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Rna-Seq Analysis Of Broiler Liver Transcriptome Reveals Novel Responses To High Ambient Temperature, Derrick Jamaal Coble, Damarius S. Fleming, Michael E. Persia, Chris M. Ashwell, Max F. Rothschild, Carl J. Schmidt, Susan J. Lamont Dec 2014

Rna-Seq Analysis Of Broiler Liver Transcriptome Reveals Novel Responses To High Ambient Temperature, Derrick Jamaal Coble, Damarius S. Fleming, Michael E. Persia, Chris M. Ashwell, Max F. Rothschild, Carl J. Schmidt, Susan J. Lamont

Animal Science Publications

In broilers, high ambient temperature can result in reduced feed consumption, digestive inefficiency, impaired metabolism, and even death. The broiler sector of the U.S. poultry industry incurs approximately $52 million in heat-related losses annually. The objective of this study is to characterize the effects of cyclic high ambient temperature on the transcriptome of a metabolically active organ, the liver. This study provides novel insight into the effects of high ambient temperature on metabolism in broilers, because it is the first reported RNA-seq study to characterize the effect of heat on the transcriptome of a metabolic-related tissue. This information provides ...


Evaluation Of Mechanical And Thermal Nociception As Objective Tools To Measure Painful And Nonpainful Lameness Phases In Multiparous Sows, Caroline M. Mohling, Anna Johnson, Johann F. Coetzee, Locke A. Karriker, Kenneth J. Stalder, Caitlyn Abell, Howard D. Tyler, Suzanne T. Millman Nov 2014

Evaluation Of Mechanical And Thermal Nociception As Objective Tools To Measure Painful And Nonpainful Lameness Phases In Multiparous Sows, Caroline M. Mohling, Anna Johnson, Johann F. Coetzee, Locke A. Karriker, Kenneth J. Stalder, Caitlyn Abell, Howard D. Tyler, Suzanne T. Millman

Animal Science Publications

The objective of this study was to quantify pain sensitivity differences using mechanical nociception threshold (MNT) and thermal nociception threshold (TNT) tests when sows were in painful and nonpainful transient lameness phases. A total of 24 mixed parity crossbred sows (220.15 ± 21.23 kg) were utilized for the MNT test, and a total of 12 sows (211.41 ± 20.21 kg) were utilized for the TNT test. On induction day (D0), all sows were anesthetized and injected with Amphotericin B (10mg/mL) in the distal interphalangeal joint space in both claws of one randomly selected hind limb to induce ...


Generalized Linear Mixed Model Analysis Of Risk Factors For Contamination Of Moisture-Enhanced Pork With Campylobacter Jejuni And Salmonella Enterica Typhimurium, Xuesong Wen, Jing Li, James S. Dickson Oct 2014

Generalized Linear Mixed Model Analysis Of Risk Factors For Contamination Of Moisture-Enhanced Pork With Campylobacter Jejuni And Salmonella Enterica Typhimurium, Xuesong Wen, Jing Li, James S. Dickson

Animal Science Publications

Translocation of foodborne pathogens into the interior tissues of pork through moisture enhancement may be of concern if the meat is undercooked. In the present study, a five-strain mixture of Campylobacter jejuni orSalmonella enterica Typhimurium was evenly spread on the surface of fresh pork loins. Pork loins were injected, sliced, vacuum packaged, and stored. After storage, sliced pork was cooked by traditional grilling. Survival ofSalmonella Typhimurium and C. jejuni in the interior tissues of the samples were analyzed by enumeration. The populations of these pathogens dropped below the detection limit (10 colony-forming units/g) in most samples that ...


Effects Of Genetic Selection For Residual Feed Intake On Behavioral Reactivity Of Castrated Male Pigs To Novel Stimuli Tests, Jessica D. Colpoys, Caitlyn Abell, Jennifer M. Young, Aileen F. Keating, Nicholas K. Gabler, Suzanne T. Millman, Janice Siegford, Anna K. Butters-Johnson Oct 2014

Effects Of Genetic Selection For Residual Feed Intake On Behavioral Reactivity Of Castrated Male Pigs To Novel Stimuli Tests, Jessica D. Colpoys, Caitlyn Abell, Jennifer M. Young, Aileen F. Keating, Nicholas K. Gabler, Suzanne T. Millman, Janice Siegford, Anna K. Butters-Johnson

Animal Science Publications

Increasing feed efficiency in swine is important for increasing sustainable food production and profitability for producers; therefore, this is often selected for at breeding. Residual feed intake (RFI) can be used for the genetic selection of pigs for feed efficiency. In our selection project, low-RFI pigs consume less feed for equal weight gain compared to their less efficient, high-RFI counterparts. However, little is known about how feed efficiency influences the pig's behavioral reactivity toward fear-eliciting stimuli. In this study, behavioral reactivity of pigs divergently selected for RFI was evaluated using human approach- (HAT) and novel object tests (NOT). Forty ...


