and Research

Climate change is impacting agro-ecosystems, crops, and farmer livelihoods in communities worldwide. While it is well understood that more frequent and intense climate events in many areas are resulting in a decline in crop yields, the impact on crop quality is less acknowledged, yet it is critical for food systems that benefit both farmers and consumers through high-quality products. This study examines tea (Camellia sinensis; Theaceae), the world’s most widely consumed beverage after water, as a study system to measure effects of seasonal precipitation variability on crop functional quality and associated farmer knowledge, preferences, and livelihoods. Sampling was conducted ...


High Local Diversity Of Trypanosoma In A Common Bat Species, And Implications For The Biogeography And Taxonomy Of The T. Cruzi Clade, Veronika M. Cottontail, Elisabeth K. V. Kalko, Iain Cottontail, Nele Wellinghausen, Marco Tschapka, Susan L. Perkins, C. Miguel Pinto Sep 2014

High Local Diversity Of Trypanosoma In A Common Bat Species, And Implications For The Biogeography And Taxonomy Of The T. Cruzi Clade, Veronika M. Cottontail, Elisabeth K. V. Kalko, Iain Cottontail, Nele Wellinghausen, Marco Tschapka, Susan L. Perkins, C. Miguel Pinto

Publications and Research

The Trypanosoma cruzi clade is a group of parasites that comprises T. cruzi sensu lato and its closest relatives. Although several species have been confirmed phylogenetically to belong to this clade, it is uncertain how many more species can be expected to belong into this group. Here, we present the results of a survey of trypanosome parasites of the bat Artibeus jamaicensis from the Panama´ Canal Zone, an important seed disperser. Using a genealogical species delimitation approach, the Poisson tree processes (PTP), we tentatively identified five species of trypanosomes – all belonging to the T. cruzi clade. A small monophyletic group ...


Sticking Your Neck Out And Burying The Hatchet: What Idioms Reveal About Embodied Simulation, Natalie A. Kacinik Sep 2014

Sticking Your Neck Out And Burying The Hatchet: What Idioms Reveal About Embodied Simulation, Natalie A. Kacinik

Publications and Research

Idioms are used in conventional language twice as frequently as metaphors, but most research, particularly recent work on embodiment has focused on the latter. However, idioms have the potential to significantly deepen our understanding of embodiment because their meanings cannot be derived from their component words. To determine whether sensorimotor states could activate idiomatic meaning, participants were instructed to engage in postures/actions reflecting various idioms (e.g.,sticking your neck out) relative to non-idiomatic control postures/actions while reading and responding to statements designed to assess idiomatic meaning. The results showed that statements were generally more strongly endorsed after ...


Hemispheric Asymmetry In New Neurons In Adulthood Is Associated With Vocal Learning And Auditory Memory, Shuk C. Tsoi, Utsav V. Aiya, Kobi D. Wasner, Mimi L. Phan, Carolyn L. Pytte, David S. Vicario Sep 2014

Hemispheric Asymmetry In New Neurons In Adulthood Is Associated With Vocal Learning And Auditory Memory, Shuk C. Tsoi, Utsav V. Aiya, Kobi D. Wasner, Mimi L. Phan, Carolyn L. Pytte, David S. Vicario

Publications and Research

Many brain regions exhibit lateral differences in structure and function, and also incorporate new neurons in adulthood, thought to function in learning and in the formation of new memories. However, the contribution of new neurons to hemispheric differences in processing is unknown. The present study combines cellular, behavioral, and physiological methods to address whether 1) new neuron incorporation differs between the brain hemispheres, and 2) the degree to which hemispheric lateralization of new neurons correlates with behavioral and physiological measures of learning and memory. The songbird provides a model system for assessing the contribution of new neurons to hemispheric specialization ...


Dynamically-Expressed Prion-Like Proteins Form A Cuticle In The Pharynx Of Caenorhabditis Elegans, Julia B. George-Raizen, Keith R. Shockley, Nicholas F. Trojanowski, Annesia L. Lamb, David M. Raizen Sep 2014

Dynamically-Expressed Prion-Like Proteins Form A Cuticle In The Pharynx Of Caenorhabditis Elegans, Julia B. George-Raizen, Keith R. Shockley, Nicholas F. Trojanowski, Annesia L. Lamb, David M. Raizen

Publications and Research

In molting animals, a cuticular extracellular matrix forms the first barrier to infection and other environmental insults. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans there are two types of cuticle: a wellstudied collagenous cuticle lines the body, and a poorly-understood chitinous cuticle lines the pharynx. In the posterior end of the pharynx is the grinder, a tooth-like cuticular specialization that crushes food prior to transport to the intestine for digestion. We here show that the grinder increases in size only during the molt. To gain molecular insight into the structure of the grinder and pharyngeal cuticle, we performed a microarray analysis to ...


