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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Reassessment Of Practical Subspecies Identifications Of The Usda Daucus Carota L. Germplasm Collection: Morphological Data, David M. Spooner, Mark P. Widrlechner, Kathleen R. Reitsma, Debra E. Palmquist, Slim Rouz, Zeineb Ghrabi-Gammar, Mohamed Neffati, Béchir Bouzbida, Philipp W. Simon, Mohammed El Koudrim Feb 2014

Reassessment Of Practical Subspecies Identifications Of The Usda Daucus Carota L. Germplasm Collection: Morphological Data, David M. Spooner, Mark P. Widrlechner, Kathleen R. Reitsma, Debra E. Palmquist, Slim Rouz, Zeineb Ghrabi-Gammar, Mohamed Neffati, Béchir Bouzbida, Philipp W. Simon, Mohammed El Koudrim

NCRPIS Publications and Papers

The genus Daucus includes about 20 recognized species. The most widespread and economically important species, Daucus carota L., occurs on almost every continent. The cultivated carrot, subsp. sativus (Hoffm.) Schübl. and G. Martens, has been selected from wild populations that are extremely diverse, especially in the western Mediterranean. The predominant outcrossing and the lack of sexual isolating mechanisms among recognized infraspecific taxa complicate the taxonomy and identification of the wild populations, resulting in widely different interpretations of the number of infraspecific taxa. We measured 36 morphological characters from multiple individuals within each of 155 accessions of D. carota and from ...


2013 Home Demonstration Garden, Cynthia L. Haynes Jan 2014

2013 Home Demonstration Garden, Cynthia L. Haynes

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Themes for the 2013 Home Demonstration Garden Field Days included: 1) grafted tomatoes, 2) tomatoes in raised beds and bags, 3) colored bell pepper cultivar trials, 4) evening or moon garden, and 5) garden of giants.


Strip-Tillage And Row Cover Use In Organically And Conventionally Grown Muskmelon, Jennifer L. Tillman, Ajay Nair, Jean C. Batzer, Mark L. Gleason Jan 2014

Strip-Tillage And Row Cover Use In Organically And Conventionally Grown Muskmelon, Jennifer L. Tillman, Ajay Nair, Jean C. Batzer, Mark L. Gleason

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Growing muskmelon in a more sustainable way involves multiple management practices. Cover crops often are incorporated into the soil before planting the cash crop. However, they also can be “rolled” and used as a ground cover throughout the growing season. The cash crop is planted in small, tilled strips within the residue. This “strip-tillage” technique provides a weed-controlling, moisture-retaining mat that does not need to be removed at the season’s end, as plastic mulch does. The reduction in tillage can improve soil structure and health.


Sustainable Plastic Mulch Options For Vegetable Production Systems, Ajay Nair, Brandon H. Carpenter Jan 2014

Sustainable Plastic Mulch Options For Vegetable Production Systems, Ajay Nair, Brandon H. Carpenter

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

The objective of this trial was to evaluate the use of Greenshift plastic mulch in a lettuce production system.


Comparison Of Organic And Conventional Crops At The Neely-Kinyon Long-Term Agroecological Research Site, Kathleen Delate, Andres P. Glasener, Randy J. Breach Jan 2014

Comparison Of Organic And Conventional Crops At The Neely-Kinyon Long-Term Agroecological Research Site, Kathleen Delate, Andres P. Glasener, Randy J. Breach

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

The Neely-Kinyon Long-term Agroecological Research (LTAR) site was established in 1998 to study the long-term effects of organic production in Iowa.


2013 Home Demonstration Garden, Cynthia L. Haynes Jan 2014

2013 Home Demonstration Garden, Cynthia L. Haynes

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Themes for the 2013 Home Demonstration Garden Field Days included: 1) grafted tomatoes, 2) tomatoes in raised beds and bags, 3) colored bell pepper cultivar trials, 4) evening or moon garden, and 5) garden of giants.


