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2014

Cell and Developmental Biology

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Articles 1 - 30 of 655

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Chronic Exposure To Combined Carcinogens Enhances Breast Cell Carcinogenesis With Mesenchymal And Stem-Like Cell Properties., Lenora Pluchino, Hwa-Chain Wang Jan 2015

Chronic Exposure To Combined Carcinogens Enhances Breast Cell Carcinogenesis With Mesenchymal And Stem-Like Cell Properties., Lenora Pluchino, Hwa-Chain Wang

Lenora A. Pluchino, Ph.D.

Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer affecting women in North America and Europe. More than 85% of breast cancers are sporadic and attributable to long-term exposure to small quantities of multiple carcinogens. To understand how multiple carcinogens act together to induce cellular carcinogenesis, we studied the activity of environmental carcinogens 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), and dietary carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) using our breast cell carcinogenesis model. Our study revealed, for the first time, that combined NNK and B[a]P enhanced breast cell carcinogenesis chronically induced ...


Evolutionary Genomics And Adaptive Evolution Of The Hedgehog Gene Family (Shh, Ihh And Dhh) In Vertebrates, Joana Pereira, Warren E. Johnson, Stephen J. O'Brien, Erich D. Jarvis, Guojie Zhang, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Vitor Vasconcelos, Agostinho Antunes Dec 2014

Evolutionary Genomics And Adaptive Evolution Of The Hedgehog Gene Family (Shh, Ihh And Dhh) In Vertebrates, Joana Pereira, Warren E. Johnson, Stephen J. O'Brien, Erich D. Jarvis, Guojie Zhang, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Vitor Vasconcelos, Agostinho Antunes

Biology Faculty Articles

The Hedgehog (Hh) gene family codes for a class of secreted proteins composed of two active domains that act as signalling molecules during embryo development, namely for the development of the nervous and skeletal systems and the formation of the testis cord. While only one Hh gene is found typically in invertebrate genomes, most vertebrates species have three (Sonic hedgehog – Shh; Indian hedgehog – Ihh; and Desert hedgehog – Dhh), each with different expression patterns and functions, which likely helped promote the increasing complexity of vertebrates and their successful diversification. In this study, we used comparative genomic and adaptive evolutionary analyses to ...


Ontogenetic Scaling Patterns And Functional Anatomy Of The Pelvic Limb Musculature In Emus (Dromaius Novaehollandiae), Luis P. Lamas, Russell P. Main, John R. Hutchinson Dec 2014

Ontogenetic Scaling Patterns And Functional Anatomy Of The Pelvic Limb Musculature In Emus (Dromaius Novaehollandiae), Luis P. Lamas, Russell P. Main, John R. Hutchinson

Department of Basic Medical Sciences Faculty Publications

Emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) are exclusively terrestrial, bipedal and cursorial ratites with some similar biomechanical characteristics to humans. Their growth rates are impressive, as their body mass increases eighty-fold from hatching to adulthood whilst maintaining the same mode of locomotion throughout life. These ontogenetic characteristics stimulate biomechanical questions about the strategies that allow emus to cope with their rapid growth and locomotion, which can be partly addressed via scaling (allometric) analysis of morphology. In this study we have collected pelvic limb anatomical data (muscle architecture, tendon length, tendon mass and bone lengths) and calculated muscle physiological cross sectional area (PCSA) and ...


Epigenetic Regulation Of Nuclear Hormone Receptor Dax-1, Michael B. Heskett Dec 2014

Epigenetic Regulation Of Nuclear Hormone Receptor Dax-1, Michael B. Heskett

Master's Theses

DAX-1 (NR0B1) is an orphan nuclear receptor that plays a key role in the development and maintenance of steroidogenic tissue in mammals. Dax-1 is also expressed in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and is required to maintain pluripotency. Duplication of the X-chromosome in the region containing the NR0B1 gene results in sex reversal, and mutations in NR0B1 cause adrenal hypoplasia congenita. DAX-1 has been observed to act as a corepressor of other nuclear receptors including androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor (ER), and steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1). In addition to pluripotent ES cells, DAX-1 is primarily expressed in select tissues of ...


Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Breast Cell Carcinogenesis Enhanced By Multiple Carcinogens And Intervened By Dietary Ergosterol And Mimosine, Lenora Pluchino, Amethyst Liu, Hwa-Chain Robert Wang Dec 2014

Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Breast Cell Carcinogenesis Enhanced By Multiple Carcinogens And Intervened By Dietary Ergosterol And Mimosine, Lenora Pluchino, Amethyst Liu, Hwa-Chain Robert Wang

Lenora A. Pluchino, Ph.D.

Most breast cancers occur sporadically due to long-term exposure to low-dose carcinogens in the diet and the environment. Specifically, smoke, polluted air, and high temperature-cooked meats comprise multiple carcinogens, such as 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), benzo[α]pyrene (B[α]P), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5–b]pyridine (PhIP). We sought to determine if these carcinogens act together to induce breast cell carcinogenesis, and if so, whether non-cytotoxic dietary agents could intervene. We demonstrated that co-exposure to physiologically-achievable doses of NNK, B[α]P, and PhIP (NBP) holistically enhanced initiation and progression of breast cell carcinogenesis. Reactive oxygen species ...


Alternative Extraction Method Of Guanidine Metabolites From Marine Sponge, Ptilocaulis Spiculifer, Savannah Barnett, Andrew A. Yeagley, Amorette Barber Dec 2014

Alternative Extraction Method Of Guanidine Metabolites From Marine Sponge, Ptilocaulis Spiculifer, Savannah Barnett, Andrew A. Yeagley, Amorette Barber

Theses, Dissertations & Honors Papers

Marine sponges are known for their use of biologically active allelopathic compounds. With almost every species of sponge having been shown to produce some chemical with medicinal properties, their survival is becoming increasingly important. Current extraction methods used by research teams require a large sample relative to the size of the sponge, which threatens the survival of the organism. 1 Ptilocaulis sp., or the orange tree sponge, is known to produce guanidine metabolites. This derivative has demonstrated biological activity against cell lines of leukemia, uterine, and cervical cancer.2 3 In this study we have developed a method for the ...


Higher-Order Unfolding Of Peri/Centric Satellite Heterochromatin Is An Early And Consistent Event In Cell Senescence: A Dissertation, Eric C. Swanson Dec 2014

Higher-Order Unfolding Of Peri/Centric Satellite Heterochromatin Is An Early And Consistent Event In Cell Senescence: A Dissertation, Eric C. Swanson

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Cellular senescence is thought to play an essential role in many biological functions including tumor suppression and organismal aging. Senescent cells, which are permanently removed from the cell cycle, can be found both in vivo in many different tissue types and in vitro within cultures of non-immortalized cells. Despite their inability to proliferate, these cells persist and remain metabolically active for indefinite periods of time. This physiologic process occurs in response to a variety of cellular insults including oxidative stress, shortened telomeres, constitutive oncogene expression, and DNA damage, and can be initiated by upregulation of one of the two known ...


Subcellular Metabolite And Lipid Analysis Of Xenopus Laevis Eggs By Laesi Mass Spectrometry, Bindesh Shrestha, Prabhakar Sripadi, Brent R. Reschke, Holly D. Henderson, Matthew J. Powell, Sally Ann Moody, Akos Vertes Dec 2014

Subcellular Metabolite And Lipid Analysis Of Xenopus Laevis Eggs By Laesi Mass Spectrometry, Bindesh Shrestha, Prabhakar Sripadi, Brent R. Reschke, Holly D. Henderson, Matthew J. Powell, Sally Ann Moody, Akos Vertes

Anatomy and Regenerative Biology Faculty Publications

Xenopus laevis eggs are used as a biological model system for studying fertilization and early embryonic development in vertebrates. Most methods used for their molecular analysis require elaborate sample preparation including separate protocols for the water soluble and lipid components. In this study, laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI), an ambient ionization technique, was used for direct mass spectrometric analysis of X. laevis eggs and early stage embryos up to five cleavage cycles. Single unfertilized and fertilized eggs, their animal and vegetal poles, and embryos through the 32-cell stage were analyzed. Fifty two small metabolite ions, including glutathione, GABA and amino ...


