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2014

Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

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Articles 1 - 30 of 472

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Status Of Fishes In The Missouri River, Nebraska: Shoal Chub (Macrhybopsis Hyostoma), Sturgeon Chub (M. Gelida), Sicklefin Chub (M. Meeki), Silver Chub (M. Storeriana), Flathead Chub (Platygobio Gracilis), Plains Minnow (Hybognathus Placitus), Western Silvery Minnow (H. Argyritis), And Brassy Minnow (H. Hankinsoni), Kirk D. Steffensen, Dane A. Shuman, Sam Stukel Dec 2014

The Status Of Fishes In The Missouri River, Nebraska: Shoal Chub (Macrhybopsis Hyostoma), Sturgeon Chub (M. Gelida), Sicklefin Chub (M. Meeki), Silver Chub (M. Storeriana), Flathead Chub (Platygobio Gracilis), Plains Minnow (Hybognathus Placitus), Western Silvery Minnow (H. Argyritis), And Brassy Minnow (H. Hankinsoni), Kirk D. Steffensen, Dane A. Shuman, Sam Stukel

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

Throughout the past century, the Missouri River has been highly modified which has negatively affected the native fish community. Previous research quantified the reduction of several native Cyprinidae species and made several recommendations to aid in recovery. However, these recommendations were not implemented. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to assess the current population trends of eight native cyprinid species and develop the current management objectives. Over 335,000 fish were collected from the Missouri River along Nebraska’s eastern border with mini-fyke nets and otter trawls from 2003 to 2012. Target Cyprinidae species consisted of less than five ...


The Status Of Fishes In The Missouri River, Nebraska: Sauger (Sander Canadensis), Kirk D. Steffensen, Sam Stukel, Dane A. Shuman Dec 2014

The Status Of Fishes In The Missouri River, Nebraska: Sauger (Sander Canadensis), Kirk D. Steffensen, Sam Stukel, Dane A. Shuman

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

Early fisheries investigation of the Missouri River fish community indicated that Sauger were common throughout Nebraska, including all major Missouri River tributaries. However due to many factors, their current range is restricted to the Missouri River and the lower reaches of a few tributaries. Hesse (1994) recommended listing Sauger as a state endangered species but this recommendation was never implemented. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to reevaluate the current population status of Sauger in the Missouri River along Nebraska’s border. Over 2,100 Sauger have been captured from the Missouri River along Nebraska’s eastern border since ...


The Fine-Scale Habitat Use Of Risso’S Dolphins Off Bardsey Island, Cardigan Bay (Uk), Marijke N. De Boer, Sonja Eisfeld, Mark P. Simmonds Dec 2014

The Fine-Scale Habitat Use Of Risso’S Dolphins Off Bardsey Island, Cardigan Bay (Uk), Marijke N. De Boer, Sonja Eisfeld, Mark P. Simmonds

Mark P. Simmonds, OBE

The main objectives of this study were (1) to estimate the population size of Risso’s dolphins off Bardsey Island using mark-recapture techniques (De Boer et al., 2013); and (2) to study habitat-use in relation to fine-scale oceanographic features. This work provides preliminary information on the habitat-use of Risso’s dolphins and will benefit future studies, along with the development of effective conservation measures for this species throughout the region.


Photo-Identification Methods Reveal Seasonal And Long-Term Site-Fidelity Of Risso’S Dolphins (Grampus Griseus) In Shallow Waters (Cardigan Bay, Wales), Marijke N. De Boer, Josephine Clark, Mardik F. Leopold, Mark P. Simmonds, Peter J.H. Reijnders Dec 2014

Photo-Identification Methods Reveal Seasonal And Long-Term Site-Fidelity Of Risso’S Dolphins (Grampus Griseus) In Shallow Waters (Cardigan Bay, Wales), Marijke N. De Boer, Josephine Clark, Mardik F. Leopold, Mark P. Simmonds, Peter J.H. Reijnders

Mark P. Simmonds, OBE

A photo-identification study on Risso’s dolphins was carried out off Bardsey Island in Wales (July to September, 1997-2007). Their local abundance was estimated using two different analytical techniques: 1) mark-recapture of well-marked dolphins using a “closed-population” model; and 2) a census technique based on the total number of iden-tified individual dolphins sighted over the study period. The mark-recapture estimates of 121 (left sides; 64 - 178, 95% CI; CV 0.24) and 145 dolphins (right sides; 78 - 213, 95% CI; CV 0.24) closely matched the census technique estimates (population size of 90 - 151). It was found that the dolphins ...