Summer Cover Crop Influence On Fall Vegetable Production, Raymond A. Kruse, Ajay Nair Jan 2014

Summer Cover Crop Influence On Fall Vegetable Production, Raymond A. Kruse, Ajay Nair

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

At the 2012 Fruit and Vegetable Field Day held at the Iowa State University Horticulture Farm, Ames, Iowa, one of the major challenges highlighted by commercial vegetable growers was “weed management.” Growers called for research on sustainable and environmentally conscious (less herbicide) ways of weed management. Use of cover crops to suppress weeds was one of the outcomes of the discussion. The goal of this project was to evaluate and study what advantages exist under Iowa growing conditions for four cover crops to satisfy farmer’s goals. The four cover crops studied were: Buckwheat (cool season broadleaf), Cowpea (warm season ...


2013 Home Demonstration Garden, Cynthia L. Haynes Jan 2014

2013 Home Demonstration Garden, Cynthia L. Haynes

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Themes for the 2013 Home Demonstration Garden Field Days included: 1) grafted tomatoes, 2) tomatoes in raised beds and bags, 3) colored bell pepper cultivar trials, 4) evening or moon garden, and 5) garden of giants.


Perennial Ryegrass Cultivar Study, Nick E. Christians, Daniel J. Strey, Evan J. Alderman Jan 2014

Perennial Ryegrass Cultivar Study, Nick E. Christians, Daniel J. Strey, Evan J. Alderman

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

The National Turfgrass Evaluation Program (NTEP) conducts trials throughout the United States on turfgrass adaptation. This trial was established in September 2010 as a part of the NTEP program. It contains 88 perennial ryegrass cultivars.


Turf-Type Tall Fescue Cultivar Study, Daniel J. Strey, Nick E. Christians Jan 2014

Turf-Type Tall Fescue Cultivar Study, Daniel J. Strey, Nick E. Christians

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

The National Turfgrass Evaluation Program (NTEP) conducts trials throughout the United States on turfgrass adaptation. This trial was established in September 2012 as a part of the NTEP program. Data will be collected over the next five years. This was the first year data was collected on this trial. It contained 16 turf-type tall fescue cultivars.


The Use Of Imidacloprid Patches To Control Japanese Beetles On Roses, Daniel J. Strey, Nick E. Christians, Nicholas P. Howell Jan 2014

The Use Of Imidacloprid Patches To Control Japanese Beetles On Roses, Daniel J. Strey, Nick E. Christians, Nicholas P. Howell

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

The past few years have been difficult for rose growers in the Midwest region due to an increase in Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica) populations. Japanese beetles can cause damage to many different areas on the rose plant. Their first target is normally the rose bud, feeding on pollen. Damage appears as a small, round hole going through the side of the flower bud. Buds that are able to fully open are normally the next target. The damage to the flowers is a small hole in the flower petals. As beetle populations increase, and after the first bloom of the rose ...


Evaluation Of Mechanized Row Cover Establishment For Cantaloupe And Summer Squash, H. Mark Hanna, Brian L. Steward, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jan 2014

Evaluation Of Mechanized Row Cover Establishment For Cantaloupe And Summer Squash, H. Mark Hanna, Brian L. Steward, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Excluding insects by covering rows of cantaloupe or summer squash with spunbond polypropylene material offers an alternative to insecticide application. Labor for manually establishing row covers may be reduced if a satisfactory system to mechanize row cover establishment can be developed. Field tests of a commercial semi-mechanized implement were conducted in medium and coarse soils at two different moisture contents to examine the machine’s ability to successfully insert supporting hoops and lay fabric row cover in these soil conditions. This study also helped identify specific facets which require modification to improve machine performance.

Soil bin tests indicated adequate soil ...


Biochar Application In Potato Production, Ajay Nair, Raymond A. Kruse, Jennifer L. Tillman, Vincent Lawson Jan 2014

Biochar Application In Potato Production, Ajay Nair, Raymond A. Kruse, Jennifer L. Tillman, Vincent Lawson

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Biochar is an organic amendment produced by the process called pyrolysis, which is the burning of biomass in a limited oxygen environment. It can be produced using different biomass types, for example, switch grass, corn residue, or hardwoods. Potential benefits of biochar in cropping systems could include nutrient recycling, soil conditioning, and long-term carbon sequestration. Research in corn and soybean production systems has shown promising results with biochar application, however, research in vegetable cropping systems is lacking.


