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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Iowa Pesticide Education Program Updates Name, Elizabeth J. Buffington, Kristine J. P. Schaefer Dec 2014

Iowa Pesticide Education Program Updates Name, Elizabeth J. Buffington, Kristine J. P. Schaefer

Integrated Crop Management News

Effective December 1, the Pest Management and the Environment (PME) program at Iowa State University Extension and Outreach will be known as Pesticide Safety Education Program (PSEP). The name change better describes the programs offered, audiences served and reflects the program’s emphasis on providing educational information throughout Iowa on the safe and effective use of pesticides.


Bean Leaf Beetles Are Moving To Soybean, Erin W. Hodgson Sep 2014

Bean Leaf Beetles Are Moving To Soybean, Erin W. Hodgson

Erin W. Hodgson

In March, I predicted low overwintering mortality of bean leaf beetles based on our mild winter. You may have noticed adults became active in alfalfa starting in April. They are strongly attracted to soybean and will slowly move as plants emerge this month. The adults fly short distances (less than 167 feet on average) and infestations can be highly aggregated. Some research plots around southern and central Iowa have decent numbers feeding on unifoliates.


Insect Activity Update, Erin W. Hodgson Sep 2014

Insect Activity Update, Erin W. Hodgson

Erin W. Hodgson

During the last week of May, I heard about a few insect sightings in Iowa. The first was a report by ISU Extension and Outreach Field Agronomist Brian Lang in northeastern Iowa. He saw a soybean aphid on VC soybean in his small research plot near Decorah on May 28. I wasn’t surprised, given that part of the state is where we usually first see soybean aphid every year. Winged females deposit a few nymphs per day in May and June. You may need a hand lens to see first instars on small plants (Fig. 1A). Often I confirm ...


Do You Need To Treat For Adult Corn Rootworm This Year?, Erin W. Hodgson, Aaron J. Gassmann Sep 2014

Do You Need To Treat For Adult Corn Rootworm This Year?, Erin W. Hodgson, Aaron J. Gassmann

Aaron J. Gassmann

As reported in an earlier article, corn rootworm egg hatch in 2012 was slightly ahead of a normal year. Adults were first detected in Illinois last week and around Iowa this week. We’ve been getting many questions about when or if it is appropriate to treat the adults. Three factors must be taken into account before a foliar insecticide application is warranted.


Evaluation Of Corn Rootworm Management Practices In Northeast Iowa, Aaron J. Gassmann, Patrick J. Weber Sep 2014

Evaluation Of Corn Rootworm Management Practices In Northeast Iowa, Aaron J. Gassmann, Patrick J. Weber

Aaron J. Gassmann

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Bt corn and soil insecticides, either alone or in combination, for management of corn rootworm. Evaluation of Bt hybrids included Smartstax, YieldGard VT3, Pioneer Optimum AcreMax1, Agrisure 3000GT, and Herculex XTRA. Soil insecticides evaluated were SmartChoice-SB 5G, Counter-SB 20G, Aztec-SB 4.67G, Lorsban 15G, Capture LFR 1.5FL, Aztec 2.1G, Force 3G, and Force 250CS.


Evaluation Of Smartstax, Herculex Xtra, And Conventional Corn For Control Of Corn Earworm, Aaron J. Gassmann, Patrick J. Weber Sep 2014

Evaluation Of Smartstax, Herculex Xtra, And Conventional Corn For Control Of Corn Earworm, Aaron J. Gassmann, Patrick J. Weber

Aaron J. Gassmann

The purpose of this study was to evaluate Smartstax corn, Herculex XTRA, and a nonBt true isoline for control of corn earworm. Data collected include stand counts, total kernels, and damaged kernels.


Expected "Fly Free" Date For Hessian Fly In Iowa, Erin W. Hodgson Aug 2014

Expected "Fly Free" Date For Hessian Fly In Iowa, Erin W. Hodgson

Integrated Crop Management News

With some farmers gaining interest in using cover crops, there are questions about possible pests that may develop with introducing new plants on the farm. Consider these insect-related issues when planting crops in the fall. Hessian fly (Photo 1) is a potentially destructive pest in winter wheat; however, cultural control can minimize the potential damage and economic loss.


