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Articles 1 - 14 of 14

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Mineral And Protein Blocks And Tubs For Beef Cattle, Jeff Lehmkuhler, Roy Burris, Donna M. Amaral-Phillips Nov 2014

Mineral And Protein Blocks And Tubs For Beef Cattle, Jeff Lehmkuhler, Roy Burris, Donna M. Amaral-Phillips

Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications

Nutritional supplement blocks and tubs are convenient for beef producers, require no investment in feeding troughs and require a limited area for storing. One of the most attractive features is that they lower the labor needed to supplement livestock. Many producers use these products to provide supplemental nutrients to cattle consuming low-quality forages or as a mechanism to promote a more consistent intake of minerals. These products are also attractive to producers who have off-farm employment as they eliminate the need for daily feeding. Yet, they often come at a greater cost per unit of nutrient than more conventional feedstuffs ...


Hypomagnesemic Tetany Or “Grass Tetany”, Michelle Arnold, Jeff Lehmkuhler Sep 2014

Hypomagnesemic Tetany Or “Grass Tetany”, Michelle Arnold, Jeff Lehmkuhler

Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications

Magnesium is a vital component of normal nerve conduction, muscle function, and bone mineral formation. Hypomagnesemic tetany or “grass tetany” is a disorder caused by an abnormally low blood concentration of the essential mineral magnesium (Mg). Synonyms for this disorder include spring tetany, grass staggers, wheat pasture poisoning, or lactation tetany.


Brassicas: Be Aware Of The Animal Health Risks, Michelle Arnold, Jeff Lehmkuhler Aug 2014

Brassicas: Be Aware Of The Animal Health Risks, Michelle Arnold, Jeff Lehmkuhler

Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications

Winter annuals are often used to extend the grazing season. These forages can be used as supplemental feed when lower quality perennial forages dominate or to provide grazing at times when other forages are not available. On farms where row crops are grown, the combination of crop residues and fall growth of annual crops can allow livestock grazing to be extended well into the winter months. The annuals provide a cover for the soil during winter as well. Winter annuals planted in the early fall will allow grazing in late fall to early winter similar to stockpiled fescue. Based on ...


Willingness To Adopt Best Management Practices By Beef Cattle Producers In A Southeastern Tennessee Watershed, Alicia Marie Signore Aug 2014

Willingness To Adopt Best Management Practices By Beef Cattle Producers In A Southeastern Tennessee Watershed, Alicia Marie Signore

Masters Theses

Extensive beef cattle farming in the ridge and valley region of East Tennessee suggests that cattle producers could play an important role in improving water quality through the adoption of livestock best management practices (BMPs). This study examines factors influencing willingness to adopt four BMPs—rotational grazing, pasture improvement, stream water crossing, and water tank systems—by beef cattle operations in a southeast Tennessee watershed. Factors examined include farm and farmer characteristics, farmer attitudes, and a hypothetical incentive program encouraging adoption of these practices. Data was collected through a mail survey of 5,150 farmland owners in McMinn, Bradley, and ...


Fescue Toxicosis, Michelle Arnold, Cynthia Gaskill, S. Ray Smith Jul 2014

Fescue Toxicosis, Michelle Arnold, Cynthia Gaskill, S. Ray Smith

Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications

Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] is a cool-season, perennial grass frequently infected with the fungal endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum. An endophyte is a fungus or bacteria that lives entirely within the tissue spaces of plants and is only visible microscopically. The plant and fungus enjoy a relationship that is symbiotic—mutually beneficial to both organisms. The fungus has free access to the plant’s nutrients and the plant provides a means for the endophyte to reproduce through infected seeds. The fungus, in turn, produces chemicals (ergot alkaloids) that function as chemical defenses, making the plant more vigorous, pest-resistant, drought-resistant, and ...


Cyanide Poisoning In Ruminants, Michelle Arnold, Cynthia Gaskill, S. Ray Smith, Garry D. Lacefield Apr 2014

Cyanide Poisoning In Ruminants, Michelle Arnold, Cynthia Gaskill, S. Ray Smith, Garry D. Lacefield

Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications

Prussic acid, cyanide, or hydrocyanic acid are all terms relating to the same toxic substance. Hydrogen cyanide was first isolated from a blue dye (Prussian blue) and because of its acidic nature it became known by the common name “prussic acid.” Cyanide is one of the most rapidly acting toxins that affect cattle.


Ergotism, Michelle Arnold Apr 2014

Ergotism, Michelle Arnold

Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications

Ergotism and fescue toxicosis are clinically similar syndromes caused by consuming plants containing ergot alkaloids. The toxic effects and mechanisms of action are similar in both syndromes although the alkaloids are produced by different species of fungi. Ergot is a fungus that grows on the seed head of cereal grains and grasses. The term “ergot” is used in general as a common name for the Claviceps fungi or it may be used more specifically when referring to the ergot body of Claviceps purpurea when present on rye. These fungi parasitize the ovary of the developing grass flower and prevent development ...


Polymorphisms In Calpastatin And Mu-Calpain Genes Are Associated With Beef Iron Content, E. Casas, Q. Duan, M. J. Schneider, S. D. Shackelford, Tommy L. Wheeler, Larry V. Cundiff, James M. Reecy Apr 2014

Polymorphisms In Calpastatin And Mu-Calpain Genes Are Associated With Beef Iron Content, E. Casas, Q. Duan, M. J. Schneider, S. D. Shackelford, Tommy L. Wheeler, Larry V. Cundiff, James M. Reecy

Animal Science Publications

The objective of this study was to assess the association of markers in the calpastatin and mu-calpain loci with iron in beef cattle muscle. The population consisted of 259 cross-bred steers from Beefmaster, Brangus, Bonsmara, Romosinuano, Hereford and Angus sires. Total iron and heme iron concentrations were measured. Markers in the calpastatin (referred to as CAST) and mu-calpain (referred to asCAPN4751) genes were used to assess their association with iron levels. The mean and standard error for iron and heme iron content in the population was 35.6 ± 1.3 μg and 27.1 ± 1.4 μg respectively. Significant ...


