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2014

Agriculture

Agricultural Policy Review

Articles 1 - 16 of 16

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Strong Demand, But Inconsistent Profitability, Chad Hart, Lee L. Schulz Jan 2014

Strong Demand, But Inconsistent Profitability, Chad Hart, Lee L. Schulz

Agricultural Policy Review

With the arrival of fall, the leaves change, the temperatures drop, and agricultural producers prepare for the winter ahead. This winter looks to be a reversal of fortunes across the agricultural complex. Over the past few years, crop producers have enjoyed record prices and profits, while livestock producers have suffered from high feed costs and negative returns. Now, several sectors of the livestock industry are looking forward to strong prices and good profitability. Meanwhile, the crop sector is staring at the lowest returns in several years. While there are some key differences in the structure of crop and livestock markets ...


Can Voluntary Adoption Of Agricultural Practices Achieve The Hypoxic Zone Reduction Goals?, Catherine L. Kling Jan 2014

Can Voluntary Adoption Of Agricultural Practices Achieve The Hypoxic Zone Reduction Goals?, Catherine L. Kling

Agricultural Policy Review

The presence of a “dead zone” in the Gulf of Mexico caused by nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) coming from upstream watersheds continues to recur annually. As part of the 2008 action plan promulgated by the Hypoxia Task Force to address the problem, each state with major nutrient contributions to the Gulf was tasked with developing and implementing a nutrient reduction strategy. Most of the 12 states included have begun or completed their plans. A common theme among all states is the focus on voluntary adoption of the practices identified rather than a regulatory strategy.


Ethanol Mandates Compliance Strategy And Course Of Action For Epa, Sebastien Pouliot Jan 2014

Ethanol Mandates Compliance Strategy And Course Of Action For Epa, Sebastien Pouliot

Agricultural Policy Review

Renewable Fuel Standards were first introduced by the government in the Energy Policy Act of 2005, which, along with the revised biofuel mandates in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, created a production boom in the ethanol industry. However, as the industry has begun to hit the proverbial “blend wall,” EPA has announced the possibility of reducing, or at least stalling, future mandated usage volumes. Can the industry overcome the blend wall, or is EPA taking its only logical course of action?


Price Expectations And Risk Profiles Drive Commodity Program Choices, Alejandro Plastina, Chad Hart Jan 2014

Price Expectations And Risk Profiles Drive Commodity Program Choices, Alejandro Plastina, Chad Hart

Agricultural Policy Review

The optimal commodity program choice depends as much on the specific production system in each farm as on the producer’s expectations about future yields and prices. Furthermore, the risk profile of producers will weigh heavily in the decision. This article illustrates the role of price expectations and risk profiles in commodity program choice using the ISU Farm Bill Analyzer.


Is There An Optimal Month To Forward Contract?, Dermot J. Hayes Jan 2014

Is There An Optimal Month To Forward Contract?, Dermot J. Hayes

Agricultural Policy Review

Futures and forward contracts for harvest delivery should be efficient predictors of the price at harvest, with no obvious trend in profitability of hedging across various months. However, data collected from 1993 to 2013 reveals that there may actually be an economically optimal time for grain producers to forward contract.


Can The Trend Of Rural Population Decline Be Reversed?, Georgeanne M. Artz, Younjun Kim, Peter F. Orazem Jan 2014

Can The Trend Of Rural Population Decline Be Reversed?, Georgeanne M. Artz, Younjun Kim, Peter F. Orazem

Agricultural Policy Review

In 1900, Iowa’s rural population was just shy of 1.7 million, with almost three-fourths residing on farms or in small towns. However, with the exception of the 1990s, Iowa’s rural population has declined in every census over the last 110 years, as shown in Figure 1. By 2010, only 36% of Iowans remained in rural areas.


Ask An Ag Economist Jan 2014

Ask An Ag Economist

Agricultural Policy Review

Farmland prices are setting records. Do economists know how much of this strong price appreciation is due to government policy such as ethanol mandates, subsidized crop insurance, direct payments, etc.?


Iowa Farmland Value Survey Shows Historic High Statewide Average Jan 2014

Iowa Farmland Value Survey Shows Historic High Statewide Average

Agricultural Policy Review

For more than seventy years, the Iowa State Farmland Value Survey has tracked the ups and downs of farmland value across the state. While the survey shows that the statewide value increased for the ninth time in the past ten years, the increase was far from uniform across the state, with some areas losing value since the last survey.