Loss Of Thiol Repair Systems In Human Cataractous Lenses, Min Wei, Kui-Yi Xing, Yin-Chuan Fan, Teodosio Libondi, Marjorie F. Lou Dec 2014

Loss Of Thiol Repair Systems In Human Cataractous Lenses, Min Wei, Kui-Yi Xing, Yin-Chuan Fan, Teodosio Libondi, Marjorie F. Lou

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

PURPOSE. The purpose of this study was to investigate the thiol repair systems of thioltransferase (TTase) and thioredoxin (Trx) and oxidation-damaged proteins in human cataractous lenses.

METHODS. Cataractous lenses in humans (57–85 years of age) were classified into cortical, nuclear, mixed, mature, and hypermature cataract types by using a lens opacity classification system, and were obtained by extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) procedure. Cortical and nuclear cataracts were grouped by decreasing order of visual acuity into optical chart reading (R), counting fingers (CF), hand motion (HM), and light perception (LP). ECCE lens homogenate was analyzed for glutathione (GSH) level and ...


Role Of Integrin-Linked Kinase In Epidermal Integrity And Barrier Function, Samar Sayedyahossein Dec 2014

Role Of Integrin-Linked Kinase In Epidermal Integrity And Barrier Function, Samar Sayedyahossein

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is a β integrin adaptor protein that translates extracellular stimuli to intracellular signaling events. ILK plays a role in actin cytoskeleton dynamics and cell adhesion. The structure and function of the epidermis is highly dependent on cell-cell adhesion and cell-basement membrane interactions. The mechanisms whereby ILK contributes to epidermal integrity are poorly understood. Using a mouse model of epidermis-restricted Ilk gene inactivation, I observed that ILK loss causes abnormal morphology and presence of intra-epidermal and epidermal-dermal microblisters in embryos as early as E17.5. ILK-deficient epidermis is also characterized by abnormal localization or/and absence of adherens ...


Prostate Field Cancerization -- Thinking Outside The Tumor, Dor Shoshan, Marco Bisoffi Dec 2014

Prostate Field Cancerization -- Thinking Outside The Tumor, Dor Shoshan, Marco Bisoffi

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Prostate field cancerization (or field effect) is characterized by the presence of molecular alterations in histologically normal tissues adjacent to adenocarcinomas. Accordingly, our research indicates deregulated expression of several proteins that define this type of molecular pathology. The scope of the present study was to determine the expression of the key transcription factor and potential marker of field cancerization early growth response 1 (EGR-1) in human prostate tissues derived from prostatectomies and biopsy cores.

EGR-1 was detected by immunofluorescence using a polyclonal anti-human EGR-1 and Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated secondary antibodies. EGR-1 expression was quantitated by determining the pixel count per ...


Assessment Of The Effects Of Caffeine, Gallic Acid, And Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate On Cell Inhibition, Pim-3 And E. Cadherin Protein Levels In Two Lines Of Pancreatic Cancer Cells, Lena Haddad, Melissa Rowland-Goldsmith Dec 2014

Assessment Of The Effects Of Caffeine, Gallic Acid, And Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate On Cell Inhibition, Pim-3 And E. Cadherin Protein Levels In Two Lines Of Pancreatic Cancer Cells, Lena Haddad, Melissa Rowland-Goldsmith

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

According to the American Cancer Society, pancreatic cancer is currently the fourth leading cause of cancer related deaths in the United States. In addition to being an exceptionally aggressive form of cancer, it is particularly difficult to treat because it is usually diagnosed in late stages after the onset of metastasis (1). Consequently, the current treatments used, including chemotherapy and radiation, have been rendered ineffective (2). As a result, focus has been placed on using dietary alternatives which are known to possess chemopreventive properties (3). Previous studies have indicated that Gallic acid (an important phytochemical in pomegranates) and Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate (the ...


