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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Impact Of Liquid Swine Manure Application And Cover Crops On Groundwater Quality, Carl H. Pederson, Matthew J. Helmers, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Antonio P. Mallarino Nov 2014

Impact Of Liquid Swine Manure Application And Cover Crops On Groundwater Quality, Carl H. Pederson, Matthew J. Helmers, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Antonio P. Mallarino

Matthew J. Helmers

The primary objective of this project was to determine the impact of appropriate rates of swine manure applications to corn and soybeans based on nitrogen and phosphorus requirements of crops, soil phosphorus accumulation, and the potential of nitrate and phosphorus leaching to groundwater. Another purpose of this long-term experimental study was to develop and recommend appropriate manure and nutrient management practices to producers to minimize water contamination potential and enhance the use of swine manure as fertilizer. A third component of this study was to determine the potential effects of rye as a cover crop to reduce nitrate loss to ...


Pay Attention To Stewardship Requirements For Biotech Grains, Charles R. Hurburgh Oct 2014

Pay Attention To Stewardship Requirements For Biotech Grains, Charles R. Hurburgh

Integrated Crop Management News

Most of us have been following developments in biotechnology approval for many years. The most recent issue is the non-approval of certain corn events by China. Viptera (MIR162) corn has not been approved there since its introduction in 2010; Duracade, new this year, is in the same situation. The greatest impact of the Chinese situation is on distillers grains from ethanol production. China is a major importer of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS); much less so for whole corn.


Mycotoxins Videos Released, Charles R. Hurburgh, Alison E. Robertson, Erin Louise Bowers Oct 2014

Mycotoxins Videos Released, Charles R. Hurburgh, Alison E. Robertson, Erin Louise Bowers

Integrated Crop Management News

For a more in-depth discussion and overview of mycotoxins, the Grain Quality Initiative and the Crop Advisor Institutehave prepared two video modules, Mycotoxins in Feed and Grain Industries.


Update On 2014 Crop Quality, Charles R. Hurburgh, Alison E. Robertson, Erin Louise Bowers Oct 2014

Update On 2014 Crop Quality, Charles R. Hurburgh, Alison E. Robertson, Erin Louise Bowers

Integrated Crop Management News

It seems like a broken record...weather changes have shifted expectations of new crop corn quality. Three weeks ago, somewhat wetter corn than normal but high quality was the forecast. It is clear that the wetter part will come true; early harvest moistures are generally coming in at 18 – 22 percent, which is above average but not high enough to cause severe complications in drying. Field drydown is probably nearly over so do not expect much change in moisture from here on.


The Impact Of Prairie Strips On Aphidophagous Predator Abundance And Soybean Aphid Predation In Agricultural Catchments, Rachael Cox, Matthew E. O'Neal, Rene Hessel, Lisa A. Schulte, Matthew J. Helmers Oct 2014

The Impact Of Prairie Strips On Aphidophagous Predator Abundance And Soybean Aphid Predation In Agricultural Catchments, Rachael Cox, Matthew E. O'Neal, Rene Hessel, Lisa A. Schulte, Matthew J. Helmers

Entomology Publications

Reconstructing prairie vegetation in row crop-dominated agricultural landscapes may contribute to several ecosystem services, including the biological control of insect pests, such as the soybean aphid Aphis glycines Matsumura. The influence of the amount and configuration of reconstructed prairie vegetation on the delivery of ecosystem services was investigated in several small catchments at Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge in Iowa. Treatments include catchments entirely in row crops under a no-till, corn—soybean (Zea maysL.—Glycine max [L.] Merrill) rotation, catchments with 10% of the land in prairie located at the base, and catchments with 10 or 20% of the ...


Manure Storage & Handling—Aeration Overview, Daniel S. Andersen, Jay D. Harmon, Steven J. Hoff, Angela M. Rieck-Hinz Sep 2014

Manure Storage & Handling—Aeration Overview, Daniel S. Andersen, Jay D. Harmon, Steven J. Hoff, Angela M. Rieck-Hinz

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

Aeration is the process of mixing air into the manure to promote the growth of aerobic bacteria. Oxygen must be supplied either naturally, mechanically through mixing, or using oxygen diffusion systems. This technology can provide dramatic odor reduction from livestock waste management facilities, but has not found frequent application in agriculture due to intensive energy use and resulting added utility costs.

