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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Resistance And Innovation In The Evolving Urban Food System Of Monterrey Mexico, Craig K. Harris Jun 2014

Resistance And Innovation In The Evolving Urban Food System Of Monterrey Mexico, Craig K. Harris

Food Systems Summit 2014

Monterrey is the capital city of the state of Nuevo Leon in Mexico. Historically it is the leading industrial city of Mexico, with a strong history of foreign direct investment. Located in the northeastern part of the country, its proximity to Texas has fostered its status as a modern cosmopolitan metropolis. The past couple decades have been characterized by a history of violence, but that is now diminishing as citizens' groups are "taking back our city". The hot and arid climate of the region meant that, as the metropolis developed, it had to rely on some importation of food from ...


"La Misma Realidad De Cada Lugar Es Diferente" ("The Same Reality Of Each Place Is Different"): A Case Study Of An Organic Farmers Market In Lima, Peru, Kevin Cody Jun 2014

"La Misma Realidad De Cada Lugar Es Diferente" ("The Same Reality Of Each Place Is Different"): A Case Study Of An Organic Farmers Market In Lima, Peru, Kevin Cody

Food Systems Summit 2014

Alternative food movements in North America and Western Europe have proliferated in recent years as producers and consumers attempt to reform what is perceived as a fatally flawed industrial food system. Meanwhile, agricultural producers in the global South are increasingly dispossessed of land and livelihoods as agro-industrial processes take on increasingly global dimensions. Given that many of the challenges facing small-scale producers in the North and South stem from similar patterns of agro-industrialization, might they also share similar responses to these challenges?

In this article I make a case for broadening the geographic frame of reference for alternative food systems ...


Saving Seeds: The Svalbard Global Seed Vault, Native American Seed Savers, And Problems Of Property, Sheryl D. Breen Jun 2014

Saving Seeds: The Svalbard Global Seed Vault, Native American Seed Savers, And Problems Of Property, Sheryl D. Breen

Food Systems Summit 2014

To put it simply, seeds are the essence of life. Without their varied yields, the earth would have no agriculture, no livestock, no food systems, no ecological stability. In all shapes, sizes, and distributions, seeds are genetic powerhouses that store life's codes; they are as essential a resource as the water and soil at nourish them. Nonetheless, mounting evidence demonstrates steady erosion of the seed biodiversity necessary for viable food systems. Some seed varieties have been unable to adapt as habitats change or shrink, non- commercial seed-saving techniques have disappeared along with community elders, and a relatively small number ...


High Tunnels For Local Food Systems: Subsidies, Equity, And Profitability, Nathaniel Foust-Meyer, Megan E. O'Rourke Jun 2014

High Tunnels For Local Food Systems: Subsidies, Equity, And Profitability, Nathaniel Foust-Meyer, Megan E. O'Rourke

Food Systems Summit 2014

High tunnels (HTs) constitute a growing, local level response to the globalization of our food. As semi-permanent greenhouses, HTs bring practical on-farm solutions to biophysical growing constraints; they extend the growing season and buffer delicate crops from extreme weather events. In 2009, the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) began subsidizing the construction of HTs with the documented goals of increasing environmental stewardship and the added benefit of promoting local foods. However, many questions remain about the impacts of HT’s. Who is benefiting from the NRCS HT program? Will farmers continue to adopt HTs in the absence of government subsidies ...


Agricultural Innovation For Climate Change Mitigation And Adaptation: A Comparison Of New Zealand And California Farmers And Policies, Meredith T. Niles Jan 2014

Agricultural Innovation For Climate Change Mitigation And Adaptation: A Comparison Of New Zealand And California Farmers And Policies, Meredith T. Niles

College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Faculty Publications

In response to agriculture's vulnerability and contribution to climate change, many governments are developing initiatives that promote the adoption of mitigation and adaptation practices among farmers. Since most climate policies affecting agriculture rely on voluntary efforts by individual farmers, success requires a sound understanding of the factors that motivate farmers to change practices. Recent evidence suggests that past experience with the effects of climate change and the psychological distance associated with people's concern for global and local impacts can influence environmental behavior. This work examines how farmer's perceptions and psychological distance of climate change, environmental policy perceptions ...