Temperature And Relative Humidity Inside Trailers During Finishing Pig Loading And Transport In Cold And Mild Weather, John J. Mcglone, Anna K. Johnson, Avi Sapkota, Rebecca K. Kephart Sep 2014

Temperature And Relative Humidity Inside Trailers During Finishing Pig Loading And Transport In Cold And Mild Weather, John J. Mcglone, Anna K. Johnson, Avi Sapkota, Rebecca K. Kephart

Animal Science Publications

The effect of bedding levels and trailer compartment on internal trailer temperature and relative humidity (RH) during loading and transport of finishing pigs was evaluated in cold and mild weather. Three levels of bedding were used in each experiment: 0.6 m3, 1.2 m3, and 2.4 m3. In mild weather, internal temperatures were lower when 1.2 m3 or 2.4 m3 of bedding were used during loading and transport compared to 0.6 m3 (P < 0.05). Internal trailer temperature increased in a quadratic fashion in the top front compartment when 1.2 m3 was used (P < 0.05), and in a linear fashion in the top rear compartment when 2.4 m3 were used in cold weather (P < 0.05). In mild weather, temperature increased linearly in the top front compartment with heavy bedding levels. Relative humidity increased in a linear fashion in the top front compartment with 0.6 m3, bottom front with 1.2 m3, and top front with 1.2 m3 in cold weather (P < 0.05). In general, temperature and RH increased as bedding levels increased in both cold and mild temperatures. Excess bedding can absorb more moisture, resulting in transport loss and decreased animal welfare.


Case Study: Treatment Of Oral And Locomotory Stereotypic Behaviors In A Mature Sow, Monique D. Pairis-Garcia, Anna Johnson, Suzanne T. Millman Sep 2014

Case Study: Treatment Of Oral And Locomotory Stereotypic Behaviors In A Mature Sow, Monique D. Pairis-Garcia, Anna Johnson, Suzanne T. Millman

Animal Science Publications

A 32-month-old female 225-kg nonpregnant cross-bred Newsham sow presented a 6-week history of stereotypic behaviors when housed in a laboratory research facility. A behavioral examination over 12 daylight hours revealed 3 main stereotypic motor patterns, namely (1) oral-nasal gate manipulation defined as placement of the snout between the bars of the pen gate with repetitive, forceful up and down movement; (2) head weaving defined as repetitive lateral head and snout movement toward the pen gates while rocking back and forth on her forequarters with hooves remaining on ground at all times; and (3) body weaving defined as repetitive shifting of ...


Establishing Trailer Ventilation (Boarding) Requirements For Finishing Pigs During Transport, John J. Mcglone, Avi Sapkota, Anna K. Johnson, Rebecca K. Kephart Aug 2014

Establishing Trailer Ventilation (Boarding) Requirements For Finishing Pigs During Transport, John J. Mcglone, Avi Sapkota, Anna K. Johnson, Rebecca K. Kephart

Animal Science Publications

Specifically, this study aimed to establish the effects on mortality and morbidity of boarding levels (amount of side-wall trailer ventilation) for finishing pigs in mild weather (8.80 ± 0.30 °C, 71.70% ± 1.12% humidity). Pigs from commercial finishing sites were transported in 302 pot-bellied trailers to commercial processing plants. Measures collected at the processing plant were rates of dead on arrival (DOA), non-ambulatory, non-injured (NANI), non-ambulatory, injured (NAI), and total dead and down (D&D). Boarding levels (% that side walls were closed off with inserted boards) were divided into 3 bins: low, medium, and high, and outside temperature ...


Establishing Bedding Requirements On Trailers Transporting Market Weight Pigs In Warm Weather, Rebecca K. Kephart, Anna K. Johnson, Avi Sapkota, Kenneth J. Stalder, John J. Mcglone Jul 2014

Establishing Bedding Requirements On Trailers Transporting Market Weight Pigs In Warm Weather, Rebecca K. Kephart, Anna K. Johnson, Avi Sapkota, Kenneth J. Stalder, John J. Mcglone

Animal Science Publications

During warm weather, incorrect bedding levels on a trailer transporting market weight pigs may result in heat stress, fatigue, and death. Two experiments were conducted in June and July of 2011; Experiment 1 used 80 loads (n = 13,887 pigs) to determine the effects of two bedding levels (3 (68.1 kg) or 6 bags (136.2 kg) of wood shavings/trailer [each bag contained 22.7 kg, 0.2 m3]) on pig measures (surface temperature, vocalizations, slips and falls, and stress signs). Experiment 2 used 131 loads (n = 22,917 pigs) to determine the effects of bedding (3 vs ...