Marine Noise Pollution - Increasing Recognition But Need For More Practical Action, Mark P. Simmonds, Sarah J. Dolman, Michael Jasny, E. C. M. Parsons, Lindy Weilgart, Andrew J. Wright, Russell Leaper Dec 2014

Marine Noise Pollution - Increasing Recognition But Need For More Practical Action, Mark P. Simmonds, Sarah J. Dolman, Michael Jasny, E. C. M. Parsons, Lindy Weilgart, Andrew J. Wright, Russell Leaper

Mark P. Simmonds, OBE

Over the last two decades, marine noise pollution has become increasingly recognized as an issue of major significance. The issue has become a primary focus of marine mammal research, but is also of concern to the public and policy makers. The result has been efforts involving a variety of disciplines, and relevant legislation and associated guidance are now in place in many parts of the world. Most current mitigation efforts are directed at reducing the risk of injury from exposure to intense noise, although the effectiveness of such mitigation measures in terms of risk reduction has rarely been quantified. Longer-term ...


Cetaceans And Marine Debris: The Great Unknown, Mark Peter Simmonds Dec 2014

Cetaceans And Marine Debris: The Great Unknown, Mark Peter Simmonds

Mark P. Simmonds, OBE

Plastics and other marine debris have been found in the gastrointestinal tracts of cetaceans, including instances where large quantities of material have been found that are likely to cause impairment to digestive processes and other examples, where other morbidity and even death have resulted. In some instances, debris may have been ingested as a result of the stranding process and, in others, it may have been ingested when feeding. Those species that are suction or “ram” feeders may be most at risk. There is also evidence of entanglement of cetaceans in marine debris. However, it is usually difficult to distinguish ...


Interactions Between Short-Beaked Common Dolphin (Delphinus Delphis) And The Winter Pelagic Pair-Trawl Fishery Ff Southwest England (Uk), Marijke N. De Boer, James T. Saulino, Mardik F. Leopold, Peter J.H. Reijnders, Mark P. Simmonds Dec 2014

Interactions Between Short-Beaked Common Dolphin (Delphinus Delphis) And The Winter Pelagic Pair-Trawl Fishery Ff Southwest England (Uk), Marijke N. De Boer, James T. Saulino, Mardik F. Leopold, Peter J.H. Reijnders, Mark P. Simmonds

Mark P. Simmonds, OBE

During offshore and onshore studies (2004 to 2009), the interactions between pair-trawls and short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) were studied to better understand the impact of bycatch. A ‘hotspot’ area where pair-trawls overlapped with high dolphin abundance was identified. We made comparisons between boat-based data collected in absence and presence of pair-trawlers. The relative abundance and group-size of dolphins was significantly higher in the presence of pair-trawlers. Dolphins were observed associating with towing and hauling procedures. Significantly, more carcasses occurred in areas with hauling-activity than those without. Body-temperatures obtained from carcasses found near operating pair-trawlers indicated that bycatch mostly occurred ...


The Influence Of Topographic And Dynamic Cyclic Variables On The Distribution Of Small Cetaceans In A Shallow Coastal System, Marijke N. De Boer, Mark P. Simmonds, Peter J.H. Reijnders, Geert Aarts Dec 2014

The Influence Of Topographic And Dynamic Cyclic Variables On The Distribution Of Small Cetaceans In A Shallow Coastal System, Marijke N. De Boer, Mark P. Simmonds, Peter J.H. Reijnders, Geert Aarts

Mark P. Simmonds, OBE

The influence of topographic and temporal variables on cetacean distribution at a fine-scale is still poorly understood. To study the spatial and temporal distribution of harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena and the poorly known Risso’s dolphin Grampus griseus we carried out land-based observations from Bardsey Island (Wales, UK) in summer (2001–2007). Using Kernel analysis and Generalized Additive Models it was shown that porpoises and Risso’s appeared to be linked to topographic and dynamic cyclic variables with both species using different core areas (dolphins to the West and porpoises to the East off Bardsey). Depth, slope and aspect and ...


