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Effect Of Different Extrusion Processing Parameters On Physical Properties Of Soy White Flakes And High Protein Distillers Dried Grains-Based Extruded Aquafeeds, Sushil Kumar Singh, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan Dec 2014

Effect Of Different Extrusion Processing Parameters On Physical Properties Of Soy White Flakes And High Protein Distillers Dried Grains-Based Extruded Aquafeeds, Sushil Kumar Singh, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Nutritionally balanced ingredient blends for catla (Catla catla), belonging to the family Cyprinidae, were extruded using single screw extruder. The extrusion was carried out at five levels of soy white flakes content (21%, 29%, 40%, 52%, and 59% db), five levels of moisture content (15, 19, 25, 31, and 35% db) and five levels of barrel temperature (100, 110, 125, 140, and 150 ºC) using three different die nozzles (having L/D ratios 3.33, 5.83, and 7.25). Blends with net protein content of 32.5% contains soy white flakes, along with high protein distillers dried grains (HP-DDG ...


Flow Cytometry Is A Promising And Rapid Method For Differentiating Between Freely Suspended Escherichia Coli And E. Coli Attached To Clay Particles, Xiao Liang, Michelle L. Soupir, Shawn M. Rigby, Laura R. Jarboe, Wei Zhang Dec 2014

Flow Cytometry Is A Promising And Rapid Method For Differentiating Between Freely Suspended Escherichia Coli And E. Coli Attached To Clay Particles, Xiao Liang, Michelle L. Soupir, Shawn M. Rigby, Laura R. Jarboe, Wei Zhang

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Aim: A standard procedure does not exist to distinguish between attached and unattached micro-organisms. In this study, we compared two methods to quantify between Escherichia coli attached to clay particles and E. coli freely suspended in solution: flow cytometry (attachment assay and viability assay) and settling (or centrifugation followed by settling).

Methods and Results: Methods were tested using three environmental strains collected from swine facilities (A, B and C) and one purchased modified pathogenic strain (ATCC 43888); four clay particles: Hectorite, Kaolinite, Ca-Montmorillonite, Montmorillonite K-10; and a range of surface area ratios (particle surface area to E. coli surface area ...


What Does It Take To Detect A Change In Soil Carbon Stock? A Regional Comparison Of Minimum Detectable Difference And Experiment Duration In The North Central United States, Magdalena Necpálová, Robert P. Anex Jr., Alexandra N. Kravchenko, Lori J. Abendroth, Stephen J. Del Grosso, Warren A. Dick, Matthew J. Helmers, Daryl E. Herzmann, Joseph G. Lauer, Emerson D. Nafziger, John E. Sawyer, Peter C. Scharf, Jeffrey S. Strock, Maria B. Villamil Nov 2014

What Does It Take To Detect A Change In Soil Carbon Stock? A Regional Comparison Of Minimum Detectable Difference And Experiment Duration In The North Central United States, Magdalena Necpálová, Robert P. Anex Jr., Alexandra N. Kravchenko, Lori J. Abendroth, Stephen J. Del Grosso, Warren A. Dick, Matthew J. Helmers, Daryl E. Herzmann, Joseph G. Lauer, Emerson D. Nafziger, John E. Sawyer, Peter C. Scharf, Jeffrey S. Strock, Maria B. Villamil

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Variability in soil organic carbon (SOC) results from natural and human processes interacting across time and space, and leads to large variation in the minimum difference in SOC that can be detected with a particular experimental design. Here we report a unique comparison of minimum detectable differences (MDDs) in SOC, and the estimated times required to observe those MDDs across the north central United States, calculated for the two most common SOC experiments: (1) a comparison between two treatments, e.g., moldboard plow (MP) and no-tillage (NT), using a randomized complete block design experiment; and (2) a comparison of changes ...


Automatic Morphological Trait Characterization For Corn Plants Via 3d Holographic Reconstruction, Supawadee Chaivivatrakula, Lie Tang, Matthew N. Dailey, Akash D. Nakarmi Nov 2014

Automatic Morphological Trait Characterization For Corn Plants Via 3d Holographic Reconstruction, Supawadee Chaivivatrakula, Lie Tang, Matthew N. Dailey, Akash D. Nakarmi

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Plant breeding is an extremely important route to genetic improvements that can increase yield and plant adaptability. Genetic improvement requires careful measurement of plant phenotypes or plant trait characteristics, but phenotype measurement is a tedious and error-prone task for humans to perform. High-throughput phenotyping aims to eliminate the problems of manual phenotype measurement. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate the efficacy of an automatic corn plant phenotyping system based on 3D holographic reconstruction. Point cloud image data were acquired from a time-of-flight 3D camera, which was integrated with a plant rotating table to form a screening station. Our method ...