Update On Corn Rootworm In Iowa, Erin W. Hodgson Aug 2014

Update On Corn Rootworm In Iowa, Erin W. Hodgson

Integrated Crop Management News

Overall, corn rootworm populations have been dampened in Iowa this season. A few factors likely contributed to this decrease:

  1. An exceptionally harsh winter may have increased mortality of overwintering eggs.
  2. Saturated soils in June may have increased mortality of corn rootworm larvae.
  3. Some fields with extremely high corn rootworm populations were likely rotated out of corn, which disrupts the pests' life cycle. Since 2011, corn production has decreased in Iowa by one-half million acres according to the USDA..
  4. Cooler summer temperatures translate to a slower growth for corn rootworm larvae in the soil, and this may increase natural mortality from ...


Spring Wheat Production And Associated Pests In Conventional And Diversified Cropping Systems In North Central Montana, Andrew W. Lenssen, Dan S. Long, William E. Grey, Sue L. Blodgett, Haynes B. Goosey Aug 2014

Spring Wheat Production And Associated Pests In Conventional And Diversified Cropping Systems In North Central Montana, Andrew W. Lenssen, Dan S. Long, William E. Grey, Sue L. Blodgett, Haynes B. Goosey

Sue Blodgett

The primary focus of this study was to determine impacts of diversification and intensification of the spring wheat–fallow system on spring wheat production, pests, and pest interactions at the field scale.


Soybean Aphid Numbers On The Rise, Erin W. Hodgson Aug 2014

Soybean Aphid Numbers On The Rise, Erin W. Hodgson

Integrated Crop Management News

Since 2000, soybean aphid has been the primary soybean insect pest in Iowa. Infestations are sporadic and unpredictable, but this insect has the ability to cause significant yield loss during periods of optimal reproduction. Several notable infestations have been reported, particularly in north-central Iowa, this week, and therefore scouting to determine population densities is strongly encouraged. Fields that have a fairly uniform infestation with low densities (e.g., 50% of plants infested with an average of 40 aphids per plant) should be closely monitored in August.


Spring Wheat Production And Associated Pests In Conventional And Diversified Cropping Systems In North Central Montana, Andrew W. Lenssen, Dan S. Long, William E. Grey, Sue L. Blodgett, Haynes B. Goosey Jul 2014

Spring Wheat Production And Associated Pests In Conventional And Diversified Cropping Systems In North Central Montana, Andrew W. Lenssen, Dan S. Long, William E. Grey, Sue L. Blodgett, Haynes B. Goosey

Andrew W. Lenssen

The primary focus of this study was to determine impacts of diversification and intensification of the spring wheat–fallow system on spring wheat production, pests, and pest interactions at the field scale.


Yield, Pests, And Water Use Of Durum And Selected Crucifer Oilseeds In Two-Year Rotations, Andrew W. Lenssen, William M. Iversen, Upendra M. Sainju, Thecan Caesar-Tonthat, Sue L. Blodgett, Brett L. Allen, Robert G. Evans Jul 2014

Yield, Pests, And Water Use Of Durum And Selected Crucifer Oilseeds In Two-Year Rotations, Andrew W. Lenssen, William M. Iversen, Upendra M. Sainju, Thecan Caesar-Tonthat, Sue L. Blodgett, Brett L. Allen, Robert G. Evans

Andrew W. Lenssen

Cool-season oilseed crops are potential feedstock for biofuel production, but few studies have compared oilseed-durum (Triticum durum Desf.) rotations on yield, quality, water use, and pests associated with crops. We conducted an experiment under dryland conditions during 2007 to 2010 near Culbertson, MT, comparing crop productivity, water balance, and key weed and arthropod pests of 2-yr oilseed-durum rotations under zero tillage. Rotations included durum with three Brassicaceae sp., camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz], crambe (Crambe abyssinica Hochst. ex R.E. Fries), and canola-quality Brassica juncea L., and fallow. Over 4 yr, B. juncea had the highest seed and oil yields ...