Extension 3.0: Managing Agricultural Knowledge Systems In The Network Age, Mark Lubell, Meredith T. Niles, Matthew Hoffman Jan 2014

Extension 3.0: Managing Agricultural Knowledge Systems In The Network Age, Mark Lubell, Meredith T. Niles, Matthew Hoffman

College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Faculty Publications

This paper develops the idea of “Extension 3.0” as an approach to agricultural extension that capitalizes on the network structure of local agricultural knowledge systems. Over the last century, agricultural knowledge systems have evolved into networks of widely distributed actors with a diversity of specializations and expertise. Agricultural extension programs need to manage these networks in ways that maximize the synergy between experiential, technical, and social learning. Using empirical research from California farmers, we highlight the structure of these networks within and across contexts, and the importance of boundary-spanning relationships. We provide some initial recommendations about actions needed to ...


Considering Vermont's Future In A Changing Climate: The First Vermont Climate Assessment, Gillian L. Galford 6562920, Ann Hoogenboom, Sam Carlson, Sarah Ford, Julie Nash, Elizabeth Palchak, Sarah Pears, Kristen Underwood, Daniel V. Baker Jan 2014

Considering Vermont's Future In A Changing Climate: The First Vermont Climate Assessment, Gillian L. Galford 6562920, Ann Hoogenboom, Sam Carlson, Sarah Ford, Julie Nash, Elizabeth Palchak, Sarah Pears, Kristen Underwood, Daniel V. Baker

Rubenstein School of Environment and Natural Resources Faculty Publications

The Vermont Climate Assessment (VCA) paints a vivid picture of a changing climate in Vermont and calls for immediate strategic planning to sustain the social, economic and environmental fabric of our state. The VCA is the first state-scale climate assessment in the country and speaks directly to the impacts of climate change as they pertain to our rural towns, cities and communities, including impacts on Vermont tourism and recreation, agriculture, natural resources and energy.


Flax Weed Control Trial, Heather Darby, Susan Monahan, Erica Cummings, Julian Post, Sara Ziegler Jan 2014

Flax Weed Control Trial, Heather Darby, Susan Monahan, Erica Cummings, Julian Post, Sara Ziegler

Northwest Crops & Soils Program

Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is a multi-purpose crop grown for its fiber, oil (linseed oil), and meal. The majority of production occurs in the Dakotas, Minnesota, and Montana. Recently there has been interest in growing flax in the northeast, both for human consumption and for animal feed, for its high levels of heart-healthy omega-3 fatty acids. Flax is a spring annual that is usually planted as early as the ground can be worked. However, one of the main challenges to successfully growing flax is weed control. Flax plants compete poorly with fast growing weeds due to its relatively short height ...


Short Season Corn Silage Variety Trial, Heather Darby, Sara Ziegler, Erica Cummings, Susan Monahan, Julian Post Jan 2014

Short Season Corn Silage Variety Trial, Heather Darby, Sara Ziegler, Erica Cummings, Susan Monahan, Julian Post

Northwest Crops & Soils Program

In 2014, the University of Vermont Extension Northwest Crops and Soils Team evaluated yield and quality of short season corn silage varieties at Borderview Research Farm in Alburgh, VT. While short season corn is an obvious choice in areas that accumulate fewer Growing Degree Days (GDDs), it also has a place in longer season areas. Growing a shorter season variety can allow for more time in the fall to adequately prepare the soil for winter by applying manure and planting cover crops, thereby minimizing nutrient and soil losses. In addition to these benefits, past UVM Extension variety trials have shown ...