Mapping And Genotypic Analysis Of The Nk-Lysin Gene In Chicken, Mi Ok Lee, Ence Yang, Mireille Morisson, Alain Vignal, Yong-Zhen Huang, Hans H. Cheng, William M. Muir, Susan J. Lamont, Hyun Soon Lillehoj, Sung Hyen Lee, James E. Womack Jul 2014

Mapping And Genotypic Analysis Of The Nk-Lysin Gene In Chicken, Mi Ok Lee, Ence Yang, Mireille Morisson, Alain Vignal, Yong-Zhen Huang, Hans H. Cheng, William M. Muir, Susan J. Lamont, Hyun Soon Lillehoj, Sung Hyen Lee, James E. Womack

Animal Science Publications

Antimicrobial peptides (AMP) are important elements of the first line of defence against pathogens in animals. NK-lysin is a cationic AMP that plays a critical role in innate immunity. The chicken NK-lysin gene has been cloned and its antimicrobial and anticancer activity has been described but its location in the chicken genome remains unknown. Here, we mapped the NK-lysin gene and examined the distribution of a functionally significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) among different chicken inbred lines and heritage breeds. A 6000 rad radiation hybrid panel (ChickRH6) was used to map the NK-lysin gene to the distal end of chromosome ...


Kinematics As Objective Tools To Evaluate Lameness Phases In Multiparous Sows, Caroline M. Mohling, Anna Johnson, Johann F. Coetzee, Locke A. Karriker, Caitlyn Abell, Suzanne T. Millman, Kenneth J. Stalder Jul 2014

Kinematics As Objective Tools To Evaluate Lameness Phases In Multiparous Sows, Caroline M. Mohling, Anna Johnson, Johann F. Coetzee, Locke A. Karriker, Caitlyn Abell, Suzanne T. Millman, Kenneth J. Stalder

Animal Science Publications

Lameness has been ranked as the third most common reason for culling sows, comprising 15% of the culls marketed in the U.S. Producers assess sow lameness using subjective evaluation, which have been shown to be variable in their application. Objective empirical tools to measure sow lameness on farm are required. Therefore, the purpose of this study were to evaluate the embedded force plate and the GAITFour gait analysis walkway system as objective assessment tools to discriminate between sound and lame phases in multiparous sows. Twenty-four mixed parity crossbred sows were anesthetized and injected with Amphotericin B in the distal ...


Pain Management In The Neonatal Piglet During Routine Management Procedures. Part 2:Grading The Quality Of Evidence And The Strength Of Recommendations, Annette M. O'Connor, R. Anthony, Luciana Bergamasco, Johann F. Coetzee, Stacie A. Gould, Anna K. Johnson, Locke A. Karriker, J. N. Marchant-Forde, G. S. Martineau, J. Mckean, Suzanne T. Millman, S. R. Niekamp, Ed Pajor, K. Rutherford, M. Sprague, M. Sutherland, E. Von Borell, Rungano Stan Dzikamunhenga Jun 2014

Pain Management In The Neonatal Piglet During Routine Management Procedures. Part 2:Grading The Quality Of Evidence And The Strength Of Recommendations, Annette M. O'Connor, R. Anthony, Luciana Bergamasco, Johann F. Coetzee, Stacie A. Gould, Anna K. Johnson, Locke A. Karriker, J. N. Marchant-Forde, G. S. Martineau, J. Mckean, Suzanne T. Millman, S. R. Niekamp, Ed Pajor, K. Rutherford, M. Sprague, M. Sutherland, E. Von Borell, Rungano Stan Dzikamunhenga

Animal Science Publications

Piglets reared in swine production in the USA undergo painful procedures that include castration, tail docking, teeth clipping, and identification with ear notching or tagging. These procedures are usually performed without pain mitigation. The objective of this project was to develop recommendations for pain mitigation in 1- to 28-day-old piglets undergoing these procedures. The National Pork Board funded project to develop recommendations for pain mitigation in piglets. Recommendation development followed a defined multi-step process that included an evidence summary and estimates of the efficacies of interventions. The results of a systematic review of the interventions were reported in a companion ...


