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Articles 1 - 14 of 14

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Energy Production, Distribution, And Pollution Controls: Combining Engineering And Economic Analysis To Enhance Efficiency And Policy Design, David F. Perkis Oct 2014

Energy Production, Distribution, And Pollution Controls: Combining Engineering And Economic Analysis To Enhance Efficiency And Policy Design, David F. Perkis

Open Access Dissertations

Three published articles are presented which focus on enhancing various aspects of the energy supply chain. While each paper adopts a different methodology, all three combine engineering data and/or techniques with economic analysis to improve efficiency or policy design within energy markets. ^ The first paper combines a chemical engineering plant design model with an economic assessment of product enhancements within an ethanol production facility. While a new chemical process is shown to achieve greater ethanol yields, the animal feed by-products are denatured and decrease in value due to the degradation of a key nutritional amino acid. Overall, yield increases ...


The Role Of Adiponectin And The Adipocyte In Energy Metabolism And Inflammation, Sheila Kay Jacobi Oct 2014

The Role Of Adiponectin And The Adipocyte In Energy Metabolism And Inflammation, Sheila Kay Jacobi

Open Access Dissertations

A series of experiments were conducted to characterize the autocrine role of adiponectin in modulating fatty acid metabolism and inflammation in the pig. In the first study, we cloned and sequenced the porcine adiponectin open reading frame and evaluated the regulation of adiponectin, in vitro and in vivo. The porcine sequence shares approximately 88, 86, 85 and 83% homology with the dog, human, cow and mouse adiponectin, respectively, and 79–83% similarity with dog, human, cow and mouse proteins at the amino acid level, based on the translated porcine sequence and GenBank submissions for the other species. Analysis of serum ...


Cellular And Molecular Regulation Of Skeletal Muscle Regeneration, Chunhui Jiang Oct 2014

Cellular And Molecular Regulation Of Skeletal Muscle Regeneration, Chunhui Jiang

Open Access Dissertations

Skeletal muscle regeneration provides a powerful model to study the cellular and molecular mechanism governing stem cell function since the whole process is mediated by a population of muscle-resident stem cells called satellite cells. The overall aim of this dissertation is to explore the roles of Notch signaling and a novel gene (Bex1) in satellite cell function and skeletal muscle regeneration. ^ The first part of this thesis is to examine how the Notch signaling pathway regulates the satellite cell self-renewal in a disease model. The MDX mouse is a well-established model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and characterized by progressive ...


Us Commodity Support Payments: On Allocation Of Resources And Fairness, Post 1996, Samiul Haque Oct 2014

Us Commodity Support Payments: On Allocation Of Resources And Fairness, Post 1996, Samiul Haque

Open Access Dissertations

This dissertation investigates the effect of US commodity support payment on agricultural producer decisions during the "decoupled" regime. Particular attention is paid to the national optimal output mix, input proportions, and farm level changes in scale operations. While "decoupled" payments were instated to comply with WTO guidelines, where tax payer dollars cannot be spent to alter agricultural outputs and /or on farm input decisions, evidence suggests that such payments are far from being decoupled. At the national level, this dissertation finds evidence for mild labor input using and capital input economizing behavior. Substantial land input economizing behavior and moderate material ...


Graduate Students' Motivation To Teach Plant Sciences To K-12 Audiences, Melissa Leiden Welsh Oct 2014

Graduate Students' Motivation To Teach Plant Sciences To K-12 Audiences, Melissa Leiden Welsh

Open Access Dissertations

Graduate students' motivation to share their knowledge and research with K-12 audiences as future scientists is informed by their beliefs and perceived value of science literacy outreach. Graduate training programs in academia integrate outreach teaching components to equip future scientists with a variety of communication skills, which may reflect either a transmission of knowledge to the learner or through engagement with the learner. As such, the education component of the "Partnership for Research and Education in Plant Breeding and Genetics" grant sought to train graduate plant science students ( N = 17) to disseminate their research to K-12 audiences. Graduate students participated ...


Assessment Of Irrigation Use On Crop Yield And Water Supplies In The Midwestern U.S., Wei-Chih Chen Oct 2014

Assessment Of Irrigation Use On Crop Yield And Water Supplies In The Midwestern U.S., Wei-Chih Chen

Open Access Dissertations

Climate plays an important role in many aspects of hydrological and agricultural systems. Temperature and precipitation are usually the main forcing inputs for hydrological and agricultural simulations, while wind effect has generally been neglected in previous research. Wind speed is, however, an important factor for many physical processes, including evaporation from soil, and transpiration from plants. In order to investigate how climate variability impacts agricultural production, there are three hypotheses addressed in this dissertation. Hypothesis 1 is that the representation of changing wind speed will play an important role in the simulation of hydrological processes, and that the effect of ...


African Starchy Foods, Gastric Emptying, And Starch Digestion In Malian Stunted Children, Fatimata Cisse Oct 2014

African Starchy Foods, Gastric Emptying, And Starch Digestion In Malian Stunted Children, Fatimata Cisse

Open Access Dissertations

Starch serves as the main energy source in cereal and tuber-rich diets, and its glycemic response profile has been associated with health-related conditions. Sorghum and millet are known to have relatively low starch digestibility, a potentially desirable property for controlling blood glucose response and providing sustained energy. Gastric emptying rates of traditional sorghum and millet-based African foods of the Sahelian region (couscous, thick and thin porridges made from millet and/or sorghum) were compared to those of non-traditional "modern" foods that are mostly consumed in urban areas using a non-invasive 13C-labelled octanoic acid breath test in healthy volunteers. The obtained ...