Oilseed Meal As A Fertility Amendment In Sweet Corn, Heather Darby, Abha Gupta, Erica Cummings, Susan Monahan, Julian Post, Sara Ziegler Jan 2014

Oilseed Meal As A Fertility Amendment In Sweet Corn, Heather Darby, Abha Gupta, Erica Cummings, Susan Monahan, Julian Post, Sara Ziegler

Northwest Crops & Soils Program

Many Northeast growers are integrating oilseed crops such as canola, soybeans, and sunflower into their operation, in hopes of on-farm fuel production, value-added products, and/or livestock feed. Many producers are using small-scale presses to mechanically separate oil from the seed. Oilseed meal, the high-protein byproduct left after the extrusion of oil, can be milled and used as a soil amendment to increase fertility and organic matter. This material has the potential to replace high-cost imported fertilizers, especially for organic growers.


Winter Barley Variety Trial, Heather Darby, Katie Blair, Erica Cummings, Susan Monahan, Julian Post, Sara Ziegler Jan 2014

Winter Barley Variety Trial, Heather Darby, Katie Blair, Erica Cummings, Susan Monahan, Julian Post, Sara Ziegler

Northwest Crops & Soils Program

With the revival of the small grains industry in the Northeast and the strength of the localvore movement, craft breweries and distilleries have expressed an interest in sourcing local barley for malting. Malting barley must meet specific quality characteristics such as low protein content and high germination. Many farmers are also interested in barley as a concentrated, high-energy feed source for livestock. Depending on the variety, barley can be planted in either the spring or fall, and both two- and six-row barley can be used for malting and livestock feed. Winter barley has not been traditionally grown in the Northeast ...


Long Season Corn Silage Variety Trial, Heather Darby, Erica Cummings, Susan Monahan, Julian Post, Sara Zeigler Jan 2014

Long Season Corn Silage Variety Trial, Heather Darby, Erica Cummings, Susan Monahan, Julian Post, Sara Zeigler

Northwest Crops & Soils Program

In 2014, the University of Vermont Northwest Extension Crops and Soils Team evaluated yield and quality of long season corn silage varieties at Borderview Research Farm in Alburgh, VT. Long season corn can be difficult to grow in Vermont, due to the climate’s restricted Growing Degree Days (GDDs). In addition, wet springs are becoming more common, delaying corn planting later into the season. However, on many farms, long season corn can produce higher yields and quality than many short season varieties. The test site was at Borderview Research Farm in Alburgh, VT, which has what is considered one of ...


Corn Cropping Systems To Improve Economic And Environmental Health, Heather Darby, Lindsey Ruhl, Erica Cummings, Susan Monahan, Julian Post, Sara Zeigler Jan 2014

Corn Cropping Systems To Improve Economic And Environmental Health, Heather Darby, Lindsey Ruhl, Erica Cummings, Susan Monahan, Julian Post, Sara Zeigler

Northwest Crops & Soils Program

In 2014, UVM Extension’s Northwest Crops & Soils Program initiated a trial at Borderview Research Farm in Alburgh, VT to assess the impact of corn cropping systems on overall health and productivity of the crop and soil. Yields are important, and they affect the bottom line immediately and obviously. Management choices involving crop rotation, tillage, nutrient management, and cover crops also make differences in the long term. Growing corn with practices that enhance soil quality and crop yields improves farm resiliency to both economics and the environment. This project evaluated yield and soil health effects of five different corn rotations ...


Spring Wheat Crosses Trial, Heather Darby, Katie Blair, Erica Cummings, Susan Monahan, Julian Post, Sara Ziegler Jan 2014

Spring Wheat Crosses Trial, Heather Darby, Katie Blair, Erica Cummings, Susan Monahan, Julian Post, Sara Ziegler

Northwest Crops & Soils Program

On-farm wheat breeding began in Vermont, in cooperation with UVM Extension, in 2007 with a USDA SARE grant to build farmer knowledge in plant breeding. The goal of this on-farm breeding trial is to develop spring wheat varieties that are suited for organic management in Vermont soils and climatic conditions. Most commercially available varieties are developed in regions with climates, soils and management techniques that are very different from our own. In addition, those varieties are genetically homogenous and inbred for uniformity. This has often led to rapid breakdown of genetic resistance to local diseases. To address this situation, farmers ...


