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2014

Agriculture

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Articles 31 - 60 of 1557

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Corn And Soybean Yield Responses To Micronutrients Fertilization, Antonio P. Mallarino, Joshua T. Enderson, Mazhar U. Haq Dec 2014

Corn And Soybean Yield Responses To Micronutrients Fertilization, Antonio P. Mallarino, Joshua T. Enderson, Mazhar U. Haq

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Micronutrients such as boron (B), chloride (Cl), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) are essential plant nutrients taken up by crops in very small amounts, but a deficiency can have profound effects on yield because they perform important physiological functions. Deficiencies seldom are observed or are widespread in Iowa and neighboring states. Farmers and crop consultants have been asking questions, however, concerning possible yield loss due to deficiency of micronutrients in corn and soybean.


Federal Pesticide Regulatory Update: Moving To A National Framework With Local Adaptations?, Steven P. Bradbury Dec 2014

Federal Pesticide Regulatory Update: Moving To A National Framework With Local Adaptations?, Steven P. Bradbury

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Recent US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) pesticide regulations are establishing national performance expectations with varying degrees of flexibility for implementation at the state and local level. For example, EPA decisions concerning pesticide resistance management and pollinator, endangered species and water quality protection create opportunities for designing and specifying regional, state and/or local pesticide use requirements and practices consistent with conditions specified in Federal pesticide registrations. The regulations are highlighting the role Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and site-specific pest management decisions could play in this evolving paradigm.


Biology, Distribution And Management Of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, Erin W. Hodgson, Tracy C. Leskey Dec 2014

Biology, Distribution And Management Of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, Erin W. Hodgson, Tracy C. Leskey

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is an invasive pest from eastern Asia. This species was first confirmed in the United States in 1998 near Allentown, Pennsylvania. It is believed individuals were accidentally introduced with packing crates from China or Japan. Since 1998, BMSB has rapidly spread to 41 states and the District of Columbia (Leskey et al. 2014). Live adults were first detected in Scott County, Iowa in 2012 and have now been confirmed in eight counties as of 2014.


Using Precision Agriculture Technologies For Phosphorus, Potassium, And Lime Management With Lower Grain Prices And To Improve Water Quality, Antonio P. Mallarino Dec 2014

Using Precision Agriculture Technologies For Phosphorus, Potassium, And Lime Management With Lower Grain Prices And To Improve Water Quality, Antonio P. Mallarino

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Crop prices are decreasing after several years of good prices and public concerns about nutrient application impacts on water quality are increasing. The profitability of nutrient management can be increased and impacts on water quality can be decreased by using a variety of precision agriculture technologies.


Using Pesticide Stewardship To Minimize Off-Target Exposures, Gretchen Paluch Dec 2014

Using Pesticide Stewardship To Minimize Off-Target Exposures, Gretchen Paluch

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Fundamental concepts of pesticide stewardship are of increasing importance to support the future of Iowa agriculture. Pesticide applicators are depended upon to integrate these concepts into current crop production practices that face numerous challenges including resistance in pest populations, changes in technology, shifting land use management practices, and the rising costs of production. The complexity of agricultural production and instant access to information empowered by modern technologies are placing increasing importance on efficiency of decision-making practices and communication of on-site assessment.


Corn Nitrogen Rate Management: Facts, Concepts, And Mother Nature, John E. Sawyer Dec 2014

Corn Nitrogen Rate Management: Facts, Concepts, And Mother Nature, John E. Sawyer

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Yearly nitrogen (N) input is typically required for optimal corn yields in the majority of Iowa crop rotations. The exception would be first-year corn following established alfalfa where none to only a small N input is typically needed. If not fertilized with N over time, corn yield will be very limited as the soils ability to supply plantavailable N becomes depleted.


Increasing Profitability In Soybean Production By Optimizing Planting Rates, Tristan Mueller, Patrick Reeg, Peter Kyveryga Dec 2014

Increasing Profitability In Soybean Production By Optimizing Planting Rates, Tristan Mueller, Patrick Reeg, Peter Kyveryga

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Farmers are interested in better management of seeding rates within soybean fields to increase productivity andeconomic returns. With seed prices trending higher and soybean commodity prices trending lower during the lasttwo years, there are many questions about optimal seeding rates and factors that influence these rates under specificfield conditions.


Cover Crops, Bioreactors, And Wetlands For Nitrate Reduction, Matthew J. Helmers Dec 2014

Cover Crops, Bioreactors, And Wetlands For Nitrate Reduction, Matthew J. Helmers

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

With the release of the Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy in early 2013 there has been increased interest in what practices can be utilized by farmers to reduce nutrient export to downstream water bodies. As highlighted by the ISU Extension and Outreach Special Publication 235 (2013) there are many in-field, land use, and edge-of-field practices that have potential to reduce nutrient export. Three practices that have garnered a substantial amount of interest are cover crops, bioreactors, and wetlands. These three practices span the scale from in-field (cover crops) to edge-of-field (bioreactors) to watershed scale (wetlands).