Investigating The Control Of Listeria Monocytogenes On A Ready-To-Eat Ham Product Using Natural Antimicrobial Ingredients And Postlethality Interventions, Nicolas A. Lavieri, Joseph G. Sebranek, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher, Joseph C. Cordray, James S. Dickson, Ashley Horsch, Stéphanie Jung, Elaine M. Larson, David Kareem Manu, Aubrey Mendonca Jun 2014

Investigating The Control Of Listeria Monocytogenes On A Ready-To-Eat Ham Product Using Natural Antimicrobial Ingredients And Postlethality Interventions, Nicolas A. Lavieri, Joseph G. Sebranek, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher, Joseph C. Cordray, James S. Dickson, Ashley Horsch, Stéphanie Jung, Elaine M. Larson, David Kareem Manu, Aubrey Mendonca

Animal Science Publications

Ready-to-eat (RTE) meat and poultry products manufactured with natural or organic methods are at greater risk for Listeria monocytogenes growth, if contaminated, than their conventional counterparts due to the required absence of preservatives and antimicrobials. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the use of commercially available natural antimicrobials and postlethality interventions in the control of L. monocytogenesgrowth and recovery on a RTE ham product. Antimicrobials evaluated were cranberry powder (90MX), vinegar (DV), and vinegar/lemon juice concentrate (LV1X). Postlethality interventions studied were high hydrostatic pressure at 400 (HHP400) or 600 (HHP600) MPa, lauric arginate (LAE), octanoic ...


Effects Of Xylanase Supplementation Of Corn-Soybean Meal-Dried Distiller's Grain Diets On Performance, Metabolizable Energy, And Body Composition When Fed To First-Cycle Laying Hens, E. A. Bobeck, N. A. Nachtrieb, A. B. Batal, M. E. Persia Jun 2014

Effects Of Xylanase Supplementation Of Corn-Soybean Meal-Dried Distiller's Grain Diets On Performance, Metabolizable Energy, And Body Composition When Fed To First-Cycle Laying Hens, E. A. Bobeck, N. A. Nachtrieb, A. B. Batal, M. E. Persia

Animal Science Publications

The increased cost of energy for laying hen diets has resulted in the use of dietary enzymes such as xylanase to increase energy digestibility and reduce the need for supplemental dietary energy. A 24-wk-long experiment was conducted using 432 17 wk old Hy-Line W36 first-cycle laying hens to determine the effects of energy concentrations and xylanase supplementation (Hostazym® X100) on hen performance, metabolizable energy and body composition. Three concentrations of dietary energy fed with and without xylanase supplementation and arranged as a 3 x 2 factorial: Control (C); C-77 kcal/kg diet and C-154 kcal/kg diet were fed with ...


Establishing Bedding Requirements During Transport And Monitoring Skin Temperature During Cold And Mild Seasons After Transport For Finishing Pigs, John J. Mcglone, Anna K. Johnson, Avi Sapkota, Rebecca K. Kephart May 2014

Establishing Bedding Requirements During Transport And Monitoring Skin Temperature During Cold And Mild Seasons After Transport For Finishing Pigs, John J. Mcglone, Anna K. Johnson, Avi Sapkota, Rebecca K. Kephart

Animal Science Publications

The broad aim of this study was to determine whether bedding level in the transport trailer influenced pig performance and welfare. Specifically, the objective was to define the bedding requirements of pigs during transportation in commercial settings during cold and mild weather. Animals (n = 112,078 pigs on 572 trailers) used were raised in commercial finishing sites and transported in trailers to commercial processing plants. Dead on arrival (DOA), non-ambulatory (NA), and total dead and down (D&D) data were collected and skin surface temperatures of the pigs were measured by infrared thermography. Data were collected during winter (Experiment 1 ...


Polymorphisms In Calpastatin And Mu-Calpain Genes Are Associated With Beef Iron Content, E. Casas, Q. Duan, M. J. Schneider, S. D. Shackelford, Tommy L. Wheeler, Larry V. Cundiff, James M. Reecy Apr 2014

Polymorphisms In Calpastatin And Mu-Calpain Genes Are Associated With Beef Iron Content, E. Casas, Q. Duan, M. J. Schneider, S. D. Shackelford, Tommy L. Wheeler, Larry V. Cundiff, James M. Reecy

Animal Science Publications

The objective of this study was to assess the association of markers in the calpastatin and mu-calpain loci with iron in beef cattle muscle. The population consisted of 259 cross-bred steers from Beefmaster, Brangus, Bonsmara, Romosinuano, Hereford and Angus sires. Total iron and heme iron concentrations were measured. Markers in the calpastatin (referred to as CAST) and mu-calpain (referred to asCAPN4751) genes were used to assess their association with iron levels. The mean and standard error for iron and heme iron content in the population was 35.6 ± 1.3 μg and 27.1 ± 1.4 μg respectively. Significant ...