Grasshopper Activity Observed, Erin W. Hodgson Jul 2014

Grasshopper Activity Observed, Erin W. Hodgson

Integrated Crop Management News

Grasshopper activity has been noted this week in Iowa. These insects feed on grasses and weeds, and can become field crops pests. In corn and soybean, feeding is frequently, but not always, restricted to field edges. When crop injury does occur, it usually is related to drought conditions due to a reduction in natural vegetation.


Japanese Beetles Emerge In Iowa, Erin W. Hodgson Jun 2014

Japanese Beetles Emerge In Iowa, Erin W. Hodgson

Integrated Crop Management News

Japanese beetle is becoming a more common field crop pest in Iowa. Literature shows adults need about 1,030 growing degree days (base 50°F) to complete development. Japanese beetles will continue emergence until around 2,150 degree days. Based on accumulating degree day temperatures in 2014, Japanese beetle adults should be active in some areas of southeastern and southwestern Iowa this week (Fig. 1). Expect adults to emerge in central and northern Iowa in about 7-14 days if warm temperatures continue.


Corn Rootworm Egg Hatch Is Underway In 2014, Erin W. Hodgson Jun 2014

Corn Rootworm Egg Hatch Is Underway In 2014, Erin W. Hodgson

Integrated Crop Management News

Corn rootworm egg hatch in Iowa typically occurs from late May to the middle of June, with an average hatching date of June 6. Development is driven by soil temperature and measured by growing degree days. Research suggests about 50 percent of egg hatch occurs between 684-767 accumulated degree days (base 52°F, soil). Cooler spring temperatures mean slower egg maturation in 2014. But a few areas of Iowa are approaching 50 percent corn rootworm egg hatch now (Fig. 1), particularly around Muscatine. Many other regions will be reaching 50 percent egg hatch within two weeks.


Managing Potato Leafhoppers In Alfalfa, Erin W. Hodgson Jun 2014

Managing Potato Leafhoppers In Alfalfa, Erin W. Hodgson

Integrated Crop Management News

There have been recent reports of potato leafhopper in Iowa alfalfa (Photo 1), and it's time to think about assessing alfalfa stands. Potato leafhoppers do not overwinter in Iowa, but they are persistent alfalfa pests every growing season. Storms along the Gulf of Mexico bring adult potato leafhoppers north and drop into fields every spring.


Stalk Borers Are Migrating To Corn, Erin W. Hodgson, Adam Sisson May 2014

Stalk Borers Are Migrating To Corn, Erin W. Hodgson, Adam Sisson

Integrated Crop Management News

Degree days are a useful tool to estimate when common stalk borer larvae begin moving into cornfields. About 10 percent of larvae begin moving to corn after accumulating 1,300-1,400 degree days (base 41°F). Degree days have been slowly accumulating this spring, and southwestern Iowa reached this important benchmark this week (Fig. 1). Scouting for migrating larvae in corn should begin now to make timely treatment decisions.


Black Cutworm Scouting 2014, Adam Sisson, Laura C.H. Jesse, Erin W. Hodgson May 2014

Black Cutworm Scouting 2014, Adam Sisson, Laura C.H. Jesse, Erin W. Hodgson

Integrated Crop Management News

The black cutworm is a sporadic pest that clips early vegetative-stage corn. Scouting for larvae helps to determine if an insecticide application will be a cost effective decision. Scouting dates are based on the peak flight of black cutworm moths and accumulating degree days after the peak flight. The adults migrate north every season, and therefore it can be difficult to determine when moths arrive each spring. After females arrive and lay eggs, degree days are estimated to determine when larvae are capable of cutting corn.