Registration Of ‘Newell’ Smooth Bromegrass, K P. Vogel, R B. Mitchell, B L. Waldron, M R. Haferkamp, J D. Berdahl, D D. Baltensperger, Galen Erickson, T J. Klopfenstein Dec 2014

Registration Of ‘Newell’ Smooth Bromegrass, K P. Vogel, R B. Mitchell, B L. Waldron, M R. Haferkamp, J D. Berdahl, D D. Baltensperger, Galen Erickson, T J. Klopfenstein

Green Canyon Environmental Research Area, Logan Utah

No abstract provided.


El Nino Southern Oscillation (Enso) Enhances Co2 Exchange Rates In Freshwater Marsh Ecosystems In The Florida Everglades, Sparkle L. Malone, Christina L. Staudhammer, Steven F. Oberbauer, Paulo Olivas, Michael G. Ryan, Jessica L. Schedlbauer, Henry W. Loescher, Gregory Starr Dec 2014

El Nino Southern Oscillation (Enso) Enhances Co2 Exchange Rates In Freshwater Marsh Ecosystems In The Florida Everglades, Sparkle L. Malone, Christina L. Staudhammer, Steven F. Oberbauer, Paulo Olivas, Michael G. Ryan, Jessica L. Schedlbauer, Henry W. Loescher, Gregory Starr

Biology Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


A Comparison Of Community Composition Analyses For The Assessment Of Responses To Wood-Ash Soil Amendment By Free-Living Nematodes, Paul B.L. George Dec 2014

A Comparison Of Community Composition Analyses For The Assessment Of Responses To Wood-Ash Soil Amendment By Free-Living Nematodes, Paul B.L. George

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Land-use changes can have far-reaching consequences for resident communities and ecosystem functioning. Developing appropriate assessment methods to observe and quantify this change is an important application of community ecology. Here I compare four methods of community assessment for free-living soil nematodes under forest harvesting disturbance and wood ash application. Neither morphological assessment (richness, abundance, diversity) nor molecular assessment (morpho-richness using T-RFLP) was responsive to experimental treatments. Trait-based approaches (Maturity Index (MI) and Body Size Spectra (BSS)) were more sensitive to forest harvest and wood-ash amendment treatments. The efficacy of these methods was also qualitatively compared. Of all methods, the BSS ...


How The Presence Of Plastic In The North Pacific Gyre Affects The Growth Of Thalassiosira Through Remote Sensing And Laboratory Replication, Jordynn Brennan, Hesham El-Askary Dec 2014

How The Presence Of Plastic In The North Pacific Gyre Affects The Growth Of Thalassiosira Through Remote Sensing And Laboratory Replication, Jordynn Brennan, Hesham El-Askary

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Through the use of remote sensing, we are able to determine the approximate location of the garbage patch in the North Pacific Gyre. Though remote sensing does not penetrate the surface of the ocean, monthly satellite images can be analyzed to determine the rate of growth or rate of decrease of certain parameters, such as atmospheric gases, phytoplankton, and dissolved organic matter. Over the past decade, data from the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (Giovanni program) has shown a significant increase in dissolved organic matter and chlorophyll a content in the area of the North Pacific Garbage ...


The Non-Lethal Effects Of Climate Change On The Territoriality Of Lottia Gigantea, Tracey Gunanto, Christina Chavez, Jessica Martinez, William G. Wright Dec 2014

The Non-Lethal Effects Of Climate Change On The Territoriality Of Lottia Gigantea, Tracey Gunanto, Christina Chavez, Jessica Martinez, William G. Wright

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

The intertidal zone has been described as ground zero for global warming. Here, the owl limpet, Lottia gigantea, adapted to the cool ocean temperatures, must withstand a few hours of baking sun during day-time low tides. This hardship is predicted to increase in frequency and severity in the future as the globe warms. Our research hypothesized that heat events compromise territorial behavior of L. gigantea. All observations and experiments were performed at Inspiration Point near Newport Beach, California. We measured the natural radiant temperature of tagged limpets during day-time low tides using a field-calibrated infrared “thermogun”. We also experimentally amplified ...