Worldwide Patterns Of Ancestry, Divergence, And Admixture In Domesticated Cattle, Jared E. Decker, Stephanie D. Mckay, Megan M. Rolf, Jaewoo Kim, Antonio Molina Alcalá, Tad S. Sonstegard, Olivier Hanotte, Anders Götherström, Christopher M. Seabury, Lisa Praharani, Masroor Ellahi Babar, Luciana Correia De Almeida Regitano, Mehmet Ali Yildiz, Michael P. Heaton, Wan-Sheng Liu, Chu-Zhao Lei, James M. Reecy, Muhammad Saif-Ur-Rehman, Robert D. Schnabel, Jeremy F. Taylor Mar 2014

Worldwide Patterns Of Ancestry, Divergence, And Admixture In Domesticated Cattle, Jared E. Decker, Stephanie D. Mckay, Megan M. Rolf, Jaewoo Kim, Antonio Molina Alcalá, Tad S. Sonstegard, Olivier Hanotte, Anders Götherström, Christopher M. Seabury, Lisa Praharani, Masroor Ellahi Babar, Luciana Correia De Almeida Regitano, Mehmet Ali Yildiz, Michael P. Heaton, Wan-Sheng Liu, Chu-Zhao Lei, James M. Reecy, Muhammad Saif-Ur-Rehman, Robert D. Schnabel, Jeremy F. Taylor

Animal Science Publications

The domestication and development of cattle has considerably impacted human societies, but the histories of cattle breeds and populations have been poorly understood especially for African, Asian, and American breeds. Using genotypes from 43,043 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 1,543 animals, we evaluate the population structure of 134 domesticated bovid breeds. Regardless of the analytical method or sample subset, the three major groups of Asian indicine, Eurasian taurine, and African taurine were consistently observed. Patterns of geographic dispersal resulting from co-migration with humans and exportation are recognizable in phylogenetic networks. All analytical methods reveal patterns of ...


Dna Methylome In Spleen Of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia Coli-Challenged Broilers And Integration With Mrna Expression, Haiping Xu, Xuenong Zhu, Yongsheng Hu, Zhenhui Li, Xiquan Zhang, Qinghua Nie, Lisa K. Nolan, Susan J. Lamont Mar 2014

Dna Methylome In Spleen Of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia Coli-Challenged Broilers And Integration With Mrna Expression, Haiping Xu, Xuenong Zhu, Yongsheng Hu, Zhenhui Li, Xiquan Zhang, Qinghua Nie, Lisa K. Nolan, Susan J. Lamont

Animal Science Publications

Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) are responsible for heavy economic losses in poultry industry. Here we investigate DNA methylome of spleen and identify functional DNA methylation changes related to host response to APEC among groups of non-challenged chickens (NC), challenged with mild (MD) and severe pathology (SV). DNA methylation was enriched in the gene bodies and repeats. Promoter and CGIs are hypomethylated. Integration analysis revealed 22, 87, and 9 genes exhibiting inversely changed DNA methylation and gene expression in NC vs. MD, NC vs. SV, and MD vs. SV, respectively.IL8, IL2RB, and IL1RAPL1 were included. Gene network analysis suggested ...


Calpain-1 Activity In Bovine Muscle Is Primarily Influenced By Temperature, Not Ph Decline, D. A. Mohrhauser, Steven M. Lonergan, Elisabeth J. Huff-Lonergan, K. R. Underwood, A. D. Weaver Mar 2014

Calpain-1 Activity In Bovine Muscle Is Primarily Influenced By Temperature, Not Ph Decline, D. A. Mohrhauser, Steven M. Lonergan, Elisabeth J. Huff-Lonergan, K. R. Underwood, A. D. Weaver

Animal Science Publications

The objectives of this study were to 1) determine the conditions (temperature and pH) that exist in early postmortem muscle of normally chilled and delay chilled beef carcasses to provide a model for in vitro work and 2) determine the mechanism by which early postmortem temperature/pH conditions found in beef muscle influence the enzymes that regulate the aging process in vitro. For objective 1, 7 finished beef animals (HCW 385 ± 8 kg) were harvested with the right sides subjected to normal chilling (2.3°C) approximately 1.25 h postmortem and the left sides subjected to ambient temperature (delay ...