Atypical Multisensory Integration In Niemann-Pick Type C Disease – Towards Potential Biomarkers, Gizely N. Andrade, Sophie Molholm, John S. Butler, Alice Brown Brandwein, Steven U. Walkley, John J. Foxe Sep 2014

Atypical Multisensory Integration In Niemann-Pick Type C Disease – Towards Potential Biomarkers, Gizely N. Andrade, Sophie Molholm, John S. Butler, Alice Brown Brandwein, Steven U. Walkley, John J. Foxe

Publications and Research

Background: Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) is an autosomal recessive disease in which cholesterol and glycosphingolipids accumulate in lysosomes due to aberrant cell-transport mechanisms. It is characterized by progressive and ultimately terminal neurological disease, but both pre-clinical studies and direct human trials are underway to test the safety and efficacy of cholesterol clearing compounds, with good success already observed in animal models. Key to assessing the effectiveness of interventions in patients, however, is the development of objective neurobiological outcome measures. Multisensory integration mechanisms present as an excellent candidate since they necessarily rely on the fidelity of long-range neural connections between the ...


Nesting Behaviour Influences Species-Specific Gas Exchange Across Avian Eggshells, Steven J. Portugal, Golo Maurer, Gavin H. Thomas, Mark E. Hauber, Tomáš Grim, Phillip Cassey Sep 2014

Nesting Behaviour Influences Species-Specific Gas Exchange Across Avian Eggshells, Steven J. Portugal, Golo Maurer, Gavin H. Thomas, Mark E. Hauber, Tomáš Grim, Phillip Cassey

Publications and Research

Carefully controlled gas exchange across the eggshell is essential for the development of the avian embryo. Water vapour conductance (GH2O) across the shell, typically measured as mass loss during incubation, has been demonstrated to optimally ensure the healthy development of the embryo while avoiding desiccation. Accordingly, eggs exposed to sub-optimal gas exchange have reduced hatching success. We tested the association between eggshell GH2O and putative life-history correlates of adult birds, ecological nest parameters and physical characteristics of the egg itself to investigate how variation in GH2O has evolved to maintain optimal water loss across a diverse set of nest environments ...


Acid-Base Properties Of The Adsorption Of Synthetic Dyes From Solutions, Rada-Mayya Kostadinova, Gabriela Sikorska, Michelle Naidoo, Abel E. Navarro Sep 2014

Acid-Base Properties Of The Adsorption Of Synthetic Dyes From Solutions, Rada-Mayya Kostadinova, Gabriela Sikorska, Michelle Naidoo, Abel E. Navarro

Publications and Research

The presence of synthetic dyes is often underestimated in environmental protection. However, it has been demonstrated the impact of colored compounds in ecology and human health. Green tea (GT) and peppermint (PM) tea bag wastes were used as potential adsorbents of dyes from aqueous solutions to evaluate the effect of pH on the adsorption. Basic yellow 57, basic blue 99 and crystal violet were chosen as model dyes due to their widespread use in the industry. Dye solutions at different pH values were placed in contact with the adsorbents in batch experiments at room temperature. Results indicate that crystal violet ...


Long-Term Cre-Mediated Retrograde Tagging Of Neurons Using A Novel Recombinant Pseudorabies Virus, Hysell V. Oviedo, Hassasna K. Oyibo, Petr Znamenskiy, Lynn W. Enquist, Anthony M. Zador Sep 2014

Long-Term Cre-Mediated Retrograde Tagging Of Neurons Using A Novel Recombinant Pseudorabies Virus, Hysell V. Oviedo, Hassasna K. Oyibo, Petr Znamenskiy, Lynn W. Enquist, Anthony M. Zador

Publications and Research

Brain regions contain diverse populations of neurons that project to different long-range targets. The study of these subpopulations in circuit function and behavior requires a toolkit to characterize and manipulate their activity in vivo. We have developed a novel set of reagents based on Pseudorabies Virus (PRV) for efficient and long-term genetic tagging of neurons based on their projection targets. By deleting IE180, the master transcriptional regulator in the PRV genome, we have produced a mutant virus capable of infection and transgene expression in neurons but unable to replicate in or spread from those neurons. IE180-null mutants showed no cytotoxicity ...