Differences In The Diversity Of Frogspecies Between Sierra Lloronaand El Valle, Panama, Kei Okabe Thurber Dec 2014

Differences In The Diversity Of Frogspecies Between Sierra Lloronaand El Valle, Panama, Kei Okabe Thurber

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Panama is home to the greatest diversity of species in all of Central America. It is home to 174 species of frogs, 35 of which are endemic to Panama. Frogs are a vital part of many ecosystems. They maintain insect populations and act as food sources for larger predators. Their job of maintaining insect populations is essential to curbing the spread of diseases. Additionally, scientists have found chemical compounds in the skin of frogs that can be used to treat pain and prevent infections. The main threat to the majority of frogs is the deadly fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), or ...


Comparing Disease Prevalence In Hard Corals At Four Different Reefs Near The Island Of Narganá In The Guna Yala Comarca Of Panamá, Connor Hinton Dec 2014

Comparing Disease Prevalence In Hard Corals At Four Different Reefs Near The Island Of Narganá In The Guna Yala Comarca Of Panamá, Connor Hinton

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Coral reefs harbor much of the world’s known marine biodiversity. For a number of reasons, coral reefs are becoming increasingly threatened. Large portions of the world’s reefs have already been lost, and the number of degrading reefs is constantly on the rise. One cause for the destruction of coral reefs are coral diseases, ultimately causing coral mortality. With the death of corals, a key species is lost, endangering the entire reef ecosystem. Documenting the presence of such diseases could be useful in assessing current reef health and ameliorating the growing threat of coral diseases. In this project, 18 ...


Evaluating The Progress Of A Mangrove Reforestation Project On Isla Galeta, Colon, Abigail Hope Outterson Dec 2014

Evaluating The Progress Of A Mangrove Reforestation Project On Isla Galeta, Colon, Abigail Hope Outterson

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Just off the Atlantic coast of Panama, a dynamic and self-renewing ecosystem takes advantage of the tropical climate and swampy conditions. Guarding Punta Galeta’s shores since before it was a U.S. navy base in the 1930’s, mangroves that have persisted here for centuries now draw scientists and tourists alike from all over the world to the Smithsonian Tropical Research Center. Once viewed as unproductive, distasteful environments, mangroves are increasingly recognized worldwide as critical habitat for endangered and commercially significant species, as well as for their ecological and aesthetic value. Uniquely adapted to survive in saline environments, mangroves ...


Wintering Ecology Of Adult North American Ospreys, Brian E. Washburn, Charles J. Henny, Mark S. Martell, Richard O. Bierregaard, Brian S. Dorr, Thomas J. Olexa Dec 2014

Wintering Ecology Of Adult North American Ospreys, Brian E. Washburn, Charles J. Henny, Mark S. Martell, Richard O. Bierregaard, Brian S. Dorr, Thomas J. Olexa

Brian S Dorr

North American Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) typically migrate long distances to their wintering grounds in the tropics. Beyond the general distribution of their wintering range (i.e., the Caribbean, South America, and Central America), very little is known about the wintering ecology of these birds. We used satellite telemetry to determine the duration of wintering period, to examine the characteristics of wintering areas used by Ospreys, and to quantify space use and activity patterns of wintering Ospreys. Adult Ospreys migrated to wintering sites and exhibited high wintering site fidelity among years. Overall, Ospreys wintered on river systems (50.6%) more than ...


Biogeochemical Hotspots In Forested Landscapes: The Role Of Vernal Pools In Denitrification And Organic Matter, Krista A. Capps, Regina L. Rancatti, Nathan Tomczyk, Aram J K Calhoun, Malcolm L. Hunter Jr. Dec 2014

Biogeochemical Hotspots In Forested Landscapes: The Role Of Vernal Pools In Denitrification And Organic Matter, Krista A. Capps, Regina L. Rancatti, Nathan Tomczyk, Aram J K Calhoun, Malcolm L. Hunter Jr.