Validation And Further Characterization Of A Major Quantitative Trait Locus Associated With Host Response To Experimental Infection With Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus, Nicholas James Boddicker, Dorian J. Garrick, Raymond Rowland, Joan K. Lunney, James M. Reecy, Jack C. Dekkers Feb 2014

Validation And Further Characterization Of A Major Quantitative Trait Locus Associated With Host Response To Experimental Infection With Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus, Nicholas James Boddicker, Dorian J. Garrick, Raymond Rowland, Joan K. Lunney, James M. Reecy, Jack C. Dekkers

Animal Science Publications

Infectious diseases are costly to the swine industry; porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is the most devastating. In earlier work, a quantitative trait locus associated with resistance/susceptibility to PRRS virus was identified on Sus scrofa chromosome 4 using approximately 560 experimentally infected animals from a commercial cross. The favorable genotype was associated with decreased virus load and increased weight gain (WG). The objective here was to validate and further characterize the association of the chromosome 4 region with PRRS resistance using data from two unrelated commercial crossbred populations. The validation populations consisted of two trials each of approximately ...


Survival Of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus During Thermal Processing Of Frankfurters, Summer Sausage, And Ham, Johnathan A. Campbell, James S. Dickson, Joseph C. Cordray, Dennis G. Olson, Aubrey F. Mendonca, Kenneth J. Prusa Jan 2014

Survival Of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus During Thermal Processing Of Frankfurters, Summer Sausage, And Ham, Johnathan A. Campbell, James S. Dickson, Joseph C. Cordray, Dennis G. Olson, Aubrey F. Mendonca, Kenneth J. Prusa

Animal Science Publications

Infections from antibiotic-resistant bacteria are a major concern for human health professionals around the world. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is just one of the resistant organisms of concern. MRSA prevalence has also been recently reported in retail meat products at rates higher than originally thought. Although the risk of contracting an infection from handling contaminated meat products is thought to be low, very little is known about this organism from a food safety perspective. The objective of this study was to determine the survival of MRSA during thermal processing of frankfurters, summer sausage, and boneless ham. Frankfurters, summer sausage, and ...


Heat Stress Causes Oxidative Stress But Not Inflammatory Signaling In Porcine Skeletal Muscle, Sandra I. Rosado Montilla, Theresa P. Johnson, Sarah C. Pearce, Delphine Gardan-Salmon, Nicholas K. Gabler, Jason W. Ross, Robert P. Rhoads, Lance H. Baumgard, Steven M. Lonergan, Joshua T. Selsby Jan 2014

Heat Stress Causes Oxidative Stress But Not Inflammatory Signaling In Porcine Skeletal Muscle, Sandra I. Rosado Montilla, Theresa P. Johnson, Sarah C. Pearce, Delphine Gardan-Salmon, Nicholas K. Gabler, Jason W. Ross, Robert P. Rhoads, Lance H. Baumgard, Steven M. Lonergan, Joshua T. Selsby

Animal Science Publications

Heat stress is associated with death and other maladaptions including muscle dysfunction and impaired growth across species. Despite this common observation, the molecular effects leading to these pathologic changes remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which heat stress disrupted redox balance and initiated an inflammatory response in oxidative and glycolytic skeletal muscle. Female pigs (5–6/group) were subjected to thermoneutral (20 °C) or heat stress (35 °C) conditions for 1 or 3 days and the semitendinosus removed and dissected into red (STR) and white (STW) portions. After 1 day of heat stress ...


Evaluation Of Variant Identification Methods For Whole Genome Sequencing Data In Dairy Cattle, Christine F. Baes, Marlies A. Dolezal, James Eugene Koltes, Beat Bapst, Eric R. Fritz-Waters, Sandra Jansen, Christine Flury, Heidi Signer-Hasler, Christine Stricker, Rohan L. Fernando, Ruedi Fries, Juerg Moll, Dorian J. Garrick, James M. Reecy, Birgit Gredler Jan 2014

Evaluation Of Variant Identification Methods For Whole Genome Sequencing Data In Dairy Cattle, Christine F. Baes, Marlies A. Dolezal, James Eugene Koltes, Beat Bapst, Eric R. Fritz-Waters, Sandra Jansen, Christine Flury, Heidi Signer-Hasler, Christine Stricker, Rohan L. Fernando, Ruedi Fries, Juerg Moll, Dorian J. Garrick, James M. Reecy, Birgit Gredler

Animal Science Publications

Advances in human genomics have allowed unprecedented productivity in terms of algorithms, software, and literature available for translating raw next-generation sequence data into high-quality information. The challenges of variant identification in organisms with lower quality reference genomes are less well documented. We explored the consequences of commonly recommended preparatory steps and the effects of single and multi sample variant identification methods using four publicly available software applications (Platypus, HaplotypeCaller, Samtools and UnifiedGenotyper) on whole genome sequence data of 65 key ancestors of Swiss dairy cattle populations. Accuracy of calling next-generation sequence variants was assessed by comparison to the same loci ...