Fumonisins In Conventional And Transgenic, Insect-Resistant Maize Intended For Fuel Ethanol Production: Implications For Fermentation Efficiency And Ddgs Co-Product Quality, Erin L. Bowers, Gary P. Munkvold Sep 2014

Fumonisins In Conventional And Transgenic, Insect-Resistant Maize Intended For Fuel Ethanol Production: Implications For Fermentation Efficiency And Ddgs Co-Product Quality, Erin L. Bowers, Gary P. Munkvold

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Mycotoxins in maize grain intended for ethanol production are enriched in co-product dried distiller’s grains and solubles (DDGS) and may be detrimental to yeast in fermentation. This study was conducted to examine the magnitude of fumonisin enrichment in DDGS and to analyze the impacts of insect injury, Fusarium ear rot severity, and fumonisin contamination on final ethanol yield. Samples of naturally-contaminated grain (0 to 35 mg/kg fumonisins) from field trials conducted in 2008–2011 were fermented and DDGS collected and analyzed for fumonisin content. Ethanol yield (determined gravimetrically) was unaffected by fumonisins in the range occurring in this ...


Within-Row Spacing Sensing Of Maize Plants Using 3d Computer Vision, Akash D. Nakarmi, Lie Tang Sep 2014

Within-Row Spacing Sensing Of Maize Plants Using 3d Computer Vision, Akash D. Nakarmi, Lie Tang

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Within-row plant spacing plays an important role in uniform distribution of water and nutrients among plants which affects the final crop yield. While manual in-field measurements of within-row plant spacing is time and labour intensive, little work has been done on an alternative automated process. We have attempted to develop an automatic system making use of a state-of-the-art 3D vision sensor that accurately measures within-row maize plant spacing. Misidentification of plants caused by low hanging canopies and doubles were reduced by processing multiple consecutive images at a time and selecting the best inter-plant distance calculated. Based on several small scale ...


Effects Of Native Perennial Vegetation Buffer Strips On Dissolved Organic Carbon In Surface Runoff From An Agricultural Landscape, Tomorra Elizabeth Smith, Randall K. Kolka, Xiaobo Zhou, Matthew J. Helmers, Richard M. Cruse, Mark D. Tomer Aug 2014

Effects Of Native Perennial Vegetation Buffer Strips On Dissolved Organic Carbon In Surface Runoff From An Agricultural Landscape, Tomorra Elizabeth Smith, Randall K. Kolka, Xiaobo Zhou, Matthew J. Helmers, Richard M. Cruse, Mark D. Tomer

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) constitutes a small yet important part of a watershed’s carbon budget because it is mobile and biologically active. Agricultural conservation practices such as native perennial vegetation (NPV) strips will influence carbon cycling of an upland agroecosystem, and could affect how much DOC enters streams in runoff, potentially affecting aquatic ecosystems. In a study conducted in Iowa (USA), four treatments with strips of NPV varying in slope position and proportion of area were randomly assigned among 12 small agricultural watersheds in a balanced incomplete block design. Runoff samples from 2008 to 2010 were analyzed for DOC ...


Identifying Sampling Locations For Field-Scale Soil Moisture Estimation Using K-Means Clustering, Zachary J. Van Arkel, Amy L. Kaleita Aug 2014

Identifying Sampling Locations For Field-Scale Soil Moisture Estimation Using K-Means Clustering, Zachary J. Van Arkel, Amy L. Kaleita

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Identifying and understanding the impact of field-scale soil moisture patterns is currently limited by the time and resources required to do sufficient monitoring. This study uses K-means clustering to find critical sampling points to estimate field-scale near-surface soil moisture. Points within the field are clustered based upon topographic and soils data and the points representing the center of those clusters are identified as the critical sampling points. Soil moisture observations at 42 sites across the growing seasons of 4 years were collected several times per week. Using soil moisture observations at the critical sampling points and the number of points ...