Irrigation With Treated Wastewater: Potential And Limitations, Anne Dare Oct 2014

Irrigation With Treated Wastewater: Potential And Limitations, Anne Dare

Open Access Dissertations

As the world population increases and resources become more coveted, water emerges as a key component to global food security. The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) is among the driest regions in the world: containing just one percent of the world's freshwater resources. An increasing population creates greater quantities of wastewater and demands greater quantities of food, so an obvious connection arises. However logical wastewater reuse may be for bridging the irrigation supply-demand gap in this arid region, significant limitations prevent widespread adoption. The overall goal of this research is to take a holistic view of the limitations ...


Karyopherin Alpha Subtypes And Porcine Early Stage Embryo Development, Yanfang Li Oct 2014

Karyopherin Alpha Subtypes And Porcine Early Stage Embryo Development, Yanfang Li

Open Access Dissertations

Intracellular communication between the nucleus and cytoplasm is critically important for coordinating cellular events during embryogenesis. The karyopherin α/β heterodimer is an intracellular nuclear trafficking system that mediates nuclear import of proteins that bear classical nuclear localization signals (NLSs). Seven karyopherin α subtypes have been identified in the domestic pig, and while each of these karyopherin α subtypes is able to bind to a nuclear localization signal, individual karyopherin α subtypes have been shown to transport specific NLS-bearing proteins. The objective of this study was to determine the developmental requirements of karyopherin α subtypes (KPNAs) during cleavage development in ...


Light-Emitting Diodes As An Alternative Supplemental Lighting Source For Greenhouse Tomato Propagation And Production, Celina Gomez Vargas Oct 2014

Light-Emitting Diodes As An Alternative Supplemental Lighting Source For Greenhouse Tomato Propagation And Production, Celina Gomez Vargas

Open Access Dissertations

Intensive year-round local production of greenhouse-grown tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) requires the use of supplemental lighting (SL) to complement solar radiation in light-limited seasonal climates. However, SL represents a large expense to greenhouse-vegetable production. Currently, energy is second only to labor as the most expensive indirect cost of production. Thus, the greenhouse industry is interested in cost-effective, energy-efficient sources of supplemental photosynthetic light to sustain steady supplies of high-quality produce during the off-season. Overhead (OH) high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps are considered the industry standard in greenhouse SL because of their capability to deliver adequate photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) to crops ...


Prediction Of Parturition And Dystocia In Holstein-Friesian Cattle, And Cesarean Section In Dystocic Beef Cattle, Wen Han Mark Hiew Oct 2014

Prediction Of Parturition And Dystocia In Holstein-Friesian Cattle, And Cesarean Section In Dystocic Beef Cattle, Wen Han Mark Hiew

Open Access Dissertations

Dystocia is a major problem in the dairy industry as it causes livestock and economic loss. It is more frequently seen in primiparous cattle compared to their multiparous counterparts due to their smaller stature and the slow maturation of pelvic dimensions. In some instances, human intervention of the parturition process is imperative to avoid pain, injury, and mortality of the neonate and the dam. The ability to accurately predict dystocia and the time of parturition will ensure that timely assistance can be given to animals that are of high risk of dystocia.^ The present thesis contains four studies that explore ...


Soil Quality And Nitrogen Cycling Dynamics Altered By Fertility Amendments In Intensively Managed Vegetable Production Systems, Matt A. Rudisill Oct 2014

Soil Quality And Nitrogen Cycling Dynamics Altered By Fertility Amendments In Intensively Managed Vegetable Production Systems, Matt A. Rudisill

Open Access Dissertations

Fresh market vegetable production in the Midwest U.S. is growing rapidly as a result of increased demand for locally-sourced food. High tunnels are becoming increasingly popular among Midwest vegetable growers as these structures offer many production benefits including season extension. However, vegetables require substantial fertility inputs, particularly nitrogen (N), in order to meet desired levels of productivity, and some fertility management strategies can negatively impact soil and environmental quality. This can be particularly problematic in high tunnels, where longer production periods and modification of the growing environment put these systems at greater risk for soil degradation. Identification of fertility ...


Essays On Productivity Growth In Agriculture, Uris Lantz Caldo Baldos Jul 2014

Essays On Productivity Growth In Agriculture, Uris Lantz Caldo Baldos

Open Access Dissertations

This dissertation aims to explore the current trends in agricultural productivity and analyse its impact on the global farm and food system. Chapter 2 in this dissertation looks at the current trends in agricultural productivity in India—one most of the populous country in the world. In this chapter, productivity trends in Indian agriculture are examined by looking at changes in Total Factor Productivity—a measure which takes into account all farm outputs and inputs. Estimates in this chapter suggest that TFP growth for the 10-year period—between 1999-2000 and 2009-2010—steadily grew at the national level. Looking at the ...


Agriculture, Climate Change, And Adaptation In Morocco: A Computable General Equilibrium Analysis, Ismail Ouraich Apr 2014

Agriculture, Climate Change, And Adaptation In Morocco: A Computable General Equilibrium Analysis, Ismail Ouraich

Open Access Dissertations

The empirical analysis in this dissertation comprises two essays investigating the impacts of climate change on agriculture in Morocco, with an emphasis on climate uncertainty and robust adaptation.^ The first essay in Chapter 4 provides estimates of economic impacts of climate change, and estimates on the extent to which the current Moroccan agricultural development and investment strategy, the Plan Maroc Vert (PMV), could help in agricultural adaptation to climate change and uncertainty.^ We simulated three cases. First, we examined the impacts of PMV on the economy in the absence of climate change and found that it could provide about a ...