Using Classification Trees To Detect Induced Sow Lameness With A Transient Model, Caitlyn E. Abell, Anna K. Johnson, Locke A. Karriker, Max F. Rothschild, Steven J. Hoff, G. Sun, R. F. Fitzgerald, Kenneth J. Stalder Jan 2014

Using Classification Trees To Detect Induced Sow Lameness With A Transient Model, Caitlyn E. Abell, Anna K. Johnson, Locke A. Karriker, Max F. Rothschild, Steven J. Hoff, G. Sun, R. F. Fitzgerald, Kenneth J. Stalder

Animal Science Publications

Feet and legs issues are some of the main causes for sow removal in the US swine industry. More timely lameness detection among breeding herd females will allow better treatment decisions and outcomes. Producers will be able to treat lame females before the problem becomes too severe and cull females while they still have salvage value. The objective of this study was to compare the predictive abilities and accuracies of weight distribution and gait measures relative to each other and to a visual lameness detection method when detecting induced lameness among multiparous sows. Developing an objective lameness diagnosis algorithm will ...


Development And Refinement Of A Technique For Short-Term Intravascular Auricular Vein Catheter Placement In Mature Sows, Monique D. Pairis-Garcia, Anna Johnson, Jessica L. Bates, Matthew L. Stock, L. A. Barth, Alyssa Sue Brommel, Kenneth J. Stalder, Locke A. Karriker Jan 2014

Development And Refinement Of A Technique For Short-Term Intravascular Auricular Vein Catheter Placement In Mature Sows, Monique D. Pairis-Garcia, Anna Johnson, Jessica L. Bates, Matthew L. Stock, L. A. Barth, Alyssa Sue Brommel, Kenneth J. Stalder, Locke A. Karriker

Animal Science Publications

Intravenous drug administration in adult swine is difficult to perform due to inaccessible superficial veins and thick subcutaneous fat layers. However, successful intravenous drug administration is critical for many biomedical applications including pharmacokinetic studies as extravascular drug administration can influence the drug’s absorption and elimination rate. The purpose of this study was to develop and refine an effective technique for indwelling auricular vein catheter placement in the conscious mature sow. We developed a protocol using a topical anesthetic cream and minimal physical restraint to place indwelling catheters in the auricular vein of six multiparous sows. This method was quick ...


Genome-Wide Association And Genomic Prediction For Host Response To Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus Infection, Nicholas James Boddicker, Angelica G. Bjorkquist, Raymond Rowland, Joan K. Lunney, James M. Reecy, Jack C. Dekkers Jan 2014

Genome-Wide Association And Genomic Prediction For Host Response To Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus Infection, Nicholas James Boddicker, Angelica G. Bjorkquist, Raymond Rowland, Joan K. Lunney, James M. Reecy, Jack C. Dekkers

Animal Science Publications

Host genetics has been shown to play a role in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), which is the most economically important disease in the swine industry. A region on Sus scrofa chromosome (SSC) 4 has been previously reported to have a strong association with serum viremia and weight gain in pigs experimentally infected with the PRRS virus (PRRSV). The objective here was to identify haplotypes associated with the favorable phenotype, investigate additional genomic regions associated with host response to PRRSV, and to determine the predictive ability of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) based on the SSC4 region and based ...


Identification Of Genomic Regions Associated With Feed Efficiency In Nelore Cattle, Priscila S. N. Oliveira, Aline A. M. Cesar, Michele L. Do Nascimento, Amália S. Chaves, Polyana C. Tizioto, Rymer R. Tullio, Dante P. D. Lanna, Antonio N. Rosa, Tad S. Sonstegard, Gerson B. Mourão, James M. Reecy, Dorian J. Garrick, Maurício A. Mudadu, Luiz L. Coutinho, Luciana C. A. Regitano Jan 2014

Identification Of Genomic Regions Associated With Feed Efficiency In Nelore Cattle, Priscila S. N. Oliveira, Aline A. M. Cesar, Michele L. Do Nascimento, Amália S. Chaves, Polyana C. Tizioto, Rymer R. Tullio, Dante P. D. Lanna, Antonio N. Rosa, Tad S. Sonstegard, Gerson B. Mourão, James M. Reecy, Dorian J. Garrick, Maurício A. Mudadu, Luiz L. Coutinho, Luciana C. A. Regitano

Animal Science Publications

Feed efficiency is jointly determined by productivity and feed requirements, both of which are economically relevant traits in beef cattle production systems. The objective of this study was to identify genes/QTLs associated with components of feed efficiency in Nelore cattle using Illumina BovineHD BeadChip (770 k SNP) genotypes from 593 Nelore steers. The traits analyzed included: average daily gain (ADG), dry matter intake (DMI), feed-conversion ratio (FCR), feed efficiency (FE), residual feed intake (RFI), maintenance efficiency (ME), efficiency of gain (EG), partial efficiency of growth (PEG) and relative growth rate (RGR). The Bayes B analysis was completed with Gensel ...