Retail Meat And Crop Demand Continue To Grow, Chad E. Hart, Lee L. Schulz Jan 2014

Retail Meat And Crop Demand Continue To Grow, Chad E. Hart, Lee L. Schulz

Agricultural Policy Review

The US corn and soybean crops in 2013 were at or near record levels and worldwide demand increased over last year’s amounts. Despite trends showing consumer demand is returning from the 2008 recession, packer demand for hogs and beef hasn’t been faring as well as demand for US crops.


The Protectionism Of Food Safety Standards In International Agricultural Trade, John C. Beghin Jan 2014

The Protectionism Of Food Safety Standards In International Agricultural Trade, John C. Beghin

Agricultural Policy Review

Each country sets their own standards for acceptable pesticide maximum residue limits, with some countries imposing harsher standards than others do. Taxes and governmental red tape only further compound the issues, often leading to protectionism in agricultural trade. Using data from the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service a protectionism index has been developed for more than 80 countries.


Another Strong Quarter For Agricultural Demands, Chad Hart, Lee L. Schulz Jan 2014

Another Strong Quarter For Agricultural Demands, Chad Hart, Lee L. Schulz

Agricultural Policy Review

Agricultural demand has remained strong through the first half of 2014. Crop and livestock prices have provided good returns because of strong demand. As we move into the summer season, live cattle prices have moved into the $140–$150 range. Feeder cattle prices have topped $200 per hundredweight; and lean hogs have approached nearly $130 per hundredweight. Also, corn and soybean prices offered crop producers positive profit margins during the planting season.


Hog Markets And The Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus, David A. Hennessy Jan 2014

Hog Markets And The Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus, David A. Hennessy

Agricultural Policy Review

Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDv) has spread rapidly through the United States swine herd since initial diagnosis in spring 2013. By May 2014, it had been identified in 29 of the contiguous states. Incidence has been greatest in the hog dense states and also Oklahoma and Kansas, as shown in Figure 1. Data are number of positives based on sample genetic tests, taken from National Animal Health Laboratory Network (NAHLN), as reported in www.aasv.org/pedv/PEDv_weekly_report_140326.pdf.


Food Safety Modernization Act: The Case For Complementary Public Regulation And Private Standards, Sebastien Pouliot, Helen H. Jensen Jan 2014

Food Safety Modernization Act: The Case For Complementary Public Regulation And Private Standards, Sebastien Pouliot, Helen H. Jensen

Agricultural Policy Review

President Obama signed into law the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Food Safety Modernization Act of 2010 (FSMA) in January 2011. FSMA is a set of regulations that modifies U.S. food safety laws and extends their scope. FSMA is considered to be the first major reform of U.S. food safety laws since 1938. FSMA specifically targets products that are under the jurisdiction of FDA and thus impacts products such as produce, dairy, seafood, fresh eggs and eggs used as ingredients. The stated objective of FSMA is to shift the focus from response to food contamination to prevention.


Weather Adjusted Yield Trends For Corn: A Look At Iowa, Lisha Li, Dermot J. Hayes, Chad Hart Jan 2014

Weather Adjusted Yield Trends For Corn: A Look At Iowa, Lisha Li, Dermot J. Hayes, Chad Hart

Agricultural Policy Review

Yield growth in agricultural crops is of importance to those who make long-term projections of food availability and price levels. Menz and Pardey (1983) found that the trend growth in corn yields was lower in the 1970s than in the previous two decades. Tannura, Irwin, and Scott (2008) cited a number of crop experts and seed companies who believe that improved technology, particularity biotechnology, will increase the rate of yield growth in corn. Yu and Babcock (2010) found that percentage losses due to drought have been reduced over time, offsetting one of the major impediments to stronger yield growth. However ...


Crop Insurance In Iowa, Alejandro Plastina, Chad Hart Jan 2014

Crop Insurance In Iowa, Alejandro Plastina, Chad Hart

Agricultural Policy Review

Farmers across the nation rely heavily on crop insurance as a risk management tool—in Iowa alone over 93 percent of corn and soybean planted area was insured in 2014, but that participation rate hasn’t always been the case. Participation in crop insurance declined substantially in the early 1990s after the mandate that required producers to purchase crop insurance in 1989 and 1990 to collect drought assistance in 1988 dissipated.


Technology And Productivity In Us Corn And Soybean, Giancarlo Moschini Jan 2014

Technology And Productivity In Us Corn And Soybean, Giancarlo Moschini

Agricultural Policy Review

Competing demands from food, feed, energy, and environmental uses are placing stress on global land resources. To deal with these challenges, much hope rests on sustaining the trend of past productivity growth by developing and adopting new technologies. In this context, there is much to learn from the US experience of tremendous yield gains achieved thanks to improved crop varieties and management practices.