Energy Costs For Grain Drying And Field Operations, H. Mark Hanna, Dana D. Schweitzer, Shawn Shouse, Jay D. Harmon Dec 2014

Energy Costs For Grain Drying And Field Operations, H. Mark Hanna, Dana D. Schweitzer, Shawn Shouse, Jay D. Harmon

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Iowa spends about one billion dollars annually on the purchase of diesel fuel, electricity, propane, gasoline, and natural gas. Specifically, Iowa spent more than one billion dollars on energy in 2012 including $866,990,000 for gasoline, fuels, and oils (primarily diesel fuel and LP) and $329,138,000 for utilities (primarily electricity) according to the USDA Agricultural Census (USDA, 2014). Correspondingly, farm enterprises nationwide spent $16,573,188,000 for gasoline, fuels, and oils and $8,261,978,000 for utilities in 2012. Purchases of diesel fuel, liquid propane (LP), and natural gas are included in gasoline, fuels, and ...


The Highs And Lows Of Crop Marketing, Chad Hart Dec 2014

The Highs And Lows Of Crop Marketing, Chad Hart

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The month of October provided a bounce back for the 2014 crop outlook. While supplies are still more than ample, the trade has shifted its focus to demand. And that shift has put prices on an upward march. The price recovery has come just as the bulk of the Iowa crop production exits the field.


Sudden Death Syndrome Management Update, Daren Mueller, Yuba Kandel, Leonor Leandro Dec 2014

Sudden Death Syndrome Management Update, Daren Mueller, Yuba Kandel, Leonor Leandro

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Sudden death syndrome (SDS) was severe in many fields across Iowa in 2014, resulting in yield loss and frustration for farmers. There are a few positive things that we can learn in a year like this, though. For one, many soybean varieties were pushed to their limits, allowing farmers to get a really good evaluation of the genetic resistance for SDS in a variety. Additionally, other beneficial management strategies can be identified that complement variety resistance.


Corn Diseases Of 2014: Northern Corn Leaf Blight, Physoderma Brown Spot, Ear And Stalk Rots, Alison Robertson Dec 2014

Corn Diseases Of 2014: Northern Corn Leaf Blight, Physoderma Brown Spot, Ear And Stalk Rots, Alison Robertson

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The 2014 growing season started with good conditions at planting. Above normal precipitation in June however was prevalent across most of the state and likely played a role in infection and development of Northern corn leaf blight (NCLB), Physoderma brown spot and stalk rot, and stalk rot. A dry July brought NCLB to a stand still but frequent precipitation events in August and September enabled further development of the disease. Goss’s wilt was also prevalent on hybrids rated susceptible to moderately susceptible to this disease. Although southern rust was reported, the cooler than normal temperatures in August and September ...


Insights Into The Diaporthe/Phomopsis Complex Infecting Soybeans In The United States, Febina M. Mathew, Samuel G. Markell Dec 2014

Insights Into The Diaporthe/Phomopsis Complex Infecting Soybeans In The United States, Febina M. Mathew, Samuel G. Markell

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Diaporthe/Phomopsis species are pathogens on a wide range of hosts including soybeans (Glycine max L.), and responsible for several diseases, some of which are of economic importance. Under favorable environmental conditions, these diseases can result in in significant yield losses (Backman et al. 1985). For example, yield losses from Stem canker in the Midwest have ranged from minor to in excess of 50% (Hartman et al. 1999). Four Diaporthe species have been reported pathogenic on soybean – Diaporthe sojae, the causal agent of pod and stem blight; Diaporthe caulivora and Diaporthe aspalathi, causal agents of Northern and Southern stem cankers ...


Big Data—The Catalyst For A Transformation To Digital Agriculture, Matt Darr Dec 2014

Big Data—The Catalyst For A Transformation To Digital Agriculture, Matt Darr

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The digital transformation of row crop agriculture has been a work in progress for over 20 years. It started with the development of combine yield monitoring equipment in 1992, gained additional traction with the adoption of GPS targeted soil sampling in the mid 1990’s, and developed into a major ag industry by the mid 2000’s as documented by widespread adoption of autosteering and section control technology. Precision agriculture initiatives focused on right time, right place, and right rate input management as well as waste reduction associated with automated machine controls has played a key role in improving on-farm ...