Depolymerization Of Post-Consumer Polylactic Acid Products, David A. Grewell, Gowrishankar Srinivasan, Eric W. Cochran Aug 2014

Depolymerization Of Post-Consumer Polylactic Acid Products, David A. Grewell, Gowrishankar Srinivasan, Eric W. Cochran

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Presented in this study is a novel recycling strategy for poly(lactic acid) (PLA) in which the depolymerization is rapidly promoted by the base–catalyzed hydrol–/alcohol–ysis of the terminal ester bonds under mild conditions. Post–consumer PLA water bottles were cut into approximately 6 × 2 mm plastic chips and heated to 50–60×C in water, ethanol, or methanol as the depolymerization medium. A variety of carbonate salts and alkaline metal oxides were screened as potential catalysts. High–power ultrasound was also investigated as a means to accelerate the PLA decomposition. Both mass loss and HPLC analysis of ...


Effect Of Particle Size, Coupling Agent And Ddgs Additions On Paulownia Wood Polypropylene Composites, Brent Tisserat, Louis Reifschneider, David A. Grewell, Gowrishankar Srinivasan Jul 2014

Effect Of Particle Size, Coupling Agent And Ddgs Additions On Paulownia Wood Polypropylene Composites, Brent Tisserat, Louis Reifschneider, David A. Grewell, Gowrishankar Srinivasan

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Studies aimed at improving the tensile, flexural, impact, thermal, and physical characteristics of wood–plastic composites composed of Paulownia wood flour derived from 36-month-old trees blended with polypropylene were conducted. Composites of 25% and 40% w/w of Paulownia wood were produced by twin-screw compounding and injection molding. Composites containing 0–10% by weight of maleated polypropylene were evaluated and an optimum maleated polypropylene concentration determined, i.e., 5%. The particle size distribution of Paulownia wood filler is shown to have an effect on the tensile and flexural properties of the composites. Novel combination composites of dried distiller’s grain ...


Genotypic Variability For Tuber Yield, Biomass, And Drought Tolerance In Jerusalem Artichoke Germplasm, Ruttanachira Ruttanaprasert, Poramate Banterng, Sanun Jogloy, Nimitr Vorasoot, Thawan Kesmala, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Carl C. Holbrook, Aran Patanothai Jun 2014

Genotypic Variability For Tuber Yield, Biomass, And Drought Tolerance In Jerusalem Artichoke Germplasm, Ruttanachira Ruttanaprasert, Poramate Banterng, Sanun Jogloy, Nimitr Vorasoot, Thawan Kesmala, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Carl C. Holbrook, Aran Patanothai

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Jerusalem artichoke could be an alternative feedstock for bioenergy during times when there are shortages of other raw materials for the ethanol industry. However, insufficient water under rainfed conditions is a major cause of Jerusalem artichoke losses. Genetic variation for drought tolerance is an essential prerequisite for the development of Jerusalem artichoke cultivars with improved drought tolerance. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of drought stress on tuber dry weight and biomass and to investigate the genotypic variability in Jerusalem artichoke germplasm. The line-source sprinkler technique was used to compare moisture responses of a range of ...


Investigation Of Process Variables In The Densification Of Corn Stover Briquettes, Curtis Peder Thoreson, Keith E. Webster, Matthew J. Darr, Emily J. Kapler Jun 2014

Investigation Of Process Variables In The Densification Of Corn Stover Briquettes, Curtis Peder Thoreson, Keith E. Webster, Matthew J. Darr, Emily J. Kapler

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The bulk density of raw corn stover is a major limitation to its large-scale viability as a biomass feedstock. Raw corn stover has a bulk density of 50 kg/m3, which creates significant transportation costs and limits the optimization of transport logistics. Producing a densified corn stover product during harvest would reduce harvest and transportation costs, resulting in viable pathways for the use of corn stover as a biomass feedstock. This research investigated the effect of different process variables (compression pressure, moisture content, particle size, and material composition) on a densification method that produces briquettes from raw corn stover. A ...