Rejection Positivity Predicts Trial-To-Trial Reaction Times In An Auditory Selective Attention Task: A Computational Analysis Of Inhibitory Control, Sufen Chen, Robert D. Melara Aug 2014

Rejection Positivity Predicts Trial-To-Trial Reaction Times In An Auditory Selective Attention Task: A Computational Analysis Of Inhibitory Control, Sufen Chen, Robert D. Melara

Publications and Research

A series of computer simulations using variants of a formal model of attention (Melara and Algom, 2003) probed the role of rejection positivity (RP), a slow-wave electroencephalographic (EEG) component, in the inhibitory control of distraction. Behavioral and EEG data were recorded as participants performed auditory selective attention tasks. Simulations that modulated processes of distractor inhibition accounted well for reaction-time (RT) performance, whereas those that modulated target excitation did not. A model that incorporated RP from actual EEG recordings in estimating distractor inhibition was superior in predicting changes in RT as a function of distractor salience across conditions. A model that ...


Review: Zinc’S Functional Significance In The Vertebrate Retina, Harris Ripps, Richard L. Chappell Jul 2014

Review: Zinc’S Functional Significance In The Vertebrate Retina, Harris Ripps, Richard L. Chappell

Publications and Research

This review covers a broad range of topics related to the actions of zinc on the cells of the vertebrate retina. Much of this review relies on studies in which zinc was applied exogenously, and therefore the results, albeit highly suggestive, lack physiologic significance. This view stems from the fact that the concentrations of zinc used in these studies may not be encountered under the normal circumstances of life. This caveat is due to the lack of a zinc-specific probe with which to measure the concentrations of Zn2+ that may be released from neurons or act upon them. However, a ...


Anthocyanin Characterization, Total Phenolic Quantification And Antioxidant Features Of Some Chilean Edible Berry Extracts, Anghel Brito, Carlos Areche, Beatriz Sepúlveda, Edward J. Kennelly, Mario J. Simirgiotis Jul 2014

Anthocyanin Characterization, Total Phenolic Quantification And Antioxidant Features Of Some Chilean Edible Berry Extracts, Anghel Brito, Carlos Areche, Beatriz Sepúlveda, Edward J. Kennelly, Mario J. Simirgiotis

Publications and Research

The anthocyanin composition and HPLC fingerprints of six small berries endemic of the VIII region of Chile were investigated using high resolution mass analysis for the first time (HR-ToF-ESI-MS). The antioxidant features of the six endemic species were compared, including a variety of blueberries which is one of the most commercially significant berry crops in Chile. The anthocyanin fingerprints obtained for the fruits were compared and correlated with the antioxidant features measured by the bleaching of the DPPH radical, the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), the superoxide anion scavenging activity assay (SA), and total content of phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanins ...


Collective Behaviour Without Collective Order In Wild Swarms Of Midges, Alessandro Attanasi, Andrea Cavagna, Lorenzo Del Castello, Irene Giardina, Stefania Melillo, Leonardo Parisi, Oliver Pohl, Bruno Rossaro, Edward Shen, Edmondo Silvestri, Massimilano Viale Jul 2014

Collective Behaviour Without Collective Order In Wild Swarms Of Midges, Alessandro Attanasi, Andrea Cavagna, Lorenzo Del Castello, Irene Giardina, Stefania Melillo, Leonardo Parisi, Oliver Pohl, Bruno Rossaro, Edward Shen, Edmondo Silvestri, Massimilano Viale

Publications and Research

Collective behaviour is a widespread phenomenon in biology, cutting through a huge span of scales, from cell colonies up to bird flocks and fish schools. The most prominent trait of collective behaviour is the emergence of global order: individuals synchronize their states, giving the stunning impression that the group behaves as one. In many biological systems, though, it is unclear whether global order is present. A paradigmatic case is that of insect swarms, whose erratic movements seem to suggest that group formation is a mere epiphenomenon of the independent interaction of each individual with an external landmark. In these cases ...