This fact sheet is part of the Air Management Practices Assessment Tool (AMPAT) developed at Iowa State University and funded by the National Pork Board. Additional resources can be found on the AMPAT web page at: www.agronext.iastate ...


July Spray Applications, Clarke Mcgrath, H. Mark Hanna Jul 2014

July Spray Applications, Clarke Mcgrath, H. Mark Hanna

Integrated Crop Management News

Applicators using ground sprayers for herbicide may be using higher speeds to catch up with weeds and cover more acres in a narrow time window. If so, they should consider the travel speed they've used to calculate appropriate nozzle size. If field speed increases by 25% (e.g., going from 12 to 15 mi/h), spray pressure for a given nozzle must increase by 56% (e.g., from 40 psi to 63 psi) to maintain output. A better choice to reduce smaller droplets and minimize drift would be to increase nozzle size.


Farm Energy: Case Studies—Tractor Fuel Consumption At Nashua, H. Mark Hanna, Dana D. Schweitzer Apr 2014

Farm Energy: Case Studies—Tractor Fuel Consumption At Nashua, H. Mark Hanna, Dana D. Schweitzer

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

A recent case study at the Iowa State University Northeast Research and Demonstration Farm looked at techniques such as shifting to a higher gear and pulling back on the tractor's throttle as a way to reduce fuel consumption on Iowa farms.


Animal Housing—Electrostatic Precipitation Overview, Jay D. Harmon, Steven J. Hoff, Angela M. Rieck-Hinz Mar 2014

Animal Housing—Electrostatic Precipitation Overview, Jay D. Harmon, Steven J. Hoff, Angela M. Rieck-Hinz

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

Electrostatic precipitation can be used to reduce emissions, odor and dust from animal housing. Electrostatic systems work by imparting a negative charge on dust particles, causing them to stick to grounded surfaces such as gates, floors and walls.

This fact sheet is part of the Air Management Practices Assessment Tool (AMPAT) developed at Iowa State University and funded by the National Pork Board. Additional resources can be found on the AMPAT web page at: www.agronext.iastate.edu/ampat


Heat Lamp Vs. Heat Mat As Localized Heat Source In Swine Farrowing Crate, John P. Stinn, Hongwei Xin Jan 2014

Heat Lamp Vs. Heat Mat As Localized Heat Source In Swine Farrowing Crate, John P. Stinn, Hongwei Xin

Animal Industry Report

Three, 40-crate farrowing rooms were selected for this comparison study. Half of each room used heat lamps for localized piglet heating while the other half of each room used heat mats. Sixteen turns over 12 months were monitored for power use, piglet mortality, and average weight gain. The only significant impact of either localized heating system was on the power use, where the mats were 36% lower than the lamps.


Investigating And Mitigating The Causes Of Foam Accumulation On Swine Manure Deep Pits, Daniel S. Andersen, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Brian J. Kerr, Steven L. Trabue Jan 2014

Investigating And Mitigating The Causes Of Foam Accumulation On Swine Manure Deep Pits, Daniel S. Andersen, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Brian J. Kerr, Steven L. Trabue

Animal Industry Report

The appearance of foam on the surface of deep-pit swine manure storages is a serious concern for the pork industry. Manure foam has the capacity to trap gases produced by the anaerobic decomposition of the manure, leading to dangerous flammable gas concentrations upon foam disruption. Field sampling and feeding trials were conducted to determine manure characteristics leading to foam accumulation. Results indicated that foaming pits were more biologically active having lower volatile fatty acid contents and higher rates of methane production. Research is being undertaken to develop foam mitigation strategies based on these findings.


