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Articles 1 - 15 of 15

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Miscanthus Sacchariflorus – Biofuel Parent Or New Weed?, Catherine L. Bonin, Emily A. Heaton, Jessica Barb Nov 2014

Miscanthus Sacchariflorus – Biofuel Parent Or New Weed?, Catherine L. Bonin, Emily A. Heaton, Jessica Barb

Agronomy Publications

The perennial grass triploid Miscanthus × giganteus is a promising renewable bioenergy feedstock in the United States and Europe. Originating from eastern Asia, this species is a sterile hybrid cross between M. sinensis and M. sacchariflorus. While research has begun to examine the impacts of M. sinensis and triploid M. × giganteus on the landscape, M. sacchariflorus has been largely overlooked in the peer-reviewed literature. This review article discusses the origin, uses, distribution, and invasive potential of M. sacchariflorus. M. sacchariflorus is capable of producing high yields (10.7 t DM ha−1 yr−1), generally does not reproduce by seed, and ...


Switchgrass Response To Nitrogen Fertilizer Across Diverse Environments In The Usa: A Regional Feedstock Partnership Report, C. O. Hong, V. N. Owens, D. Bransby, R. Farris, J. Fike, E. Heaton, S. Kim, H. Mayton, R. Mitchell, D. Viands Sep 2014

Switchgrass Response To Nitrogen Fertilizer Across Diverse Environments In The Usa: A Regional Feedstock Partnership Report, C. O. Hong, V. N. Owens, D. Bransby, R. Farris, J. Fike, E. Heaton, S. Kim, H. Mayton, R. Mitchell, D. Viands

Agronomy Publications

The Regional Feedstock Partnership is a collaborative effort between the Sun Grant Initiative (through Land Grant Universities), the US Department of Energy, and the US Department of Agriculture. One segment of this partnership is the field-scale evaluation of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) in diverse sites across the USA. Switchgrass was planted (11.2 kg PLS ha−1 ) in replicated plots in New York, Oklahoma, South Dakota, and Virginia in 2008 and in Iowa in 2009. Adapted switchgrass cultivars were selected for each location and baseline soil samples collected before planting. Nitrogen fertilizer (0, 56, and 112 kg N ha−1 ...


Biomass Scoping Study: Opportunities For Agriculture In Western Australia, Kim Brooksbank, Mitchell Lever, Harriet Paterson, Melissa Weybury Aug 2014

Biomass Scoping Study: Opportunities For Agriculture In Western Australia, Kim Brooksbank, Mitchell Lever, Harriet Paterson, Melissa Weybury

Bulletins 4000 -

This report aims to provide a summary of national and international activity in the use of agricultural by-products for the production of bioenergy and biofuels. The summary is primarily an internal report for the Department of Agriculture and Food, Western Australia (DAFWA), but will hopefully be of some value to industry proponents that are interested in pursuing the opportunities provided by what are currently low value agricultural waste products. We outline three processes for obtaining energy from these by-products that may be appropriate for the farming sector in Western Australia (WA).


Short-Term And Long-Term Time Course Studies Of Turmeric (Curcuma Longa L.) Microrhizome Development In Vitro, Jeffrey Adelberg, Matthew M. Cousins Jul 2014

Short-Term And Long-Term Time Course Studies Of Turmeric (Curcuma Longa L.) Microrhizome Development In Vitro, Jeffrey Adelberg, Matthew M. Cousins

Jeffrey W Adelberg

Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) plantlets were cultured in MS (Murashige and Skoog Physiol Plant 15:473–497, 1962) liquid medium with 6% sucrose. Microrhizome development was observed in the presence of methyl jasmonate (MeJa) (0, 5 and 16 μM) and benzyladenine (BA) (0, 0.32 and 1 μM). Leaf, root, rhizome growth, and sugar use were measured weekly for 6 weeks in small vessels (180 ml) and four times in 23 weeks in larger vessels (2.5 l). MeJa reduced leaf, root, and rhizome biomass. BA had a positive effect on biomass accumulation. Microrhizome mass increased at a linear rate ...


Investigation Of Process Variables In The Densification Of Corn Stover Briquettes, Curtis Peder Thoreson, Keith E. Webster, Matthew J. Darr, Emily J. Kapler Jun 2014

Investigation Of Process Variables In The Densification Of Corn Stover Briquettes, Curtis Peder Thoreson, Keith E. Webster, Matthew J. Darr, Emily J. Kapler

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The bulk density of raw corn stover is a major limitation to its large-scale viability as a biomass feedstock. Raw corn stover has a bulk density of 50 kg/m3, which creates significant transportation costs and limits the optimization of transport logistics. Producing a densified corn stover product during harvest would reduce harvest and transportation costs, resulting in viable pathways for the use of corn stover as a biomass feedstock. This research investigated the effect of different process variables (compression pressure, moisture content, particle size, and material composition) on a densification method that produces briquettes from raw corn stover. A ...