Start Scouting For Alfalfa Weevil With Updated Economic Thresholds, Erin W. Hodgson Apr 2014

Start Scouting For Alfalfa Weevil With Updated Economic Thresholds, Erin W. Hodgson

Integrated Crop Management News

Even though it was an extremely cold winter, some alfalfa weevil adults are expected to survive. Adults will begin moving as soon as temperatures exceed 48°F and begin laying eggs in alfalfa. Alfalfa weevil eggs develop based on temperature, or accumulating degree days, and hatching can start around 200-300 degree days. Start scouting alfalfa fields south of Interstate 80 at 200 degree days and fields north of Interstate 80 at 250 degree days. Based on accumulated temperatures since January, weevils are active in southern Iowa now and scouting to monitor for larval activity should start in southwestern Iowa this ...


Predicted Mortality Of Bean Leaf Beetle Is Highest In 25 Years, Erin W. Hodgson, Adam J. Sisson Apr 2014

Predicted Mortality Of Bean Leaf Beetle Is Highest In 25 Years, Erin W. Hodgson, Adam J. Sisson

Integrated Crop Management News

Bean leaf beetle adults are susceptible to cold weather and most will die when the air temperature falls below -10°C. However, they have adapted to winter by protecting themselves under plant debris and loose soil. An overwintering survival model was developed by Lam and Pedigo from Iowa State University in 2000, and is helpful for predicting winter mortality based on accumulating subfreezing temperatures. Predicted mortality rates in Iowa were extremely high during the 2013-2014 winter and ranged from 89-99 percent (Fig. 1). Not surprisingly, central and northern Iowa experienced colder temperatures, and most of the bean leaf beetle adults ...


Pesticide Record Keeping App Now Available For Android, Kristine J. P. Schaefer Feb 2014

Pesticide Record Keeping App Now Available For Android, Kristine J. P. Schaefer

Integrated Crop Management News

The Iowa State University (ISU) Extension and Outreach Pesticide and Field Records app is now available to Android operating system phone and tablet users. The app, previously only available for iPads, was developed to help producers and agriculture businesses record and maintain pesticide application information. The free app allows users to link information to specific field locations using satellite mapping and document pesticide application information needed to comply with state and federal record keeping requirements. The app also features a product search option that lists Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) product registration numbers and identifies restricted use products.


Evaluation Of Various Technologies For Management Of Larval Corn Rootworm, Aaron J. Gassmann, Patrick J. Weber Jan 2014

Evaluation Of Various Technologies For Management Of Larval Corn Rootworm, Aaron J. Gassmann, Patrick J. Weber

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Bt corn and soil insecticides, either alone or in combination, for management of corn rootworm. Evaluation of Bt hybrids included Agrisure 3000GT, Agrisure 3111, Agrisure 3122 and Herculex XTRA, Pioneer Optimum AcreMax1, Smartstax, and YieldGard VT3. Soil insecticides evaluated were Aztec 2.1G, Aztec-SB 4.67G, Capture LFR 1.5FL, Counter-SB 20G, Force 3G, and SmartChoice- SB 5G.


Attracting Beneficial Insects To Iowa Agricultural Crops Through Floral Provisioning, Thelma T. Heidel-Baker, Matthew E. O'Neal, Jean C. Batzer, Mark L. Gleason Jan 2014

Attracting Beneficial Insects To Iowa Agricultural Crops Through Floral Provisioning, Thelma T. Heidel-Baker, Matthew E. O'Neal, Jean C. Batzer, Mark L. Gleason

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Beneficial insects can provide valuable ecosystem services such as pest control and pollination for agricultural crops, but agricultural crops often provide limited food and refuge resources necessary to these beneficial insects. Planting flowers can provide some of these limited resources such as nectar, pollen, and refuge. Floral provisioning could enhance the beneficial insect community in agricultural crops if flowers are placed adjacent to the crops. This research project explores whether floral provisioning can increase the ecosystem services provided by pollinating and predatory insects in agricultural crops.