Toxicity And Cosmesis Outcomes For Single Fraction Intra-Operative Electron Radiotherapy (Ioert) For Breast Cancer, Monica Hanna, Robert Ash, Wesley Babaran, Michele M. Carpenter, Afshin Forouzannia, Jay K. Harness, Brian Kaltenecker, Snehith Maddula, Venita Williams, Lawrence Wagman Dec 2014

Toxicity And Cosmesis Outcomes For Single Fraction Intra-Operative Electron Radiotherapy (Ioert) For Breast Cancer, Monica Hanna, Robert Ash, Wesley Babaran, Michele M. Carpenter, Afshin Forouzannia, Jay K. Harness, Brian Kaltenecker, Snehith Maddula, Venita Williams, Lawrence Wagman

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Background: Adjuvant radiation therapy is proven to reduce local recurrence in patients with early stage breast cancer. To reduce toxicity, improve geographic accuracy, and reduce treatment time, IOERT can be utilized as an alternative to external beam radiation therapy. The study’s objective was to determine the short term toxicity and cosmesis profile of single fraction IOERT given as definitive treatment in a community setting. Materials and Methods: From Mar 2012 to Jul 2014, 84 patients (3 bilateral), ages 45-91 y.o. with stage 0-II were treated with IOERT (Mobetron, IntraOp Medical, Sunnyvale, CA). A single 21 Gy fraction was ...


Engineered Plga Nanoparticles For Delivery Of Sirna In Mcf-7 Breast Cancer Cells, Sydney Pong, Samit Shah, Vivek Gupta Dec 2014

Engineered Plga Nanoparticles For Delivery Of Sirna In Mcf-7 Breast Cancer Cells, Sydney Pong, Samit Shah, Vivek Gupta

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Small interfering RNAs have been an emerging medical treatment for molecular based diseases as they are capable of gene-specific knockdown. Appropriate and efficient delivery remains one of the biggest challenges in the development of siRNA as an anti-cancer treatment. Nanoparticles containing siRNA were characterized and the efficacy of various peptides in the transfection of the nanoparticles were tested. A gene silencing assay was developed in order to determine the effect of siRNA therapeutics on gene functionality in breast cancer cells.


Molecular Insights Into Prostate Field Cancerization: Telomere Length, Egr-­‐1 Expression, And Regulation Of Mic-­‐1, Pdgf-­‐A, And Fas, Emily Frisch, Kristin Gabriel, Marco Bisoffi Dec 2014

Molecular Insights Into Prostate Field Cancerization: Telomere Length, Egr-­‐1 Expression, And Regulation Of Mic-­‐1, Pdgf-­‐A, And Fas, Emily Frisch, Kristin Gabriel, Marco Bisoffi

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

The diagnosis of prostate cancer (adenocarcinoma) relies on screening for elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in blood samples and on digital rectal examination (DRE). With high PSA levels and/or abnormal DRE, physicians recommend a biopsy, which often misses the location of the adenocarcinoma and results in false negatives. Previous studies have shown expression of the key transcription factor early growth response 1 (EGR-1), the pro-survival factor macrophage inhibitor cytokine 1 (MIC-1), and the growth stimulatory platelet derived growth factor A (PDGF-A) to be up-regulated in histologically normal tissues 1 centimeter adjacent to prostate adenocarcinomas. We hypothesize that tumors emerge from ...


Dancing Through Life: Allosteric Transitions And Structural Analysis Of Hsp70 And Hsp110 Chaperone Proteins, Gabrielle Stetz, Gennady M. Verkhivker Dec 2014

Dancing Through Life: Allosteric Transitions And Structural Analysis Of Hsp70 And Hsp110 Chaperone Proteins, Gabrielle Stetz, Gennady M. Verkhivker

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

The molecular chaperone protein Hsp70 is centrally involved in cellular homeostasis by assisting in the folding and degradation of protein substrates. Hsp70 is joined by co-chaperones, such as Hsp110, which contribute to specialized tasks of the Hsp70 complex. Imbalances of this heat shock protein system are believed to be involved with the deregulation of cancer pathways and other human diseases. Better understanding of how these heat shock proteins work at the molecular level, which has been investigated using molecular docking tools, will give more clues about biological function. Simulating the formation and function of Hsp70 based chaperone complexes could provide ...