Transport And Persistence Of Tylosin-Resistant Enterococci, Erm Genes, And Tylosin In Soil And Drainage Water From Fields Receiving Swine Manure, Jason L. Garder, Thomas B. Moorman, Michelle L. Soupir Jun 2014

Transport And Persistence Of Tylosin-Resistant Enterococci, Erm Genes, And Tylosin In Soil And Drainage Water From Fields Receiving Swine Manure, Jason L. Garder, Thomas B. Moorman, Michelle L. Soupir

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Land application of manure from tylosin-treated swine introduces tylosin, tylosin-resistant enterococci, and erythromycin resistant rRNA methylase (erm) genes, which confer resistance to tylosin. This study documents the persistence and transport of tylosin-resistant enterococci,erm genes, and tylosin in tile-drained chisel plow and no-till agricultural fields treated with liquid swine manure in alternating years. Between 70 and 100% of the enterococci in manure were resistant to tylosin and ermB concentrations exceeded 108 copies g−1 manure, while the mean ermF concentrations exceeded 107 copies g−1 manure (ermT was not detected). The mean concentration of tylosin ...


Multilocation Corn Stover Harvest Effects On Crop Yields And Nutrient Removal, Douglas L. Karlen, Stuart J. Birrell, Jane M. F. Johnson, Shannon L. Osborne, Thomas E. Schumacher, Gary E. Varvel, Richard B. Ferguson, Jeff M. Novak, James R. Fredrick, John M. Baker, John A. Lamb, Paul R. Adler, Greg W. Roth, Emerson D. Nafziger Jun 2014

Multilocation Corn Stover Harvest Effects On Crop Yields And Nutrient Removal, Douglas L. Karlen, Stuart J. Birrell, Jane M. F. Johnson, Shannon L. Osborne, Thomas E. Schumacher, Gary E. Varvel, Richard B. Ferguson, Jeff M. Novak, James R. Fredrick, John M. Baker, John A. Lamb, Paul R. Adler, Greg W. Roth, Emerson D. Nafziger

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Corn (Zea mays L.) stover was identified as an important feedstock for cellulosic bioenergy production because of the extensive area upon which the crop is already grown. This report summarizes 239 site-years of field research examining effects of zero, moderate, and high stover removal rates at 36 sites in seven different states. Grain and stover yields from all sites as well as N, P, and K removal from 28 sites are summarized for nine longitude and six latitude bands, two tillage practices (conventional vs no tillage), two stover-harvest methods (machine vs calculated), and two crop rotations {continuous corn (maize) vs ...


Contamination Of Water Resources By Pathogenic Bacteria, Pramod K. Pandey, Philip H. Kass, Michelle L. Soupir, Sagor Biswas, Vijay P. Singh Jun 2014

Contamination Of Water Resources By Pathogenic Bacteria, Pramod K. Pandey, Philip H. Kass, Michelle L. Soupir, Sagor Biswas, Vijay P. Singh

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Water-borne pathogen contamination in water resources and related diseases are a major water quality concern throughout the world. Increasing interest in controlling water-borne pathogens in water resources evidenced by a large number of recent publications clearly attests to the need for studies that synthesize knowledge from multiple fields covering comparative aspects of pathogen contamination, and unify them in a single place in order to present and address the problem as a whole. Providing a broader perceptive of pathogen contamination in freshwater (rivers, lakes, reservoirs, groundwater) and saline water (estuaries and coastal waters) resources, this review paper attempts to develop the ...


Development Of Sustainable Corn Stover Harvest Strategies For Cellulosic Ethanol Production, Stuart J. Birrell, Douglas L. Karlen, Adam Wirt Jun 2014

Development Of Sustainable Corn Stover Harvest Strategies For Cellulosic Ethanol Production, Stuart J. Birrell, Douglas L. Karlen, Adam Wirt

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

To prepare for a 2014 launch of commercial scale cellulosic ethanol production from corn/maize (Zea mays L.) stover, POET-DSM near Emmetsburg, IA has been working with farmers, researchers, and equipment dealers through “Project Liberty” on harvest, transportation, and storage logistics of corn stover for the past several years. Our objective was to evaluate seven stover harvest strategies within a 50-ha (125 acres) site on very deep, moderately well to poorly drained Mollisols, developed in calcareous glacial till. The treatments included the following: conventional grain harvest (no stover harvest), grain plus a second-pass rake and bale stover harvest, and single-pass ...