Shakers - South Union, Ky. (Sc 1395), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives Mar 2014

Shakers - South Union, Ky. (Sc 1395), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives

MSS Finding Aids

Finding aid only for Manuscripts Small Collection 1395. Catalog of garden seeds grown by Shaker society at South Union, Kentucky, 1867; Shaker letterhead with cake recipe; and instructions for growing summer turnips.


Nitrate Poisoning, Michelle Arnold, Cynthia Gaskill, Jeff Lehmkuhler, S. Ray Smith Mar 2014

Nitrate Poisoning, Michelle Arnold, Cynthia Gaskill, Jeff Lehmkuhler, S. Ray Smith

Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications

Nitrates are present in all plants, but normally their concentrations are not excessive. Under normal growing conditions, nitrate from the soil is absorbed by the roots of forage plants, and is supplied to the upper portions of the plant (primarily leaves) where it is converted into plant protein. However, adverse environmental conditions (such as drought), sudden weather changes (cool, cloudy weather), leaf damage (due to hail, frost, or herbicides), or heavy fertilization with nitrogen, can cause plants to develop and retain potentially dangerous levels of nitrate. The lower stalks and stems at the base of the plant are the site ...


Worldwide Patterns Of Ancestry, Divergence, And Admixture In Domesticated Cattle, Jared E. Decker, Stephanie D. Mckay, Megan M. Rolf, Jaewoo Kim, Antonio Molina Alcalá, Tad S. Sonstegard, Olivier Hanotte, Anders Götherström, Christopher M. Seabury, Lisa Praharani, Masroor Ellahi Babar, Luciana Correia De Almeida Regitano, Mehmet Ali Yildiz, Michael P. Heaton, Wan-Sheng Liu, Chu-Zhao Lei, James M. Reecy, Muhammad Saif-Ur-Rehman, Robert D. Schnabel, Jeremy F. Taylor Mar 2014

Worldwide Patterns Of Ancestry, Divergence, And Admixture In Domesticated Cattle, Jared E. Decker, Stephanie D. Mckay, Megan M. Rolf, Jaewoo Kim, Antonio Molina Alcalá, Tad S. Sonstegard, Olivier Hanotte, Anders Götherström, Christopher M. Seabury, Lisa Praharani, Masroor Ellahi Babar, Luciana Correia De Almeida Regitano, Mehmet Ali Yildiz, Michael P. Heaton, Wan-Sheng Liu, Chu-Zhao Lei, James M. Reecy, Muhammad Saif-Ur-Rehman, Robert D. Schnabel, Jeremy F. Taylor

Animal Science Publications

The domestication and development of cattle has considerably impacted human societies, but the histories of cattle breeds and populations have been poorly understood especially for African, Asian, and American breeds. Using genotypes from 43,043 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 1,543 animals, we evaluate the population structure of 134 domesticated bovid breeds. Regardless of the analytical method or sample subset, the three major groups of Asian indicine, Eurasian taurine, and African taurine were consistently observed. Patterns of geographic dispersal resulting from co-migration with humans and exportation are recognizable in phylogenetic networks. All analytical methods reveal patterns of ...


Beef Cattle Nutrition, Minerals, Troy D. Cooper, Darrell Rothlisberger, Dale Zobell Feb 2014

Beef Cattle Nutrition, Minerals, Troy D. Cooper, Darrell Rothlisberger, Dale Zobell

All Current Publications

Beef cattle require a number of dietary mineral elements for regular bodily maintenance, growth and reproduction. Minerals that are essential in larger amounts are labeled as major or macro elements. Those needed in smaller amounts are called micro, minor or trace minerals. These terms, have no relationship to the metabolic significance of a mineral in the diet. A trace mineral can be as crucial to the health and performance of an animal as a major mineral.


Determining The Optimal Dietary Roughage Source And Inclusion To Decrease Hydrogen Sulfide In Steers Fed High-Sulfur Finishing Diets, Sara Morine Jan 2014

Determining The Optimal Dietary Roughage Source And Inclusion To Decrease Hydrogen Sulfide In Steers Fed High-Sulfur Finishing Diets, Sara Morine

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Commonly, protein and energy sources in feedlot cattle diets in the United States are co-products of the ethanol industry, such as dried distillers grains plus solubles. However, the inclusion of co-products is limited by the high sulfur content from the use of sulfuric acid in the ethanol production process. High sulfur diets have been shown to decrease cattle growth performance and may lead to sulfur toxicity. Dietary sulfate is reduced to sulfide or hydrogen sulfide by ruminal sulfate reducing bacteria. This process is pH dependent, thus increasing ruminal pH is thought to decrease hydrogen sulfide production. Previous research has shown ...


Grazing Management Effects On Environmental Quality Of Riparian And Upland Grassland Ecosystems, Justin Bisinger Jan 2014

Grazing Management Effects On Environmental Quality Of Riparian And Upland Grassland Ecosystems, Justin Bisinger

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Grazing cattle in grasslands can impact many ecosystems services including the movement of sediment and nutrients to water bodies, biodiversity, and wildlife habitat. In riparian grassland ecosystems congregation of cattle in or near streams may increase the sediment, nutrient, and pathogen loading of surface water resources, however the impact of cattle on water bodies may be limited through pasture characteristics or management practices that reduce congregation of cattle in or near streams. The first study in this thesis was designed to determine the effects of pasture size, stream access, and off-stream water on the presence of cattle near pasture streams ...