A Calcium-Dependent Protease As A Potential Therapeutic Target For Wolfram Syndrome, Simin Lu, Clay F. Semenkovich, Peter A. Greer, Fumihiko Urano Dec 2014

A Calcium-Dependent Protease As A Potential Therapeutic Target For Wolfram Syndrome, Simin Lu, Clay F. Semenkovich, Peter A. Greer, Fumihiko Urano

GSBS Student Publications

Wolfram syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by diabetes and neurodegeneration and considered as an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) disease. Despite the underlying importance of ER dysfunction in Wolfram syndrome and the identification of two causative genes, Wolfram syndrome 1 (WFS1) and Wolfram syndrome 2 (WFS2), a molecular mechanism linking the ER to death of neurons and β cells has not been elucidated. Here we implicate calpain 2 in the mechanism of cell death in Wolfram syndrome. Calpain 2 is negatively regulated by WFS2, and elevated activation of calpain 2 by WFS2-knockdown correlates with cell death. Calpain activation is also induced ...


An Activity Aimed At Improving Student Explanations Of Biological Mechanisms, Caleb M. Trujillo, Trevor R. Anderson, Nancy J. Pelaez Dec 2014

An Activity Aimed At Improving Student Explanations Of Biological Mechanisms, Caleb M. Trujillo, Trevor R. Anderson, Nancy J. Pelaez

PIBERG Instructional Innovation Materials

This document is intended for use by instructors and their students. The activity contains steps to introduce students to the MACH model involving analyzing and discussing explanations about biological mechanisms. Initially, students read modified articles about biological mechanisms during class, although instructors may prefer to assign readings outside of class before the activity. During the activity, students are required to analyze the readings for evidence of research methods, analogies, context, and mechanisms. In so doing, students learn how to integrate the information pertaining to each of the MACH model components into a coherent explanation about their biological mechanism. After performing ...


A Tetrahedral Version Of The Mach Model For Explaining Biological Mechanisms, Caleb M. Trujillo, Trevor R. Anderson, Nancy J. Pelaez Dec 2014

A Tetrahedral Version Of The Mach Model For Explaining Biological Mechanisms, Caleb M. Trujillo, Trevor R. Anderson, Nancy J. Pelaez

PIBERG Instructional Innovation Materials

This document is intended for both instructors and students. Modified from the original MACH model this version, once cut and folded, creates a tetrahedral model that can conveniently be used as a teaching and learning tool to inform and guide students on how to write expert quality explanations of biological mechanisms. Each vertex of the tetrahedron represents a component of the model namely, Methods, Analogy, Context, and How. For a coherent and complete explanation about molecular mechanisms, it is important to integrate information pertaining to all four components of the model. The tetrahedral MACH model has been tested in both ...


Understanding Ten-Eleven Translocation-2 In Hematological And Nervous Systems, Feng Pan Dec 2014

Understanding Ten-Eleven Translocation-2 In Hematological And Nervous Systems, Feng Pan

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

I proposed the study of two distinct aspects of Ten-Eleven Translocation 2 (TET2) protein for understanding specific functions in different body systems.

In Part I, I characterized the molecular mechanisms of Tet2 in the hematological system. As the second member of Ten-Eleven Translocation protein family, TET2 is frequently mutated in leukemic patients. Previous studies have shown that the TET2 mutations frequently occur in 20% myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasm (MDS/MPN), 10% T-cell lymphoma leukemia and 2% B-cell lymphoma leukemia. Genetic mouse models also display distinct phenotypes of various types of hematological malignancies. I performed 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq ...


Arabidopsis Chromatin Remodeler Brahma: Its Functional Interplay With Polycomb Proteins And The Ref6 Histone Demethylase, Chenlong Li Dec 2014

Arabidopsis Chromatin Remodeler Brahma: Its Functional Interplay With Polycomb Proteins And The Ref6 Histone Demethylase, Chenlong Li

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

BRAHMA (BRM) is a SWI/SNF-type chromatin remodeling ATPase that plays an important role in regulation of gene expression. Tri-methylation of lysine 27 on histone H3 (H3K27me3) is a histone modification that is associated with transcriptionally repressed genes and catalyzed by Polycomb Group (PcG) proteins. BRM has been proposed to antagonize the function of PcG proteins but the underlying molecular mechanism is unclear. To understand how BRM regulates the function of PcG proteins during plant development, a genome-wide analysis of H3K27me3 in brm mutant was performed using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by next generation sequencing (ChIP-seq). Loss of BRM leads to ...