Publications

Quantifying spatial and temporal heterogeneity in ecosystem processes presents a challenge for conserving ecosystem function across landscapes. In particular, many ecosystems contain small features that play larger roles in ecosystem processes than their size would indicate; thus, they may represent ‘‘hotspots’’ of activity relative to their surroundings. Biogeochemical hotspots are characterized as small features within a landscape that show comparatively high chemical reaction rates. In northeastern forests in North America, vernal pools are abundant, small features that typically fill in spring with snow melt and precipitation and dry by the end of summer. Ephemeral flooding alters soil moisture and the ...


Effects Of Water Column P-Availability And Litter Microbial Mediated Processes And Stoichiometry In Aquatic Systems, Ayla Smartt Dec 2014

Effects Of Water Column P-Availability And Litter Microbial Mediated Processes And Stoichiometry In Aquatic Systems, Ayla Smartt

Theses and Dissertations

Anthropogenic nutrient enrichment of aquatic ecosystems is prevalent and can have detrimental effects on biological condition. Many of these effects have been attributed directly or indirectly to changes in autotrophic processes. However, in detrital-based streams changes in course detrital stoichiometry and decomposition have been related to changes community structure and production at higher trophic levels highlighting the importance of considering the heterotrophic microbial responses to enrichment. Leaf litter stoichiometry, which is determined in part by the tree species source and the microbial communities that comprise the associated biofilm, is likely related to decomposition rates, but few studies examine these variables ...


Trophic Dynamic Interactions In A Temperate Karst River, Elizabeth Malloy Dec 2014

Trophic Dynamic Interactions In A Temperate Karst River, Elizabeth Malloy

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Surface streams in karst landscapes are often characterized by high nutrient levels due to incomplete filtration through series of innumerable, below-ground conduits. Seasonal growth of the filamentous alga, Cladophora, is typically associated with nutrient-rich waters. This research compared macroinvertebrate food web structure between riverine reaches with contrasting underlying karst topography, nutrient levels, and Cladophora cover during summer 2012 and autumn 2013. Recent work in these reaches found a high correlation between Cladophora cover and nutrient content, particularly nitrate. Four questions were addressed during this study: 1. Do longitudinal trends in algal and consumer δ13C values relate to decreased DIC availability ...


Identifying Topographic Controls Of Terrestrial Vegetation Using Remote Sensing Data In A Semiarid Mountain Watershed, Idaho, Usa, Ricci Loughridge Dec 2014

Identifying Topographic Controls Of Terrestrial Vegetation Using Remote Sensing Data In A Semiarid Mountain Watershed, Idaho, Usa, Ricci Loughridge

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Global climate change is a significant research focus area in contemporary Earth science. Changes in climatic patterns have already resulted in shifting energy flows with associated changes in hydrologic and ecologic systems. More specifically, changes in vegetation distribution and abundance are one of the most visible and potentially significant effects of a changing climatic regime. However, to monitor and predict future changes in vegetation, the initial conditions must be well characterized. This thesis examines the distribution of vegetation in a semiarid mountain watershed in three important ways: (1) quantifying the factors affecting the distribution of broad classes of vegetation at ...


Comparison Of Movement Patterns In Captive-Released Eastern Hellbenders (Cryptobranchus Alleganiensis Alleganiensis) Using Three Different Release Methods, Julie A. Boerner Dec 2014

Comparison Of Movement Patterns In Captive-Released Eastern Hellbenders (Cryptobranchus Alleganiensis Alleganiensis) Using Three Different Release Methods, Julie A. Boerner

Biology Theses

Eastern hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis) population size has declined throughout much of its range. Previous captive-release headstarting programs have resulted in minimal success, presumably due to movement of captive-released animals away from the release site. This study aimed to increase the success of hellbender headstarting programs by assessing the effectiveness of three release methods. Releases were conducted in two stream sites within the Allegheny River drainage. Streams were similar; however stream A contained a higher boulder density. In each site, three salamanders were placed individually in cages, three salamanders were placed individually in nest boxes with the entrance blocked with ...