Hops Weed Management Trial, Heather Darby, Julian Post, Lily Calderwood, Erica Cummings, Scott Lewins, Susan Monahan, Sara Ziegler Jan 2014

Hops Weed Management Trial, Heather Darby, Julian Post, Lily Calderwood, Erica Cummings, Scott Lewins, Susan Monahan, Sara Ziegler

Northwest Crops & Soils Program

As the acreage of hops continues to grow in the northeast, there is increasing need for regionally specific agronomic information. The majority of hop production and research is conducted in the Pacific Northwest, a region that has a much drier climate than our own. The University of Vermont (UVM) Extension has carried out a number of trials to build relevant experience on small scale hop production in our wet and cool climate.


Cereal Rye Variety Trial, Heather Darby, Julian Post, Erica Cummings, Susan Monahan, Sara Ziegler Jan 2014

Cereal Rye Variety Trial, Heather Darby, Julian Post, Erica Cummings, Susan Monahan, Sara Ziegler

Northwest Crops & Soils Program

In 2014, University of Vermont Extension Northwest Crops and Soils Program conducted a variety trial of three varieties of winter rye. The varieties were Huron, Spooner, and one variety that was not specified (VNS). Recently, there has been increased interest in cereal rye as a culinary grain. The purpose was to determine which variety performs best in Vermont when grown for grain.


Brown Mid-Rib Corn Variety Trial, Heather Darby, Julian Post, Erica Cummings, Susan Monahan, Sara Ziegler Jan 2014

Brown Mid-Rib Corn Variety Trial, Heather Darby, Julian Post, Erica Cummings, Susan Monahan, Sara Ziegler

Northwest Crops & Soils Program

Brown mid-rib (BMR) corn has a lower lignin content than other silage corn varieties, which makes it more digestible to dairy cows, potentially increasing milk production. Growers interested in BMR corn look for high-yielding varieties with favorable quality. Since 2010, the University of Vermont Extension Northwest Crops & Soils program has conducted research trials to evaluate BMR corn silage varieties. In 2014, the trial included 10 varieties from three different seed companies. While the information presented can begin to describe the yield and quality performance of these BMR corn varieties in this region, it is important to note that the data ...


Sunflower Planting Date Trial, Heather Darby, Sara Ziegler, Erica Cummings, Susan Monahan, Julian Post Jan 2014

Sunflower Planting Date Trial, Heather Darby, Sara Ziegler, Erica Cummings, Susan Monahan, Julian Post

Northwest Crops & Soils Program

Sunflowers are being grown in the Northeast for their potential to add value to a diversified operation as fuel, feed, fertilizer, and an important rotational crop. However, pest pressures from seed-boring insects, disease, and birds can limit yield and quality, making the crop less viable for existing and potential growers. Addressing some of these pest pressures with agronomic management strategies may help mitigate yield losses. One cultural pest control strategy is manipulation of planting date. To evaluate the impacts of altered planting dates on sunflower pests, an on-farm trial was designed and implemented by the University of Vermont Extension’s ...


Tillage Radish Seeding Rate Trial, Heather Darby, Julian Post, Erica Cummings, Susan Monahan, Sara Ziegler Jan 2014

Tillage Radish Seeding Rate Trial, Heather Darby, Julian Post, Erica Cummings, Susan Monahan, Sara Ziegler

Northwest Crops & Soils Program

Tillage radishes are being utilized by farmers as a new cover crop for their unique characteristics. Tillage radishes are quick at scavenging nitrogen, provide good ground cover, and break down very quickly in the spring to make way for spring planting and provide available nitrogen to the next crop. The plants winter kill, but the dead frozen plant material can still supress the earliest spring weeds from establishing. The holes left by decomposed roots allow more water to infiltrate the soil. Growing tillage radish as a cover crop in the northeast is new and best practices for success have yet ...