Cover Crops, Weeds And Herbicides, Bob Hartzler, Meaghan Anderson Dec 2014

Cover Crops, Weeds And Herbicides, Bob Hartzler, Meaghan Anderson

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy and other factors have increased interest in fitting cover crops into Iowa’s cropping systems. The benefits of cover crops are well documented, and include reducing erosion, nutrient losses, and soil compaction. Legume cover crops such as hairy vetch may contribute nitrogen via biological fixation. The extended period of plant growth during times when soil is often left bare also is beneficial for overall soil health. Finally, cover crops can complement weed management programs by suppressing the establishment of weeds. This paper will focus on the interactions between cover crops, weeds and current weed management ...


Production Cost Budgets For Perennial Grass Systems, Mainul Hoque, Georgeanne Artz, Chad Hart Dec 2014

Production Cost Budgets For Perennial Grass Systems, Mainul Hoque, Georgeanne Artz, Chad Hart

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

To reach the cellulosic biofuel mandate set for 2022 in the US, perennial grasses, such as Giant Miscanthus and the newly introduced “Liberty” switchgrass, are expected to play a significant role as a promising feedstock for cellulosic ethanol. These grasses can grow well in the many parts of the U.S., especially in areas with ample rainfall. Miscanthus and switchgrass can adapt well to marginal land, which implies significant potential for marginal land currently under crop or forage production, and land currently enrolled in the Conservation Reserve Program to be converted into future commercial-scale biomass production.


Research Insights In Goss’S Wilt And Leaf Blight, Alison Robertson, Charlie Block, Sharon Eggenberger, Andy Gogherty, Harry Horner, Sally Mallowa, Forrest Nutter, Jeff Sernett, Lisa Shepherd Dec 2014

Research Insights In Goss’S Wilt And Leaf Blight, Alison Robertson, Charlie Block, Sharon Eggenberger, Andy Gogherty, Harry Horner, Sally Mallowa, Forrest Nutter, Jeff Sernett, Lisa Shepherd

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Goss’s wilt and leaf blight is caused by the bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis (Cmn). The disease was first reported in Nebraska in 1969 and soon after in the surrounding states including Iowa. Corn breeders identified resistance to the bacterium and by the 1980s the disease was no longer a threat to corn production except in eastern Nebraska. In 2008, Goss’s leaf blight was reported in eight counties in Iowa. In 2011, the disease was widespread throughout the state and up to 50 percent yield losses occurred in some fields.


Quality And Handling Of The 2014 Iowa Crop, Charles R. Hurburgh Dec 2014

Quality And Handling Of The 2014 Iowa Crop, Charles R. Hurburgh

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Every year brings on a new set of challenges for harvest and grain management. In the past five years we have gone from very wet to very dry. Scorching heat at the very end of the 2013 season caused large variations in quality even within the same field. In 2014, planting pace was about normal, temperatures were 1-3 degrees below normal and moisture was well above normal—especially in the August and September grain fill period. Western and southwestern Iowa were 3-6 inches over normal for moisture in this period. This combination of weather conditions put the 2014 crop 7-10 ...


Weed Management Update For 2015, Micheal D. K. Owen, Robert G. Hartzler Dec 2014

Weed Management Update For 2015, Micheal D. K. Owen, Robert G. Hartzler

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Given the environmental conditions in 2013 resulting in delayed herbicide applications and drought later in the summer, the increasing use of “alternative” herbicides and the cool wet conditions in 2014, conditions were excellent for many interesting occurrences. Herbicide carryover was a factor for several products, several products provided evidence why farmers preferred using glyphosate alone, and herbicide-resistant weed populations continue to evolve. It appears that the message of diversity in order to manage herbicide resistance is gaining traction but to the extent that the focus is primarily on herbicides which was the reason that herbicide resistance became such a big ...


Farm Data: Who Owns It And How Can Farmers Protect It?, Shannon L. Ferrell Dec 2014

Farm Data: Who Owns It And How Can Farmers Protect It?, Shannon L. Ferrell

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

“Big Data” receives almost as much discussion in agriculture as the weather and commodity prices. But what is Big Data anyway, and why should farmers care? This article aims to pull back the curtain on Big Data and reveal its advantages and disadvantages for farmers. The discussion then turns to the concerns farmers express about disclosing farm data, and provides concrete solutions for what they can do individually and collectively to address those concerns.


The Benefit Of Understanding Biotechnology, Don Lee Dec 2014

The Benefit Of Understanding Biotechnology, Don Lee

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

If you would answer yes to the questions below, then you would benefit from understanding biotechnology: 1. Do farmers ask me to predict the work-load consequences of making different seed product choices? 2. Would the farmers I serve be happy if I can help them slow the evolution of their pest populations? 3. Can I describe how biotechnology will develop to bring new approaches to addressing crop management problems in the future? and 4. Am I considered an expert in my community on the science behind our food production system? This session will provide a chance to explore several on-line ...