Physical And Biochemical Factors Affecting The Recovery And Analysis Of Dna From Human Skeletal Remains, Laura Gaydosh Combs B.A., M.A. Dec 2014

Physical And Biochemical Factors Affecting The Recovery And Analysis Of Dna From Human Skeletal Remains, Laura Gaydosh Combs B.A., M.A.

Theses and Dissertations

There are approximately 4,400 sets of unidentified human remains recovered each year, nearly a quarter of which are not identified within the year following recovery. Obtaining genetic information through DNA testing of bone samples has become a critical element to identifying missing persons and recovered human remains.

DNA is preserved within the structure of bone for vast amounts of time, surviving environmental and microbial insults, yet bone is one the most challenging sample types encountered by forensic scientists. This is due to the resilient structure of bone and the prevalence and variety of materials which co-isolate with DNA during ...


(R)-Desmolactone Is A Sex Pheromone Or Attractant For The Endangered Valley Elderberry Longhorn Beetle Desmocerus Californicus Dimorphus And Several Congeners (Cerambycidae: Lepturinae), A. M. Ray, R. A. Arnold, I. Swift, P. A. Schapker, S. Mccann, C. J. Marshall, J. S. Mcelfresh, J. G. Millar Dec 2014

(R)-Desmolactone Is A Sex Pheromone Or Attractant For The Endangered Valley Elderberry Longhorn Beetle Desmocerus Californicus Dimorphus And Several Congeners (Cerambycidae: Lepturinae), A. M. Ray, R. A. Arnold, I. Swift, P. A. Schapker, S. Mccann, C. J. Marshall, J. S. Mcelfresh, J. G. Millar

Faculty Scholarship

We report here that (4R,9Z)-hexadec-9-en-4-olide [(R)-desmolactone] is a sex attractant or sex pheromone for multiple species and subspecies in the cerambycid genus Desmocerus. This compound was previously identified as a female-produced sex attractant pheromone of Desmocerus californicus californicus. Headspace volatiles from female Desmocerus aureipennis aureipennis contained (R)-desmolactone, and the antennae of adult males of two species responded strongly to synthetic (R)-desmolactone in coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram analyses. In field bioassays in California, Oregon, and British Columbia, traps baited with synthetic (R)-desmolactone captured males of several Desmocerus species and subspecies. Only male beetles were captured, indicating ...


Determination Of Expression Levels Of All 20 Dna Polymerases In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio) Thoughout Development And Following Treatment With Mnu, Doxorubicin, And Uv Radiation (Abstract), J. Petovic, L. Sekela, B. Della Fera, L. Ver Steeg, J. Woolcock, M. Miller, Erin E. Gestl Dec 2014

Determination Of Expression Levels Of All 20 Dna Polymerases In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio) Thoughout Development And Following Treatment With Mnu, Doxorubicin, And Uv Radiation (Abstract), J. Petovic, L. Sekela, B. Della Fera, L. Ver Steeg, J. Woolcock, M. Miller, Erin E. Gestl

Biology Student Work

No abstract provided.


Expression Levels Of Dna Damage Response Genes In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio) Following Treatment Methylnitrosourea, Doxorubicin, Or Ultraviolet Light (Abstract), J. Woolcock, H. Khan, K. Joseph, Erin E. Gestl Dec 2014

Expression Levels Of Dna Damage Response Genes In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio) Following Treatment Methylnitrosourea, Doxorubicin, Or Ultraviolet Light (Abstract), J. Woolcock, H. Khan, K. Joseph, Erin E. Gestl

Biology Student Work

No abstract provided.