Strip-Tillage And Row Cover Use In Organically And Conventionally Grown Summer Squash, Jennifer L. Tillman, Ajay Nair, Jean C. Batzer, Mark L. Gleason Jan 2014

Strip-Tillage And Row Cover Use In Organically And Conventionally Grown Summer Squash, Jennifer L. Tillman, Ajay Nair, Jean C. Batzer, Mark L. Gleason

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Growing summer squash in a more sustainable way involves multiple management practices. Cover crops often are incorporated into the soil before planting a cash crop. However, they can also be “rolled” and used as a ground cover throughout the growing season. The cash crop is planted in small, tilled strips within the residue. This “strip-tillage” technique provides a weed-controlling, moisture-retaining mat that does not need to be removed at the season’s end, as plastic mulch does. The reduction in tillage can improve soil structure and health.


The Effects Of Temperature And Light In High Tunnel Primocane Red Raspberry Production—Year 2, Leah B. Riesselman, Gail R. Nonnecke Jan 2014

The Effects Of Temperature And Light In High Tunnel Primocane Red Raspberry Production—Year 2, Leah B. Riesselman, Gail R. Nonnecke

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Climatic factors found in tunnels of the Midwest may show negative effects to primocane growth and development of raspberry. Researchers have found that as air and root-zone temperature exceed 24°C (75.2°F) and 16°C (60.8°F), respectively, the following plant development occurs: decrease in water uptake by primocanes, premature dormancy of lateral and axillary buds, delayed time to fruit ripening, and reduced fruit quality and weight. In addition to temperature, high light (irradiance) causes a decline of fruit yield and quality. Premature dormancy and delayed time-to-flowering occur when irradiance exceed 600 μmol·mˉÇs ...


Integrating Cover Crops In High Tunnel Crop Production, Ajay Nair, Brandon H. Carpenter, Jennifer L. Tillman, Dana L. Jokela Jan 2014

Integrating Cover Crops In High Tunnel Crop Production, Ajay Nair, Brandon H. Carpenter, Jennifer L. Tillman, Dana L. Jokela

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

High tunnels are plastic-covered, passively ventilated and heated structures where crops are grown directly in soil. They have become important tools for Iowa specialty crop producers to increase production of quality crops, extend the season, and increase profitability. The environment in a high tunnel, without rainfall, limited space, and potential climate control requires a unique set of crop management skills. High tunnel production is primarily dominated by tomatoes. Interest among growers focuses on year-round production in high tunnels. A cohesive and focused approach is needed to tackle issues that arise due to continuous production under these structures. One emerging issue ...


Evaluation Of Organic Soybean Varieties And Organic Fertilizer For Organic Popcorn, Kathleen Delate, Andres P. Glasener, Myron C. Rees Jan 2014

Evaluation Of Organic Soybean Varieties And Organic Fertilizer For Organic Popcorn, Kathleen Delate, Andres P. Glasener, Myron C. Rees

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

According to the USDA National Organic Program, certified organic farmers must source organic seed (seed from organically raised crops). The organic seed industry is currently growing in Iowa and the Midwest, and with this growth, organic growers are looking for University-based recommendations on organic varieties to use in Iowa. The Organic Agriculture Program at Iowa State University has been using organic seed at the ISU Southeast Research Farm for 11 years with excellent results. In addition, a new organic fertilizer (Biotic Organic™ 4-4- 4, Perfect Blend, Bellevue, WA) was tested in 2013 for organic popcorn production.


2013 Home Demonstration Garden, Cynthia L. Haynes Jan 2014

2013 Home Demonstration Garden, Cynthia L. Haynes

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Themes for the 2013 Home Demonstration Garden Field Days included: 1) grafted tomatoes, 2) tomatoes in raised beds and bags, 3) colored bell pepper cultivar trials, 4) evening or moon garden, and 5) garden of giants.


Comparison Of Polymer-Coated Urea Fertilizers, Daniel J. Strey, Nick E. Christians Jan 2014

Comparison Of Polymer-Coated Urea Fertilizers, Daniel J. Strey, Nick E. Christians

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

The objective was to compare the nitrogen release rate and turf response to Polyon 44.5- 0-0 and XCU 43-0-0 on Kentucky bluegrass turf maintained at lawn height.