Continuous Improvement In The Areas Of Crop, Nutrient, Pest And Soil And Water Management, Patrick Reeg, Peter Kyveryga, Tristan Mueller Dec 2014

Continuous Improvement In The Areas Of Crop, Nutrient, Pest And Soil And Water Management, Patrick Reeg, Peter Kyveryga, Tristan Mueller

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

During the last 15 years, the Iowa Soybean Association On-Farm Network® has developed and adopted a variety of tools to conduct on-farm studies to improve efficiency and profitability in crop production by engaging farmers in participatory learning. The information collected enables farmers to make informed decisions by examining results of on-farm studies evaluating different products and management practices.


Health Professionals’ Roles In Animal Agriculture, Climate Change, And Human Health, Aysha Z. Akhtar, Michael Greger, Hope Ferdowsian, Erica Frank Dec 2014

Health Professionals’ Roles In Animal Agriculture, Climate Change, And Human Health, Aysha Z. Akhtar, Michael Greger, Hope Ferdowsian, Erica Frank

Michael Greger, MD, FACLM

What we eat is rapidly becoming an issue of global concern. With food shortages, the rise in chronic disease, and global warming, the impact of our dietary choices seems more relevant today than ever. Globally, a transition is taking place toward greater consumption of foods of animal origin, in lieu of plantbased diets. With this transition comes intensification of animal agriculture that in turn is associated with the emergence of zoonotic infectious diseases, environmental degradation, and the epidemics of chronic disease and obesity. Health professionals should be aware of these trends and consider them as they promote healthier and more ...


U.S. Drought Monitor, December 2, 2014, Anthony Artusa Dec 2014

U.S. Drought Monitor, December 2, 2014, Anthony Artusa

US Ag in Drought Archive

Drought map of U.S. for December 2, 2014 (12/2/14) plus: U.S. crop areas experiencing drought (map), Approximate percentage of crop located in drought, by state (bar graph), Percent of crop area located in drought, past 52 weeks (line graph) for: Corn, Soybeans, Hay, Cattle, Winter wheat.


An Introduction To Sheep, Debra K. Aaron, Donald G. Ely Dec 2014

An Introduction To Sheep, Debra K. Aaron, Donald G. Ely

Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications

The information in this fact sheet was developed to provide a quick reference to the most frequently asked questions about sheep and sheep production.


So You Want To Produce Your Own Eggs?, Jacquie Jacob, Anthony J. Pescatore Dec 2014

So You Want To Produce Your Own Eggs?, Jacquie Jacob, Anthony J. Pescatore

Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications

Backyard chicken flocks are becoming popular throughout the country in urban, suburban and rural communities. Preparation is essential for a successful backyard flock.


Proper Handling And Transportation Of Eggs For Sale At Kentucky Farmers’ Markets, Anthony J. Pescatore, Jacquie Jacob Dec 2014

Proper Handling And Transportation Of Eggs For Sale At Kentucky Farmers’ Markets, Anthony J. Pescatore, Jacquie Jacob

Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications

Regardless of the number of eggs produced, and whether the eggs are for home use or sale, careful egg handling is very important. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) lists eggs as a potentially hazardous food, therefore careful handling is important. In Kentucky, if you sell more than 60 dozen eggs a week you need to purchase a retail license. The same holds true if you want to sell your eggs to a retail store to be re-sold or to a distributor that will sell them for you. If you produce fewer than 60 dozen eggs a week ...


Keeping And Using Flock Performance Records, Debra K. Aaron Dec 2014

Keeping And Using Flock Performance Records, Debra K. Aaron

Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications

Performance records serve as the cornerstone of any good livestock management program. Unfortunately, the task of collecting, maintaining and using performance records is the one area of livestock production in general that gets the least attention. This fact sheet provides ten reasons why all sheep producers need to keep performance records on their flocks. Then, some ways of maintaining and using those records are discussed.


Basic Sheep Genetics, Debra K. Aaron Dec 2014

Basic Sheep Genetics, Debra K. Aaron

Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications

Genetics is the science of heredity. It seeks to explain differences and similarities exhibited by related individuals. The application of genetics to livestock improvement is known as animal breeding. The objective of this fact sheet is to provide a refresher course on basic genetics and to show how knowledge of genetics can be used to improve sheep production.


Sheep Breeding: Heritability, Ebvs, Epds And The Nsip, Debra K. Aaron Dec 2014

Sheep Breeding: Heritability, Ebvs, Epds And The Nsip, Debra K. Aaron

Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications

Genetic improvement in a flock depends on the producer’s ability to select breeding sheep that are genetically superior for traits of economic importance. This is complicated by the fact that an animal’s own performance is not always a true indicator of its genetic potential as a parent.