Demonstrating Farrowing Alternatives For Small-Farms: Insulated Tents For Sows And Pigs, Year One, Peter J. Lammers, Jay D. Harmon, Lyle T. Rossiter, Mark S. Honeyman Jan 2014

Demonstrating Farrowing Alternatives For Small-Farms: Insulated Tents For Sows And Pigs, Year One, Peter J. Lammers, Jay D. Harmon, Lyle T. Rossiter, Mark S. Honeyman

Animal Industry Report

Farmers raising pigs for niche markets are usually prohibited from using farrowing crates and must provide bedding and greater space per sow than typical commodity production. Because current consumer expectations dictate that pigs be produced year-round, crate-free farrowing options for cold weather are necessary and many niche pork companies will not accept new producers into their program unless they agree to farrow pigs during winter months. Several crate-free farrowing systems for cold weather have been demonstrated in Iowa, however those alternatives generally require a permanent, well-insulated structure and/or tremendous amounts of energy to provide a suitable environment for the ...


County-Level Assessment Of Manure Nutrient Availability Relative To Crop Nutrient Capacity In Iowa, Daniel S. Andersen Jan 2014

County-Level Assessment Of Manure Nutrient Availability Relative To Crop Nutrient Capacity In Iowa, Daniel S. Andersen

Animal Industry Report

During the twentieth century, agricultural production strived to achieve increased food production in order to satisfy demands. This led to increased farm sizes and an operational separation of crop and livestock production. Society fears that the trend of increasing industrialization of animal agriculture has resulted in concentration of waste products associated with their production over relatively small geographic regions that are spatially segregated from crop production areas. A county level analysis of manure nutrients relative to crop nutrient capacity was conducted to assess the prevalence of these issues in Iowa. Results indicated that in general all counties had sufficient nutrient ...


Optimizing Tunnel Ventilation Systems For Summer Conditions, John P. Stinn, Timothy A. Shepherd, Hongwei Xin Jan 2014

Optimizing Tunnel Ventilation Systems For Summer Conditions, John P. Stinn, Timothy A. Shepherd, Hongwei Xin

Animal Industry Report

Tunnel ventilation is a popular choice for livestock housing systems as it allows producers to elevate the wind speed across the animals to increase heat dissipation during summer conditions. Recent work with tunnel-ventilated facilities has shown that at maximum ventilation stage the building static pressure (SP) often exceeds 0.12 inches of H2O. The effects of reducing SP on electrical consumption and ventilation performance were investigated. Decreasing SP of the tunnel-ventilated barn increased the overall ventilation rate, increased air velocity within the barn, and decreased the temperature rise along the length of the barn. From May to September, maintaining a ...


Corn Grown Under Drought-Stressed Conditions Does Not Have Lower Energy Content Than Corn Grown In A Previous “Normal” Year, Monica A. Newman, John F. Patience, Charles R. Hurburgh Jan 2014

Corn Grown Under Drought-Stressed Conditions Does Not Have Lower Energy Content Than Corn Grown In A Previous “Normal” Year, Monica A. Newman, John F. Patience, Charles R. Hurburgh

Animal Industry Report

Record-breaking heat and lack of rainfall during the 2012 growing season resulted in drought-stressed growing conditions. An experiment was conducted to investigate the impact of these conditions on nutrient composition and apparent total tract digestibilities (ATTD) of energy in corn, and determine if relationships exist between corn quality measurements, nutrient content, and digestibility of energy. Twenty-eight samples of corn from the 2012 crop, plus 2 samples of corn from the 2011 crop to serve as a positive control, were collected across the Midwest using yield as an initial screen for drought impact. Each sample was graded by an official U ...


Performance Of Evaporative Cooling Pads On A Swine Farm In Central Iowa, John P. Stinn, Hongwei Xin Jan 2014

Performance Of Evaporative Cooling Pads On A Swine Farm In Central Iowa, John P. Stinn, Hongwei Xin

Animal Industry Report

Heat stress can lead to significant production losses for livestock. Production losses can take the form of slower rate of gain or poor reproductive performance in livestock systems. While modern ventilation systems utilize elevated air velocity to cool the animals, conditioning the air via evaporative cooling is a viable option for heat stress relief. While it is commonly thought that humid summer weather conditions in the upper Midwest are not suitable for use of evaporative cooling, this study found that evaporative cooling pads on a commercial breeding/gestation/farrowing facility showed good performance. Temperature drops of 10-20° F were measured ...