Increasing Gene Discovery And Coverage Using Rna-Seq Of Globin Rna Reduced Porcine Blood Samples, Igseo Choi, Hua Bao, Arun Kommadath, Afshin Hosseini, Xu Sun, Yan Meng, Paul Stothard, Graham S. Plastow, Christopher K. Tuggle, James M. Reecy, Eric R. Fritz-Waters, Samuel M. Abrams, Joan K. Lunney, Leluo Guan Jan 2014

Increasing Gene Discovery And Coverage Using Rna-Seq Of Globin Rna Reduced Porcine Blood Samples, Igseo Choi, Hua Bao, Arun Kommadath, Afshin Hosseini, Xu Sun, Yan Meng, Paul Stothard, Graham S. Plastow, Christopher K. Tuggle, James M. Reecy, Eric R. Fritz-Waters, Samuel M. Abrams, Joan K. Lunney, Leluo Guan

Animal Science Publications

Transcriptome analysis of porcine whole blood has several applications, which include deciphering genetic mechanisms for host responses to viral infection and vaccination. The abundance of alpha- and beta-globin transcripts in blood, however, impedes the ability to cost-effectively detect transcripts of low abundance. Although protocols exist for reduction of globin transcripts from human and mouse/rat blood, preliminary work demonstrated these are not useful for porcine blood Globin Reduction (GR). Our objectives were to develop a porcine specific GR protocol and to evaluate the GR effects on gene discovery and sequence read coverage in RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) experiments. A GR protocol for ...


Standard Genetic Nomenclature, Zhiliang Hu, James M. Reecy, Fiona M. Mccarthy, Carissa A. Park Jan 2014

Standard Genetic Nomenclature, Zhiliang Hu, James M. Reecy, Fiona M. Mccarthy, Carissa A. Park

Animal Science Publications

Genetics includes the study of genotypes and phenotypes, the mechanisms of genetic control between them, and information transfer between generations. Genetic terms describe processes, genes and traits with which genetic phenomena are examined and described. While the genetic terminologies are extensively discussed in this book and elsewhere, the standardization of their names has been an ongoing process. Therefore, this chapter will only concentrate on discussions about the issues involved in the standardization of gene and trait terminologies.


Liver And Skeletal Muscle Mitochondria Proteomes Are Altered In Pigs Divergently Selected For Residual Feed Intake, Judson Kyle Grubbs, Elisabeth J. Huff-Lonergan, Nicholas K. Gabler, Jack C. Dekkers, Steven M. Lonergan Jan 2014

Liver And Skeletal Muscle Mitochondria Proteomes Are Altered In Pigs Divergently Selected For Residual Feed Intake, Judson Kyle Grubbs, Elisabeth J. Huff-Lonergan, Nicholas K. Gabler, Jack C. Dekkers, Steven M. Lonergan

Animal Science Publications

Animals selected for residual feed intake (RFI) can be used as a model to elucidate molecular explanations for differences in growth efficiency. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which the protein profile and posttranslational modifications of mitochondria from skeletal muscle and liver relate to feed efficiency gains in pigs divergently selected for RFI. Mitochondria were isolated from the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle and the liver from pigs (n = 9 each for the high and low RFI line; BW = 95.8 kg). Mitochondria protein profile differences were determined using two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis. Proteins were ...


Effects Of Dietary Cholesterol And Its Oxidation Products On Pathological Lesions And Cholesterol And Lipid Oxidation In The Rabbit Liver, Sun Jin Hur, Ki Chang Nam, Byongrok Min, Min Du, Kwon Il Seo, Dong U. Ahn Jan 2014

Effects Of Dietary Cholesterol And Its Oxidation Products On Pathological Lesions And Cholesterol And Lipid Oxidation In The Rabbit Liver, Sun Jin Hur, Ki Chang Nam, Byongrok Min, Min Du, Kwon Il Seo, Dong U. Ahn

Animal Science Publications

This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary cholesterol (CHO) and cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) on the induction of pathological lesions in rabbit liver tissues. Liver lesions were induced only when the levels of CHO and COPs in the diet were very high. The amount of CHO measured in the liver increased when dietary CHO was increased; by comparison, dietary COPs affected liver CHO amounts to a lesser extent. The TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) value measured for the liver samples also increased when dietary CHO and COP levels were elevated, and the TBARS value was more strongly ...