Reconstructing Vegetation Past: Pre-Euro-American Vegetation For The Midwest Driftless Area, Usa, Monika E. Shea, Lisa A. Schulte, Brian J. Palik Dec 2014

Reconstructing Vegetation Past: Pre-Euro-American Vegetation For The Midwest Driftless Area, Usa, Monika E. Shea, Lisa A. Schulte, Brian J. Palik

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Historical reference conditions provide important context for creating ecological restoration and management plans. The U.S. 19th Century Public Land Survey (PLS) records provide extensive ecological information for constructing such reference conditions. We used PLS records to reconstruct pre-Euro-American tree species cover class and vegetation structure types for the Midwest Driftless Area, a 55,000 km2 region currently experiencing multiple conservation threats. We related cover classes to soil texture, topographic roughness, and distance from waterway. Our analyses revealed that the landscape of the Driftless Area was mostly composed of savanna, with two large patches of closed forest and smaller, scattered ...


Applications Of A New Geodata Crawler For Landscape Ecology: From Mapping Natural Stream Hydrology To Monitoring Endangered Beetles, Douglas Ryan Leasure Dec 2014

Applications Of A New Geodata Crawler For Landscape Ecology: From Mapping Natural Stream Hydrology To Monitoring Endangered Beetles, Douglas Ryan Leasure

Theses and Dissertations

An investigation of endangered American burying beetle (Nicrophorus americanus) ecology led to development of a Geodata Crawler with applications in eco-hydrology. Geodata Crawler includes a national GIS (geospatial information systems) database with layers that quantify climate, land cover, soils, human development, and other attributes of the biosphere. For user-locations in the continental United States, Geodata Crawler can rapidly tabulate site-specific statistics within automatically delineated sample areas: points, site radii, watersheds, and riparian zones, among others. Geodata Crawler supported a multi-scale analysis of N. americanus habitat at a military installation in western Arkansas to produce a Landsat-based monitoring tool. Royle's ...


Decontamination Protocols For Watercraft And Wildland Firefighting Equipment In Preventing The Spread Of Invasive Quagga (Dreissena Rostriformis Bugensis) And Zebra (Dreissena Polymorpha) Mussels, Ashlie Watters Dec 2014

Decontamination Protocols For Watercraft And Wildland Firefighting Equipment In Preventing The Spread Of Invasive Quagga (Dreissena Rostriformis Bugensis) And Zebra (Dreissena Polymorpha) Mussels, Ashlie Watters

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Quagga and zebra mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis and Dreissena polymorpha) are two invasive species introduced via ballast water discharged by large oceanic cargo ships to the North American Great Lakes in the late 1980s. Once established, the mussels spread quickly. In January 2007, D. rostriformis bugensis was discovered in Lake Mead, NV-AZ, and in that same year, mussels were confirmed further south on the Colorado River in Lakes Mojave and Havasu. Dreissenids clog water intake pipes, water filtration systems, and electric generating plants. The mussels also ruin boat motors, damage recreational equipment, and once established in the reservoir, routine maintenance ...


The North American Carbon Program Multi-Scale Synthesis And Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project – Part 2: Environmental Driver Data, Y. Wei, S. Liu, D. N. Huntzinger, A. M. Michalak, N. Viovy, W. M. Post, C. R. Schwalm, K. Schaefer, A. R. Jacobson, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Hanqin Tian, D. M. Ricciuto, R. B. Cook, J. Mao, X. Shi Dec 2014

The North American Carbon Program Multi-Scale Synthesis And Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project – Part 2: Environmental Driver Data, Y. Wei, S. Liu, D. N. Huntzinger, A. M. Michalak, N. Viovy, W. M. Post, C. R. Schwalm, K. Schaefer, A. R. Jacobson, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Hanqin Tian, D. M. Ricciuto, R. B. Cook, J. Mao, X. Shi

Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu

Ecosystems are important and dynamic components of the global carbon cycle, and terrestrial biospheric models (TBMs) are crucial tools in further understanding of how terrestrial carbon is stored and exchanged with the atmosphere across a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Improving TBM skills, and quantifying and reducing their estimation uncertainties, pose significant challenges. The Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP) is a formal multi-scale and multi-model intercomparison effort set up to tackle these challenges. The MsTMIP protocol prescribes standardized environmental driver data that are shared among model teams to facilitate model–model and model–observation comparisons. This ...