Initial Results From A Survey Of Iowa Corn Ethanol Plants, Bailley A. Richardson, Russell M. Euken, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jan 2014

Initial Results From A Survey Of Iowa Corn Ethanol Plants, Bailley A. Richardson, Russell M. Euken, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Animal Industry Report

A survey of Iowa ethanol plants was conducted to understand the production of animal feed coproducts from ethanol processing. Of interest is which coproducts are being produced, how the coproducts are being produced, coproduct composition, facility utility information, and challenges associated with coproduct manufacture. Specifically, the intent was to understand oil removal from distillers coproducts, and the impact of those processes on the concentration of oil in the distillers coproducts. We did not intend to determine variation in coproducts plant to plant or within a given plant over time.


Consider The Possibility Of Reduced Tillage After Biomass Harvest, H. Mark Hanna Jan 2014

Consider The Possibility Of Reduced Tillage After Biomass Harvest, H. Mark Hanna

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

Find options for handling the increased cornstalk residue that results from increased corn grain yields. Options such as aggressive tillage, no-till, strip-till, and removal of harvested corn stover are examined according to various economic and environmental factors.


Diesel Fuel Consumption During Field Operations, H. Mark Hanna, Dana D. Schweitzer Jan 2014

Diesel Fuel Consumption During Field Operations, H. Mark Hanna, Dana D. Schweitzer

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Direct energy expenses (diesel, gasoline, propane, electricity) total more than $1 billion annually for Iowa’s farmers. Farm management techniques such as adjusting tractor gear and throttle settings or reducing tillage depths can reduce diesel fuel consumption for row crop production. This study is being conducted over multiple years to measure the effects of energy management techniques on tractor fuel consumption during spring and fall field operations.


Diesel Fuel Consumption During Chisel Plowing, H. Mark Hanna, Dana D. Schweitzer Jan 2014

Diesel Fuel Consumption During Chisel Plowing, H. Mark Hanna, Dana D. Schweitzer

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Direct energy expenses (diesel, gasoline, propane, electricity) total more than $1 billion annually for Iowa farmers. Farm management techniques such as adjusting tractor gear and throttle settings or reducing tillage depths can reduce diesel fuel consumption for row crop production. This study is being conducted over multiple years to measure the effects of energy management techniques on tractor fuel consumption during spring and fall field operations.


Diesel Fuel Consumption During Field Operations, H. Mark Hanna, Dana D. Schweitzer Jan 2014

Diesel Fuel Consumption During Field Operations, H. Mark Hanna, Dana D. Schweitzer

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Direct energy expenses (diesel, gasoline, propane, electricity) total more than $1 billion annually for Iowa’s farmers. Farm management techniques such as adjusting tractor gear and throttle settings, reducing tillage depths, and monitoring tractor tire inflation pressures can reduce diesel fuel consumption for row crop production. This study is being conducted over multiple years to measure the effects of energy management techniques on tractor fuel consumption during spring and fall field operations.


Impact Of Liquid Swine Manure Application And Cover Crops On Groundwater Quality, Carl H. Pederson, Matthew J. Helmers, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Antonio P. Mallarino Jan 2014

Impact Of Liquid Swine Manure Application And Cover Crops On Groundwater Quality, Carl H. Pederson, Matthew J. Helmers, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Antonio P. Mallarino

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

The primary objective of this project was to determine the impact of appropriate rates of swine manure applications to corn and soybeans based on nitrogen and phosphorus requirements of crops, soil phosphorus accumulation, and the potential of nitrate and phosphorus leaching to groundwater. Another purpose of this long-term experimental study was to develop and recommend appropriate manure and nutrient management practices to producers to minimize water contamination potential and enhance the use of swine manure as fertilizer. A third component of this study was to determine the potential effects of rye as a cover crop to reduce nitrate loss to ...