Analysis Of Corn Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs) / Flour Mixtures, And Subsequent Bread Baking Trials, J. A. Saunders, Kurt A. Rosentrater, P. G. Krishnan May 2014

Analysis Of Corn Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs) / Flour Mixtures, And Subsequent Bread Baking Trials, J. A. Saunders, Kurt A. Rosentrater, P. G. Krishnan

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Grains offer a variety of nutrients; it is thought that through the addition of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) the fiber and protein in baked products may be improved. In this study, all-purpose flour and bread flour were tested with various DDGS substitution levels (0%, 25%, or 50% flour substitution) with the dough conditioner sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL) (0%, 0.15%, or 0.3% flour weight basis). SSL is surfactant produced from reacting stearic acid with food grade lactic acid in the presence of sodium. Overall, as the substitution level of DDGS increased, so did protein, moisture, ash, and ...


Nitrogen And Carbon Dynamics In Prairie Vegetation Strips Across Topographical Gradients In Mixed Central Iowa Agroecosystems, Marlín Pérez-Suárez, Michael J. Castellano, Randall K. Kolka, Heidi Asbjornsen, Matthew J. Helmers Apr 2014

Nitrogen And Carbon Dynamics In Prairie Vegetation Strips Across Topographical Gradients In Mixed Central Iowa Agroecosystems, Marlín Pérez-Suárez, Michael J. Castellano, Randall K. Kolka, Heidi Asbjornsen, Matthew J. Helmers

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Reductions of nitrogen (N) export from agricultural lands because of changes in specific N stocks and fluxes by incorporation of small amounts of prairie vegetation strips (PVS) are poorly understood. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the presence and topographical position of PVS on soil and plant carbon (C) and N stocks relative to annual crop and native prairie vegetation. The study was implemented within three small adjacent watersheds, treated with one of the following cover types: (1) 100% row-crop agriculture (CROP); (2) 20% prairie vegetation (PVS) distributed along the contour across three topographical ...


Holistic Student Professional Development And Assessment: A Backward Design Approach, Jacqulyn A. Baughman, Thomas J. Brumm, Steven K. Mickelson Apr 2014

Holistic Student Professional Development And Assessment: A Backward Design Approach, Jacqulyn A. Baughman, Thomas J. Brumm, Steven K. Mickelson

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

No abstract provided.


Analytical Methods For Chemical And Sensory Characterization Of Scent-Markings In Large Wild Mammals: A Review, Simone B. Soso, Jacek A. Koziel, Anna K. Johnson, Young Jin Lee, W. Sue Fairbanks Mar 2014

Analytical Methods For Chemical And Sensory Characterization Of Scent-Markings In Large Wild Mammals: A Review, Simone B. Soso, Jacek A. Koziel, Anna K. Johnson, Young Jin Lee, W. Sue Fairbanks

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

In conjoining the disciplines of “ethology” and “chemistry” the field of “Ethochemistry” has been instituted. Ethochemistry is an effective tool in conservation efforts of endangered species and the understanding of behavioral patterns across all species. Chemical constituents of scent-markings have an important, yet poorly understood function in territoriality, reproduction, dominance, and impact on evolutionary biology, especially in large mammals. Particular attention has recently been focused on scent-marking analysis of great cats (Kalahari leopards (Panthera pardus), puma (Puma concolor) snow leopard (Panthera uncia), African lions (Panthera leo), cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), and tigers (Panthera tigris)) for the purpose of conservation. Sensory analyses ...


Free Chlorine Loss During Spraying Of Membraneless Acidic Electrolyzed Water And Its Antimicrobial Effect On Airborne Bacteria From Poultry House, Yang Zhao, Hongwei Xin, Deiling Zhao, Weichao Zheng, Wei Tian, He Ma, Kai Liu, Hui Hu, Tong Wang, Michelle L. Soupir Feb 2014

Free Chlorine Loss During Spraying Of Membraneless Acidic Electrolyzed Water And Its Antimicrobial Effect On Airborne Bacteria From Poultry House, Yang Zhao, Hongwei Xin, Deiling Zhao, Weichao Zheng, Wei Tian, He Ma, Kai Liu, Hui Hu, Tong Wang, Michelle L. Soupir

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Spray-application of membraneless acidic electrolyzed water (MLAEW) is a novel technique for disinfection in livestock houses. This study investigated the loss of free chlorine (FC – the major germicidal component in MLAEW) over distance during spraying, as affected by air temperature and initial FC concentration. The anti-microbial effect of MLAEW on airborne bacteria from an aviary laying-hen house was examined. materials and methods. MLAEW was prepared at two FC concentrations: app. 15 and 60 mg L -1 , and sprayed at three air temperatures (18, 25, 32 °C). The original MLAEW solution and MLAEW aerosols collected at 0, 25, and 50 cm ...