Opportunities For Energy Crop Production Based On Subfield Scale Distribution Of Profitability, Ian J. Bonner, Kara G. Cafferty, David J. Muth, Mark D. Tomer, David E. James, Sarah A. Porter, Douglas L. Karlen Jan 2014

Opportunities For Energy Crop Production Based On Subfield Scale Distribution Of Profitability, Ian J. Bonner, Kara G. Cafferty, David J. Muth, Mark D. Tomer, David E. James, Sarah A. Porter, Douglas L. Karlen

David J. Muth

Incorporation of dedicated herbaceous energy crops into row crop landscapes is a promising means to supply an expanding biofuel industry while benefiting soil and water quality and increasing biodiversity. Despite these positive traits, energy crops remain largely unaccepted due to concerns over their practicality and cost of implementation. This paper presents a case study for Hardin County, Iowa, to demonstrate how subfield decision making can be used to target candidate areas for conversion to energy crop production. Estimates of variability in row crop production at a subfield level are used to model the economic performance of corn (Zea mays L ...


Switchgrass Yield And Quality With Multiple Fertilizer Applications And Harvest Dates, Thomas Clarkson Keene Jan 2014

Switchgrass Yield And Quality With Multiple Fertilizer Applications And Harvest Dates, Thomas Clarkson Keene

Theses and Dissertations--Plant and Soil Sciences

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is an important native warm-season grass for biomass and forage production in the U.S. This research determined the effect of fertilizer type (conventional, manure, and biosolids) and rate on switchgrass biomass yield and forage quality. Fertilizers were added at 0, 33, 67, 100, and 134 kg N ha-1 on established stands of ‘Kanlow’ switchgrass in three northeastern Kentucky counties. Soils across sites ranged from recently cleared forestland (low pH, P, and K) to productive cropland (high pH, P and K). Stands were sampled for forage nutritive value in June, simulating a hay harvest. Nutritive ...


Safety And Health In On-Farm Biomass Production And Processing, Douglas H. Schlaufer, Aaron M. Yoder, Dennis J. Murphy, Charles V. Schwab, Abraham F. Dehart Jan 2014

Safety And Health In On-Farm Biomass Production And Processing, Douglas H. Schlaufer, Aaron M. Yoder, Dennis J. Murphy, Charles V. Schwab, Abraham F. Dehart

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

There is significant interest in biomass production ranging from government agencies to the private sector, both inside and outside of the traditional production agricultural setting. This interest has led to an increase in the development and production of biomass crops. Much of this effort has focused on specific segments of the process, and more specifically on the mechanics of these individual segments. From a review of the scientific literature, it is seen that little effort has been put into identifying, classifying, and preventing safety hazards in on-farm biomass production systems. This article describes the current status of the knowledge pertaining ...


Perceptions Of Secondary School Agriculture Teachers Regarding Biomass Production Education In Iowa, Guang Han Jan 2014

Perceptions Of Secondary School Agriculture Teachers Regarding Biomass Production Education In Iowa, Guang Han

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

With the boom of biorenewable energy, biomass production has become an important segment in agriculture industry (Iowa Energy Center, 2013). A higher workforce will be needed for this burgeoning biomass energy industry (Iowa Workforce Development, n. d.). Instructional topics in agricultural education should take the form of

problems and questions faced by the agriculture industry itself (Phipps, Osborne, Dyer, & Ball, 2008). This study sought to assess the perceptions of secondary agriculture teachers regarding biomass production education in Iowa. Results of this study indicated that teachers held strongly to moderately positive perceptions toward biomass production and moderately positive perceptions toward teaching ...


The Effect Of Process Variables On Pyrolysis In A Freefall Reactor, Preston Gable Jan 2014

The Effect Of Process Variables On Pyrolysis In A Freefall Reactor, Preston Gable

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The focus of this work is to test variables of fast pyrolysis conditions in a free fall reactor in order to better understand their impact on pyrolysis products, specifically optimization of bio-oil yields. In the first study, a design of experiments was performed and products were analyzed to evaluate the effects of temperature, sweep gas flow rates, and particle heating time, on bio-oil yields. This study proved particle heating time to be a very important variable effecting bio-oil yields, and that a heating time of greater than the traditionally assumed two seconds must be achieved in order to optimize yields ...