Increasing Maternal Or Post-Weaning Folic Acid Alters Gene Expression And Moderately Changes Behavior In The Offspring, Subit Barua, Kathryn K. Chadman, Salomon Kuizon, Diego Buenaventura, Nathan W. Stapley, Felicia Ruocco, Umme Begum, Sara R. Guariglia, W. Ted Brown, Mohamad Junaid Jul 2014

Increasing Maternal Or Post-Weaning Folic Acid Alters Gene Expression And Moderately Changes Behavior In The Offspring, Subit Barua, Kathryn K. Chadman, Salomon Kuizon, Diego Buenaventura, Nathan W. Stapley, Felicia Ruocco, Umme Begum, Sara R. Guariglia, W. Ted Brown, Mohamad Junaid

Publications and Research

Background: Studies have indicated that altered maternal micronutrients and vitamins influence the development of newborns and altered nutrient exposure throughout the lifetime may have potential health effects and increased susceptibility to chronic diseases. In recent years, folic acid (FA) exposure has significantly increased as a result of mandatory FA fortification and supplementation during pregnancy. Since FA modulates DNA methylation and affects gene expression, we investigated whether the amount of FA ingested during gestation alters gene expression in the newborn cerebral hemisphere, and if the increased exposure to FA during gestation and throughout the lifetime alters behavior in C57BL/6J mice ...


Case Study: From Gummy Bears To Celery Stalks: Diffusion And Osmosis, Kevin M. Bonney Jul 2014

Case Study: From Gummy Bears To Celery Stalks: Diffusion And Osmosis, Kevin M. Bonney

Publications and Research

The article describes a case study which interperses information on diffusion and osmosis with content review and knowledge application questions, as well as simple experiment that can be conducted without the use of a laboratory. Topics discussed include biological membranes, the use of gummy bears to demonstrate osmosis and osmosis in animal cells. Also mentioned is osmosis in plants. It notes that the case study was developed for use in an introductory undergraduate biology course.


Behavioral And Neuroanatomical Abnormalities In Pleiotrophin Knockout Mice, Jason W. Krellman, Henry H. Ruiz, Veronica A. Marciano, Bracha Mondrow, Susan D. Croll Jul 2014

Behavioral And Neuroanatomical Abnormalities In Pleiotrophin Knockout Mice, Jason W. Krellman, Henry H. Ruiz, Veronica A. Marciano, Bracha Mondrow, Susan D. Croll

Publications and Research

Pleiotrophin (PTN) is an extracellular matrix-associated protein with neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects that is involved in a variety of neurodevelopmental processes. Data regarding the cognitive-behavioral and neuroanatomical phenotype of pleiotrophin knockout (KO) mice is limited. The purpose of this study was to more fully characterize this phenotype, with emphasis on the domains of learning and memory, cognitive-behavioral flexibility, exploratory behavior and anxiety, social behavior, and the neuronal and vascular microstructure of the lateral entorhinal cortex (EC). PTN KOs exhibited cognitive rigidity, heightened anxiety, behavioral reticence in novel contexts and novel social interactions suggestive of neophobia, and lamina-specific decreases in neuronal ...


Naïve Hosts Of Avian Brood Parasites Accept Foreign Eggs, Whereas Older Hosts Fine-Tune Foreign Egg Discrimination During Laying, Csaba Moskát, Miklós Bán, Mark E. Hauber Jun 2014

Naïve Hosts Of Avian Brood Parasites Accept Foreign Eggs, Whereas Older Hosts Fine-Tune Foreign Egg Discrimination During Laying, Csaba Moskát, Miklós Bán, Mark E. Hauber

Publications and Research

Background: Many potential hosts of social parasites recognize and reject foreign intruders, and reduce or altogether escape the negative impacts of parasitism. The ontogenetic basis of whether and how avian hosts recognize their own and the brood parasitic eggs remains unclear. By repeatedly parasitizing the same hosts with a consistent parasitic egg type, and contrasting the responses of naïve and older breeders, we studied ontogenetic plasticity in the rejection of foreign eggs by the great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus), a host species of the common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus).

Results: In response to experimental parasitism before the onset of laying, first ...