Comparison Of The Environmental Footprint Of The Egg Industry In The United States In 1960 And 2010, Nathan Pelletier, Maro A. Ibarburu, Hongwei Xin Feb 2014

Comparison Of The Environmental Footprint Of The Egg Industry In The United States In 1960 And 2010, Nathan Pelletier, Maro A. Ibarburu, Hongwei Xin

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The US egg industry has evolved considerably over recent decades by incorporating new technologies and production practices. To date, there has been no comprehensive assessment of the resource demand and environmental effects of these changes. This study quantifies the environmental footprint of egg production supply chains in the United States for 2010 compared with 1960 using life cycle assessment. The analysis considers changes in both foreground (e.g., hen production performance) and background (e.g., efficiencies of energy provision, fertilizer production, production of feed inputs, and transport modes) system variables. The results revealed that feed efficiency, feed composition, and manure ...


Effects Of Tillage And Application Rate On Atrazine Transport To Subsurface Drainage: Evaluation Of Rzwqm Using A Six-Year Field Study, Robert W. Malone, B. T. Nolan, Liwang Ma, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Carl H. Pederson, Philip Heilman Jan 2014

Effects Of Tillage And Application Rate On Atrazine Transport To Subsurface Drainage: Evaluation Of Rzwqm Using A Six-Year Field Study, Robert W. Malone, B. T. Nolan, Liwang Ma, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Carl H. Pederson, Philip Heilman

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Well tested agricultural system models can improve our understanding of the water quality effects of management practices under different conditions. The Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM) has been tested under a variety of conditions. However, the current model's ability to simulate pesticide transport to subsurface drain flow over a long term period under different tillage systems and application rates is not clear. Therefore, we calibrated and tested RZWQM using six years of data from Nashua, Iowa. In this experiment, atrazine was spring applied at 2.8 (1990–1992) and 0.6 kg/ha/yr (1993–1995) to two ...


Mixing Beef Feed Rations Containing Distillers Wet Grains, Nathan J. Schuler, Carl J. Bern, Daniel D. Loy, Thomas J. Brumm, Daryl R. Strohbehn Jan 2014

Mixing Beef Feed Rations Containing Distillers Wet Grains, Nathan J. Schuler, Carl J. Bern, Daniel D. Loy, Thomas J. Brumm, Daryl R. Strohbehn

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The flexibility of distillers grains has made it a major substitute for corn in beef feed rations. However, producers are having issues with feeding wet distillers grains. This study addresses three major mixing conditions: ingredient addition order, mixing time, and mixer design. The addition orders considered were hay-corn-protein-DWG and hay-DWG-protein-corn. Horizontal and vertical mixers were tested at mix times of 3, 5, and 7 min mixing a beef finishing ration containing wet distillers grains. Test results were obtained using total mixed ration and Pennsylvania State University Particle Separator analyses. Results showed that the 3-min mixing time is sufficient, thus when ...


Vegetative Treatment System Impacts On Groundwater Quality, Daniel S. Andersen, Robert Burns, Matthew J. Helmers, Lara B. Moody Jan 2014

Vegetative Treatment System Impacts On Groundwater Quality, Daniel S. Andersen, Robert Burns, Matthew J. Helmers, Lara B. Moody

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Increased environmental awareness has prompted the need for improved feedlot runoff control. Vegetative treatment systems (VTSs) provide a cost-effective option that may enhance environmental security by protecting water quality. Vegetative treatment systems are typically designed on the basis of hydraulic performance, which may result in excess application of some nutrients, specifically nitrogen and phosphorus. Groundwater quality monitoring is required to determine the effect, if any, that VTSs have on groundwater. Shallow groundwater (2 to 10 m) quality beneath six VTSs in Iowa was monitored over a four-year period. Monitoring wells were located upgradient, within, and downgradient of the VTSs. Groundwater ...