Soil Moisture Patterns And Hydraulic Properties Associated With Alternative Biomass Cropping Systems Across A Landscape Gradient, Usman Anwar Jan 2014

Soil Moisture Patterns And Hydraulic Properties Associated With Alternative Biomass Cropping Systems Across A Landscape Gradient, Usman Anwar

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Predicting the hydrologic consequences of biomass cropping systems requires an understanding of how different crops and management practices affect soil hydraulic properties across space and time. To inform such predictions, I investigated the impacts of five biomass cropping systems on the hydraulic properties of soils across a landscape gradient in wet, dry, and average rainfall years. I used data from 2010 - 2012 on monthly volumetric soil moisture content and data from 2009 - 2013 on changes in saturated hydraulic conductivity to measure significant differences in mean soil moisture content among five cropping systems across five landscape positions. My results suggest moisture ...


Automated Logistic Processing And Downtime Analysis Of Commercial Level Multi-Pass Corn Stover Harvesting Systems, Jeff C. Askey Jan 2014

Automated Logistic Processing And Downtime Analysis Of Commercial Level Multi-Pass Corn Stover Harvesting Systems, Jeff C. Askey

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

As cellulosic ethanol production reaches commercial scale, it is important to maximize efficiencies throughout the supply chain in order to keep an economically feasible feedstock. One important sub-process is the harvesting of feedstock that will be converted into ethanol. The cost to harvest and transport corn stover is a large component of the total cost and is estimated at $82/std. ton; however, this can be reduced to $47/std. ton with improvements to the supply chain (Shah, 2013).

For a large scale facility, capable of producing 30 million gallons of ethanol, 375,000 tons of dry material per year ...


Utilization Of Durian Biomass For Biorenewable Applications, Ahmad Safuan Bin Bujang Jan 2014

Utilization Of Durian Biomass For Biorenewable Applications, Ahmad Safuan Bin Bujang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The utilization of tropical fruit biomass as feedstock for biorenewable resources is an attractive proposition due to its abundance and potential to reduce reliance on conventional sources as well as the overall economic gain to all stakeholders. This study aims to pave the way towards successful and viable utilization of this feedstock by exploring and examining key physical and chemical traits of durian biomass, a major tropical fruit crop in Malaysia.

The study was divided into three main parts: identification of durian biomass moisture test method, characterization of physical and chemical properties of durian biomass for thermochemical conversion, and composting ...


Safety And Health In Biomass Production, Transportation, And Storage: A Commentary Based On The Biomass And Biofuels Session At The 2013 North American Agricultural Safety Summit, Aaron M. Yoder, Charles V. Schwab, Paul Gunderson, Dennis Murphy Jan 2014

Safety And Health In Biomass Production, Transportation, And Storage: A Commentary Based On The Biomass And Biofuels Session At The 2013 North American Agricultural Safety Summit, Aaron M. Yoder, Charles V. Schwab, Paul Gunderson, Dennis Murphy

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

There is significant interest in biomass production ranging from government agencies to the private sector, both inside and outside of the traditional production agricultural setting. This interest has led to an increase in the development and production of biomass crops. Much of this effort has focused on specific segments of the process, and more specifically on the mechanics of these individual segments. From a review of scientific literature, it is seen that little effort has been put into identifying, classifying and preventing safety hazards in on-farm biomass production systems. This commentary describes the current status of the knowledge pertaining to ...


Opportunities For Energy Crop Production Based On Subfield Scale Distribution Of Profitability, Ian J. Bonner, Kara G. Cafferty, David J. Muth, Mark D. Tomer, David E. James, Sarah A. Porter, Douglas L. Karlen Dec 2013

Opportunities For Energy Crop Production Based On Subfield Scale Distribution Of Profitability, Ian J. Bonner, Kara G. Cafferty, David J. Muth, Mark D. Tomer, David E. James, Sarah A. Porter, Douglas L. Karlen

Douglas L Karlen

Incorporation of dedicated herbaceous energy crops into row crop landscapes is a promising means to supply an expanding biofuel industry while benefiting soil and water quality and increasing biodiversity. Despite these positive traits, energy crops remain largely unaccepted due to concerns over their practicality and cost of implementation. This paper presents a case study for Hardin County, Iowa, to demonstrate how subfield decision making can be used to target candidate areas for conversion to energy crop production. Estimates of variability in row crop production at a subfield level are used to model the economic performance of corn (Zea mays L ...