Comparative Population Assessments Of Nautilus Sp. In The Philippines, Australia, Fiji, And American Samoa Using Baited Remote Underwater Video Systems, Gregory Jeff Barord, Frederick Dooley, Andrew Dunstan, Anthony Ilano, Karen N. Keister, Heike Neumeister, Thomas Preuss, Shane Schoepfer, Peter D. Ward Jun 2014

Comparative Population Assessments Of Nautilus Sp. In The Philippines, Australia, Fiji, And American Samoa Using Baited Remote Underwater Video Systems, Gregory Jeff Barord, Frederick Dooley, Andrew Dunstan, Anthony Ilano, Karen N. Keister, Heike Neumeister, Thomas Preuss, Shane Schoepfer, Peter D. Ward

Publications and Research

The extant species of Nautilus and Allonautilus (Cephalopoda) inhabit fore-reef slope environments across a large geographic area of the tropical western Pacific and eastern Indian Oceans. While many aspects of their biology and behavior are now well-documented, uncertainties concerning their current populations and ecological role in the deeper, fore-reef slope environments remain. Given the historical to current day presence of nautilus fisheries at various locales across the Pacific and Indian Oceans, a comparative assessment of the current state of nautilus populations is critical to determine whether conservation measures are warranted. We used baited remote underwater video systems (BRUVS) to make ...


Motor Cortex Electrical Stimulation Augments Sprouting Of The Corticospinal Tract And Promotes Recovery Of Motor Function, Jason B. Carmel, John H. Martin Jun 2014

Motor Cortex Electrical Stimulation Augments Sprouting Of The Corticospinal Tract And Promotes Recovery Of Motor Function, Jason B. Carmel, John H. Martin

Publications and Research

The corticospinal system—with its direct spinal pathway, the corticospinal tract (CST) – is the primary system for controlling voluntary movement. Our approach to CST repair after injury in mature animals was informed by our finding that activity drives establishment of connections with spinal cord circuits during postnatal development. After incomplete injury in maturity, spared CST circuits sprout, and partially restore lost function. Our approach harnesses activity to augment this injury-dependent CST sprouting and to promote function. Lesion of the medullary pyramid unilaterally eliminates all CST axons from one hemisphere and allows examination of CST sprouting from the unaffected hemisphere. We ...


Impedimetric Detection Of Mutant P53 Biomarker-Driven Metastatic Breast Cancers Under Hyposmotic Pressure, Menglu Shi, Nataly Shtraizent, Alla Polotskaia, Jill Bargonetti, Hiroshi Matsui Jun 2014

Impedimetric Detection Of Mutant P53 Biomarker-Driven Metastatic Breast Cancers Under Hyposmotic Pressure, Menglu Shi, Nataly Shtraizent, Alla Polotskaia, Jill Bargonetti, Hiroshi Matsui

Publications and Research

In cancer cells, the oncogenic mutant p53 (mtp53) protein is present at high levels and gain-of-function (GOF) activities with more expression of mtp53 proteins contribute to tumor growth and metastasis. Robust analytical approaches that probe the degree of metastasis of cancer cells in connection with the mtp53 activity will be extremely useful not only for establishing a better cancer prognosis but also understanding the fundamental mechanism of mtp53 oncogenic action. Here we assessed the influence of mtp53 in breast cancers to the mechanical property of breast cancer cells. Recently, ovarian and kidney cancer cell lines have been shown to have ...


Early Back-To-Africa Migration Into The Horn Of Africa, Jason A. Hodgson, Connie J. Mulligan, Ali Al-Meeri, Ryan L. Raaum Jun 2014

Early Back-To-Africa Migration Into The Horn Of Africa, Jason A. Hodgson, Connie J. Mulligan, Ali Al-Meeri, Ryan L. Raaum

Publications and Research

Genetic studies have identified substantial non-African admixture in the Horn of Africa (HOA). In the most recent genomic studies, this non-African ancestry has been attributed to admixture with Middle Eastern populations during the last few thousand years. However, mitochondrial and Y chromosome data are suggestive of earlier episodes of admixture. To investigate this further, we generated new genome-wide SNP data for a Yemeni population sample and merged these new data with published genome-wide genetic data from the HOA and a broad selection of surrounding populations. We used multidimensional scaling and ADMIXTURE methods in an exploratory data analysis to develop hypotheses ...