Ammonia And Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Biogas Digester Effluent Stored At Different Depths, Yue Wang, Hongmin Dong, Zhiping Zhu, Tong Li, Kai Mei, Hongwei Xin Jan 2014

Ammonia And Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Biogas Digester Effluent Stored At Different Depths, Yue Wang, Hongmin Dong, Zhiping Zhu, Tong Li, Kai Mei, Hongwei Xin

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Carbonaceous and nitrogenous gases are produced during storage of livestock manure, with the magnitude of production being affected by the chemical properties of the manure and the physical conditions of storage. This lab-scale study quantifies the emission rates of ammonia (NH3), nitric oxide (NO), and greenhouse gases (GHG), i.e., methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), from biogas digester effluent (BDE) stored at different depths of 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 m in dynamic emission vessels (DEVs). The selected storage depths were reflective of the typical depth range of on-farm BDE storage in China. The static ...


Nutrient Removal By Prairie Filter Strips In Agricultural Landscapes, Xiaobo Zhou, Matthew J. Helmers, Heidi Asbjornsen, Randall K. Kolka, Mark D. Tomer, Richard M. Cruse Jan 2014

Nutrient Removal By Prairie Filter Strips In Agricultural Landscapes, Xiaobo Zhou, Matthew J. Helmers, Heidi Asbjornsen, Randall K. Kolka, Mark D. Tomer, Richard M. Cruse

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from agricultural landscapes have been identified as primary sources of excess nutrients in aquatic systems. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of prairie filter strips (PFS) in removing nutrients from cropland runoff in 12 small watersheds in central Iowa. Four treatments with PFS of different spatial coverage and distribution (No-PFS, 10% PFS, 10% PFS with strips, and 20% PFS with strips) were arranged in a balanced incomplete block design across four blocks in 2007. A no-tillage two-year corn (Zea mays L.) –soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) rotation was grown in ...


Safety And Health In On-Farm Biomass Production And Processing, Douglas H. Schlaufer, Aaron M. Yoder, Dennis J. Murphy, Charles V. Schwab, Abraham F. Dehart Jan 2014

Safety And Health In On-Farm Biomass Production And Processing, Douglas H. Schlaufer, Aaron M. Yoder, Dennis J. Murphy, Charles V. Schwab, Abraham F. Dehart

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

There is significant interest in biomass production ranging from government agencies to the private sector, both inside and outside of the traditional production agricultural setting. This interest has led to an increase in the development and production of biomass crops. Much of this effort has focused on specific segments of the process, and more specifically on the mechanics of these individual segments. From a review of the scientific literature, it is seen that little effort has been put into identifying, classifying, and preventing safety hazards in on-farm biomass production systems. This article describes the current status of the knowledge pertaining ...


Friction Coefficients For Dried Distillers Grains On Eight Structural Surfaces, Guevara C. Nyendu, Spencer Pflum, Paul Schumacher, Carl J. Bern, Thomas J. Brumm Jan 2014

Friction Coefficients For Dried Distillers Grains On Eight Structural Surfaces, Guevara C. Nyendu, Spencer Pflum, Paul Schumacher, Carl J. Bern, Thomas J. Brumm

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Static and dynamic coefficients of friction on structural surfaces play important roles in the power requirements and material selection for equipment used in handling and storing agricultural commodities. However, friction data on dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) is limited. Further, lack of a standardized method for determining friction coefficient on grain handling materials presents a challenge. This article describes studies carried out to determine the static coefficient of friction (µs) and dynamic coefficient of friction (µd) for corn DDGS at 10%, 8.2%, and 6.5% moisture content (all moistures are % wet basis) on eight structural surfaces: High-Density Polyethylene ...


Heat And Moisture Production Rates Of A Modern U.S. Swine Breeding, Gestation, And Farrowing Facility, John P. Stinn, Hongwei Xin Jan 2014

Heat And Moisture Production Rates Of A Modern U.S. Swine Breeding, Gestation, And Farrowing Facility, John P. Stinn, Hongwei Xin

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Current recommendations for swine building ventilation system design to maintain an environment conducive to animal productivity and well-being are based on heat and moisture production rates measured in the 1950s and 1970s. Advancements in animal genetics, nutrition, and management practices to increase productivity and pork quality since then have led to considerable changes in heat and moisture production rates of modern swine and their housing systems. This study quantifies the total heat production rate (THP) of the animals, which is partitioned into house-level latent heat or moisture production rate (LHP, MP) and house-level sensible heat production rate (SHP), of a ...