Reverse Genetics Approach To Examine Myosin Xi Functions In Pollen Tube Growth, Stephanie Lin Madison Dec 2014

Reverse Genetics Approach To Examine Myosin Xi Functions In Pollen Tube Growth, Stephanie Lin Madison

Doctoral Dissertations

Pollen tube growth is an essential aspect of plant reproduction because it is the mechanism through which non-motile sperm cells are delivered to ovules thus allowing fertilization to occur. A pollen tube is a single cell that only grows at the tip, and this tip growth depends on actin filaments. Plants encode class VIII and class XI myosins as actin-based motor proteins, of which class XI myosins are required for cell expansion in vegetative tissues.

In Arabidopsis thaliana, 6 of 13 myosin XI genes are expressed in pollen: XIA, XIB, XIC, XID, XIE, and XIJ. Initially, two artificial microRNA constructs ...


The Role Of Nag-1 In Tumorigenesis, Kyung-Won Min Dec 2014

The Role Of Nag-1 In Tumorigenesis, Kyung-Won Min

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation explores the nature of a divergent member of the Transforming Growth Factor-β [beta] superfamily, the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs activated gene (NAG-1), as it relates to its regulation and biological activity in cancer context. Our lab has extensively studied on the molecular mechanism by which phytochemicals and NSAIDs induce apoptosis correlation with NAG-1 expression in human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Significant data from in vitro studies suggest that NAG-1 has an anti-tumorigenic activity which elicits apoptosis in a cyclooxygenase (COX)-independent manner in CRC cells. Indeed, NAG-1 transgenic mice developed less aberrant polyp foci (APC) compared to those of ...


Role Of Phosphorylation Of Focal Adhesion Kinase At Tyrosine 861 In Prostate Cancer Metastasis, Tanushree Chatterji Dec 2014

Role Of Phosphorylation Of Focal Adhesion Kinase At Tyrosine 861 In Prostate Cancer Metastasis, Tanushree Chatterji

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that mediates interactions between the extracellular matrix and intracellular signaling pathways critical in promoting numerous cellular functions including adhesion, proliferation, survival and migration. Most FAK functions result from phosphorylation by Src family kinases, which trigger numerous signaling cascades. Overexpression of FAK is associated with metastasis in many solid tumors, including prostate cancer. Hence, understanding the mechanisms by which FAK is regulated in prostate cancer will better elucidate its role in prostate cancer metastasis. Work in this dissertation tested the hypothesis that altered phosphorylation of FAK is critical for cell migration and ...


Sustained Adrenergic Signaling Promotes Cervical Cancer Progression, Nouara C. Sadaoui Dec 2014

Sustained Adrenergic Signaling Promotes Cervical Cancer Progression, Nouara C. Sadaoui

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Background: Chronic stress and sustained adrenergic signaling are known to promote tumor progression. The underlying mechanisms behind this process are not well understood. We examined the effects of sustained adrenergic signaling on cervical cancer progression through increased expression of HPV oncogenes, E6 and E7.

Materials and Methods: ADRβ expression levels were examined in patient-derived cervical cancer samples. We used an orthotopic model of cervical cancer to investigate the effects of restraint stress on tumor growth and metastasis. We evaluated the in vivo effects of a β-blocker, propranolol, and HPV E6/E7 siRNA. In vitro, ADRβ positive cervical cancer cells were ...


Mdm2-Mediated Degradation Of Sirt6 Phosphorylated By Akt1 Promotes Tumorigenesis And Trastuzumab Resistance In Breast Cancer, Umadevi Thirumurthi Dec 2014

Mdm2-Mediated Degradation Of Sirt6 Phosphorylated By Akt1 Promotes Tumorigenesis And Trastuzumab Resistance In Breast Cancer, Umadevi Thirumurthi

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Sirtuin6 (SIRT6) is one of the members of the Sirtuin family and functions as a longevity assurance gene by promoting genomic stability. It also regulates various cancer-associated pathways and was recently established as a bonafide tumor suppressor in colon cancer. This suggests that SIRT6 is an attractive target for pharmacological activation in cancer treatment, and hence, identification of potential regulators of SIRT6 would be an important and critical contribution towards cancer treatment. Here, we show that AKT1 phosphorylates SIRT6 at Ser338 and induces MDM2-SIRT6 interaction, priming SIRT6 for degradation via the MDM2-dependent ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Blocking SIRT6 Ser338 phosphorylation ...