Evaluation Of Technologies For Management Of Corn Rootworm Larvae In Northeast Iowa, Aaron J. Gassmann, Patrick J. Weber Jan 2014

Evaluation Of Technologies For Management Of Corn Rootworm Larvae In Northeast Iowa, Aaron J. Gassmann, Patrick J. Weber

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Bt corn and soil insecticides, either alone or in combination, for management of corn rootworm larvae. Evaluation of Bt hybrids included Agrisure 3111, Agrisure 3122, Herculex XTRA, Pioneer Optimum AcreMax1, Smartstax, and YieldGard VT3. Soil insecticides evaluated were Aztec 2.1G, Aztec-SB 4.67G, Capture LFR 1.5FL, Counter-S


Attracting Beneficial Insects To Iowa Agricultural Crops Through Floral Provisioning, Thelma T. Heidel-Baker, Matthew E. O'Neal, Jean C. Batzer, Mark L. Gleason Jan 2014

Attracting Beneficial Insects To Iowa Agricultural Crops Through Floral Provisioning, Thelma T. Heidel-Baker, Matthew E. O'Neal, Jean C. Batzer, Mark L. Gleason

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Beneficial insects can provide valuable ecosystem services such as pest control and pollination for agricultural crops, but agricultural crops often provide limited food and refuge resources necessary to these beneficial insects. Planting flowers can provide some of these limited resources such as nectar, pollen, and refuge. Floral provisioning could enhance the beneficial insect community in agricultural crops if flowers are placed adjacent to the crops. This research project explores whether floral provisioning can increase the ecosystem services provided by pollinating and predatory insects in agricultural crops.


Soybean Aphid Efficacy Evaluation, Erin W. Hodgson, Gregory R. Vannostrand, Kenneth T. Pecinovsky Jan 2014

Soybean Aphid Efficacy Evaluation, Erin W. Hodgson, Gregory R. Vannostrand, Kenneth T. Pecinovsky

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

SOYBEAN, Glycine max (L.), grown in Iowa and most of the north central region of the United States, has not required regular insecticide usage. The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is the most important soybean pest in Iowa and is capable of reducing yield by 40 percent. Nymphs and adults feed on sap within the phloem and can vector several plant viruses. In Iowa, soybean aphids have been a persistent pest that can colonize fields from June through September. Their summer population dynamics are dependent on weather and other environmental conditions.


Evaluation Of Soybean Aphid-Resistant Soybean Lines, Michael T. Mccarville, Matthew E. O'Neal, Kenneth T. Pecinovsky Jan 2014

Evaluation Of Soybean Aphid-Resistant Soybean Lines, Michael T. Mccarville, Matthew E. O'Neal, Kenneth T. Pecinovsky

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a consistent pest of soybean in Iowa. Current management is heavily reliant on the use of insecticides, which can be expensive and time consuming to apply. Soybean varieties resistant to the aphid are available. These varieties primarily include one resistance gene (Rag1) for soybean aphid control. Varieties incorporating two genes (Rag1 + Rag2) have recently become available. We sought to compare soybean lines susceptible to the soybean aphid with lines carrying a single resistance gene (Rag1 or Rag2) and a line carrying two resistance genes (Rag1 + Rag2). We evaluated the lines based on ...


Attracting Beneficial Insects To Iowa Agricultural Crops Through Floral Provisioning, Thelma T. Heidel-Baker, Matthew E. O'Neal, Jean C. Batzer, Mark L. Gleason Jan 2014

Attracting Beneficial Insects To Iowa Agricultural Crops Through Floral Provisioning, Thelma T. Heidel-Baker, Matthew E. O'Neal, Jean C. Batzer, Mark L. Gleason

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Beneficial insects can provide valuable ecosystem services such as pest control and pollination for agricultural crops, but agricultural crops often provide limited food and refuge resources necessary to these beneficial insects. Planting flowers can provide some of these limited resources such as nectar, pollen, and refuge. Floral provisioning could enhance the beneficial insect community in agricultural crops if flowers are placed adjacent to the crops. This research project explores whether floral provisioning can increase the ecosystem services provided by pollinating and predatory insects in agricultural crops.