Pesticide Free Methods Of Maize Weevil Control In Stored Maize For Developing Countries, Denis Bbosa Jan 2014

Pesticide Free Methods Of Maize Weevil Control In Stored Maize For Developing Countries, Denis Bbosa

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Maize, being an important agricultural crop and among the three most widely grown in the world, plays an important role in the livelihood of smallholder farmers contributing 34-36% daily calorific intake in East Africa and 10% in West Africa. In developing countries, population growth is expected to occur with increasing food demand. Conversely, maize experiences post-harvest losses (PHLS) especially from the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais), which if minimized, could help to reduce the number of hungry people in the world that is about 870 million people and majority (850 million people) being in developing countries. For the economies of smallholder ...


Evaluation Of Low-Moisture Anhydrous Ammonia (Lmaa) Pretreatment Method Of Lignocellulosic Biomass For Bioethanol Production, Minliang Yang Jan 2014

Evaluation Of Low-Moisture Anhydrous Ammonia (Lmaa) Pretreatment Method Of Lignocellulosic Biomass For Bioethanol Production, Minliang Yang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The major objective of this project was to evaluate the low-moisture anhydrous ammonia (LMAA) pretreatment process of corn stover for bioethanol production. In order to fully evaluate this pretreatment method, three sub-objectives were developed: the optimization of the conditions for the LMAA pretreatment process; the influence of the LMAA pretreatment process during long-term storage of corn stover; and the techno-economic analysis (TEA) of this LMAA pretreatment process in bioethanol production.

In optimization experiments, several influencing factors were being investigated. As a result, the LMAA process increased the glucose yield by nearly 3 times compared with un-pretreated corn stover. And the ...


Classical Gully Spatial Identification And Slope Stability Modeling Using High-Resolution Elevation And Data Mining Technique, Laurimar Gonçalves Vendrusculo Jan 2014

Classical Gully Spatial Identification And Slope Stability Modeling Using High-Resolution Elevation And Data Mining Technique, Laurimar Gonçalves Vendrusculo

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

It is widely known that soil erosion is an issue of concern in soil and water quality, affecting agriculture and natural resources. Thus, scientific efforts must take into consideration the high-resolution elevation dataset in order to implement a precision conservation approach effectively. New advances such as LiDAR products have provided a basic source of information to enable researchers to identify small erosional landscape features. To fill this gap, this study developed a methodology based on data mining of hydrologic and topographic attributes associated with concentrated flow path identification to distinguish classic gully side walls and bed areas. At 0.91 ...


Midwest Vision For Sustainable Fuel Production, Kenneth J. Moore, Stuart J. Birrell, Robert C. Brown, Michael D. Caster, Jill E. Euken, H. Mark Hanna, Dermot J. Hayes, Jason D. Hill, Keri L. Jacobs, Catherine L. Kling, David A. Laird, Robert B. Mitchell, Patrick T. Murphy, D. Raj Raman, Charles V. Schwab, Kevin J. Shinners, Kenneth P. Vogel, Jeffrey J. Volenic Jan 2014

Midwest Vision For Sustainable Fuel Production, Kenneth J. Moore, Stuart J. Birrell, Robert C. Brown, Michael D. Caster, Jill E. Euken, H. Mark Hanna, Dermot J. Hayes, Jason D. Hill, Keri L. Jacobs, Catherine L. Kling, David A. Laird, Robert B. Mitchell, Patrick T. Murphy, D. Raj Raman, Charles V. Schwab, Kevin J. Shinners, Kenneth P. Vogel, Jeffrey J. Volenic

Agronomy Publications

This article charts the progress of CenUSA Bioenergy, a USDA-NIFA-AFRI coordinated agricultural project focused on the North Central region of the US. CenUSA’s vision is to develop a regional system for producing fuels and other products from perennial grass crops grown on marginally productive land or land that is otherwise unsuitable for annual cropping. This article focuses on contributions CenUSA has made to nine primary systems needed to make this vision a reality: feedstock improvement; feedstock production on marginal land; feedstock logistics; modeling system performance; feedstock conversion into biofuels and other products; marketing; health and safety; education, and outreach ...