Evaluation Of Wines From The Cold Hardy Wine Grape Cultivar Trial, Paul Tabor, Paul A. Domoto Jan 2014

Evaluation Of Wines From The Cold Hardy Wine Grape Cultivar Trial, Paul Tabor, Paul A. Domoto

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

In conjunction with the Northeast Regional Research project NE-1020 “Multi-state Evaluation of Wine Grape Cultivars and Clones,” Iowa State University established a cold hardy wine grape cultivar trial in 2008 at the ISU Horticulture Research Station (HRS), Ames, Iowa, and Tabor Home Vineyards and Winery (THV), Baldwin, Iowa. Wines were made from the 2012 crop from six selections growing in the THV plot and were evaluated by winemakers and wine grape growers and non-grower/winemakers at two field days in 2013.


Effect Of Biochar On Carrot Production, Brandon H. Carpenter, Ajay Nair Jan 2014

Effect Of Biochar On Carrot Production, Brandon H. Carpenter, Ajay Nair

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Environmental and economic factors are encouraging research into biofuel technologies. One such technology is gaining interest because of its potential to utilize waste streams as well as low quality biomass difficult to process into ethanol. This technology is known as pyrolysis. Pyrolysis is the burning of biomass in a low oxygen environment. Biochar is a byproduct of the pyrolysis process. Biochar has shown potential to improve plant growth in marginal soils. Little research has looked at the effect of growing root crops in soils amended with biochar, or on how biochar might affect the post-harvest quality of root crops like ...


Colored Plastic Mulches For High Tunnel Tomato Production, Ajay Nair, Bernard J. Havlovic Jan 2014

Colored Plastic Mulches For High Tunnel Tomato Production, Ajay Nair, Bernard J. Havlovic

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Weather often is one of the limiting factors for crop production in northern states. Growers in Iowa and other northern climatic regions are increasingly utilizing high tunnels to extend their growing season and increase fruit and vegetable production. In early spring and late fall, high tunnels help warm the air and soil and aid with crop growth and development. However, during summer, temperatures rise quickly in high tunnels and can detrimentally affect crop growth and development.


Phytotoxicity Test Of Amino Acid Complex On T-1 Creeping Bentgrass, Daniel J. Strey, Nick E. Christians Jan 2014

Phytotoxicity Test Of Amino Acid Complex On T-1 Creeping Bentgrass, Daniel J. Strey, Nick E. Christians

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

The objective was to determine if the given products (Table 1) are phytotoxic to turfgrass.


Kentucky Bluegrass Cultivar Study, Nick E. Christians, Daniel J. Strey Jan 2014

Kentucky Bluegrass Cultivar Study, Nick E. Christians, Daniel J. Strey

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

The National Turfgrass Evaluation Program (NTEP) conducts trials throughout the United States on turfgrass adaptation. This trial was established in September 2011 as a part of the NTEP program. It contains 82 Kentucky bluegrass cultivars.


Values-Based Supply Chains: Local And Regional Food Systems In The Upper Midwest United States, Kevin Richard Duerfeldt Jan 2014

Values-Based Supply Chains: Local And Regional Food Systems In The Upper Midwest United States, Kevin Richard Duerfeldt

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In recent years there has been growing public interest in sustainable food systems. One effect of growing interest is the proliferation of values-based supply chains or local food systems. The main limiting factor of local food systems is infrastructure for aggregation and access to supply chains. Food hubs have been identified as one solution. My purpose is to capture valuable data about the state of local foods industries in 2012 and inform organizations developing food hubs. To do this I surveyed characteristics of established food hubs and analyzed local Iowa vineyards and wineries, as a case study of an established ...


Evaluating Horticultural Practices For Sustainable Tomato Production In Kamuli, Uganda, Sharon Mbabazi Tusiime Jan 2014

Evaluating Horticultural Practices For Sustainable Tomato Production In Kamuli, Uganda, Sharon Mbabazi Tusiime

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Tomatoes are a source of income and food security for small-landholder farmers across Uganda, including the Kamuli District. Studies regarding sustainable practices are needed to increase production of the crop and improve farmers' livelihoods. This study investigated three tomato cultivars, Heinz 1370, Nuru F1, and MT 56, pesticide application, staking, and mulching for their effect on yield, disease severity and gross margin of tomato production in the Kamuli District of Uganda. The treatments were tested in a randomized complete block design with a factorial and split-plot arrangement during two growing seasons in 2013. Total and marketable fruit number, marketable fruit ...