Book Review Of Conservation By Proxy: Indicator, Umbrella, Keystone, Flagship, And Other Surrogate Species, Tyler J. Grant, Peter G. Eyheralde, Melissa S. C. Telemeco, Amy L. Moorhouse, Rebecca A. Reeves, Karin Grimlund, Amy Podaril, Sarah E. Emeterio, Robert W. Klaver Dec 2014

Book Review Of Conservation By Proxy: Indicator, Umbrella, Keystone, Flagship, And Other Surrogate Species, Tyler J. Grant, Peter G. Eyheralde, Melissa S. C. Telemeco, Amy L. Moorhouse, Rebecca A. Reeves, Karin Grimlund, Amy Podaril, Sarah E. Emeterio, Robert W. Klaver

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

In the tallgrass prairies of the United States, the regal fritillary (Speyeria idalia) often is considered a reliable indicator of high quality remnant habitat. Purple milkweed (Asclepias purpurascens) is considered an indicator of high quality oak savanna habitat at the edge of prairie. Indicator and other surrogate species often are regarded as inescapable necessities in conservation, because limited budgets and the myriad pieces of an ecosystem render comprehensive monitoring impossible. Regardless of whether or not surrogate species are necessary, do they really work?


Using Migration Monitoring Data To Assess Bird Population Status And Behavior In A Changing Environment, Evan M. Adams Dec 2014

Using Migration Monitoring Data To Assess Bird Population Status And Behavior In A Changing Environment, Evan M. Adams

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Across the world, researchers use migration banding stations to document bird migration and study the phenomenon. In this dissertation, I focus on ways of analyzing bird migration banding data and the utility migrating birds as indicators of ecosystem health that make these monitoring efforts more useful to answering ecological questions and managing migratory species. In Chapter 1, we provide background on hierarchical modeling and an overview of our findings. In Chapter 2, we developed and validated new methods to estimate daily changes in migratory population size while controlling for changes in detectability due to environmental conditions. In Chapter 3, this ...


The Biophysical Link Between Climate, Water, And Vegetation In Bioenergy Agro-Ecosystems, Andy Vanloocke, Justin E. Bagley, Sarah C. Davis, Mir Zaman Hussain, Jesse Miller, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Carl J. Bernacchi Nov 2014

The Biophysical Link Between Climate, Water, And Vegetation In Bioenergy Agro-Ecosystems, Andy Vanloocke, Justin E. Bagley, Sarah C. Davis, Mir Zaman Hussain, Jesse Miller, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Carl J. Bernacchi

Andy VanLoocke

Land use change for bioenergy feedstocks is likely to intensify as energy demand rises simultaneously with increased pressure to minimize greenhouse gas emissions. Initial assessments of the impact of adopting bioenergy crops as a significant energy source have largely focused on the potential for bioenergy agroecosystems to provide global-scale climate regulating ecosystem services via biogeochemical processes. Such as those processes associated with carbon uptake, conversion, and storage that have the potential to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). However, the expansion of bioenergy crops can also lead to direct biophysical impacts on climate through water regulating services. Perturbations of processes ...


Trflp Analysis Of The Effect Of A Forest-To-Gap Ectone On Soil Microbial Diversity, Ronald Smith Nov 2014

Trflp Analysis Of The Effect Of A Forest-To-Gap Ectone On Soil Microbial Diversity, Ronald Smith

Master's Theses, Dissertations, Graduate Research and Major Papers Overview

To investigate how soil microbial diversity is influenced by the formation of an experimental edge-creating gap within a southern New England oak-hickory forest, I used a molecular fingerprinting technique known as terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP). Sequence variability in the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene in soil bacterial communities is detected by differences in the length and abundance of fragments produced by digesting PCR products amplified from rRNA genes. The different patterns observed are assumed to represent unique phylotypes.

How does the forest-gap ecotone influence soil bacterial diversity? Based on other studies, I hypothesized that the edge would contain ...