Early Fall Cover Cropping Trial, Heather Darby, Lindsey Ruhl, Erica Cummings, Susan Monahan, Julian Post, Sara Ziegler Jan 2014

Early Fall Cover Cropping Trial, Heather Darby, Lindsey Ruhl, Erica Cummings, Susan Monahan, Julian Post, Sara Ziegler

Northwest Crops & Soils Program

Farmers are interested in expanding their cover crop options beyond winter rye. Species of interest include annual ryegrass, oats, vetch, winter pea, tillage radish, and canola. These species have not been commonly grown as cover crops in the region because they require an earlier establishment date compared to that of winter rye. Farmers are interested in finding alternative cover crops and cover crop mixtures that may provide additional benefits over the standard practice. As an example, incorporating winter peas or vetch would provide a nitrogen fixing cover crop to the system. Annual ryegrass may provide better soil cover and easier ...


Late Summer Cover Crop Trial, Heather Darby, Lindsey Ruhl, Erica Cummings, Susan Monahan, Julian Post, Sara Ziegler Jan 2014

Late Summer Cover Crop Trial, Heather Darby, Lindsey Ruhl, Erica Cummings, Susan Monahan, Julian Post, Sara Ziegler

Northwest Crops & Soils Program

The Northwest Crops & Soils Program initiated a trial in Alburgh, VT to assess the potential for using annual ryegrass, oats, and winter peas as cover crops in Vermont. These species have not been commonly grown as cover crops in the region because they require an earlier establishment date compared to that of winter rye. Farmers are interested in finding alternative cover crops that may provide additional benefits over the standard practice. As an example, incorporating winter peas, a legume, would provide a nitrogen fixing cover crop to the system. Annual ryegrass may provide better soil cover and easier to manage ...


Winter Canola Variety Trial, Heather Darby, Sara Ziegler, Erica Cummings, Susan Monahan, Julian Post Jan 2014

Winter Canola Variety Trial, Heather Darby, Sara Ziegler, Erica Cummings, Susan Monahan, Julian Post

Northwest Crops & Soils Program

Winter canola is a relatively new crop to the Northeast. The majority of the canola grown in North America is grown in the Midwestern U.S. and Canada for both culinary oil as well as biodiesel production. Winter canola is planted in the late summer where it grows through the fall before entering a period of dormancy for the winter. The following spring, the plants resume growth and seed is harvested in summer. Winter canola could potentially be a useful crop to growers in the Northeast for diversifying rotations, farm products and markets, and producing fuel on farm. However, for ...


Summer Cover Crop Mix Trial, Heather Darby, Katie Blair, Erica Cummings, Susan Monahan, Julian Post, Sara Ziegler Jan 2014

Summer Cover Crop Mix Trial, Heather Darby, Katie Blair, Erica Cummings, Susan Monahan, Julian Post, Sara Ziegler

Northwest Crops & Soils Program

Many farmers have realized the multitude of benefits cover crops provide in terms of soil health and fertility. Most farmers, however, plant cover crops in the fall to protect their soils from erosion through the winter into spring while they do not have a crop planted. Summer cover cropping may be another option for growers interested in building soil health. Summer cover crops could be planted throughout the season and offer a wide range of species to select from so benefits are maximized. Another benefit to growing cover crops during the summer is increased whole plant above and belowground biomass ...


Organic Spring Barley Variety Trial, Heather Darby, Erica Cummings, Susan Monahan, Julian Post, Sara Ziegler Jan 2014

Organic Spring Barley Variety Trial, Heather Darby, Erica Cummings, Susan Monahan, Julian Post, Sara Ziegler

Northwest Crops & Soils Program

With the revival of the small grains industry in the Northeast and the strength of the locavore movement, craft breweries and distilleries have expressed an interest in sourcing local barley for malting. Malting barley must meet specific quality characteristics such as low protein content and high germination. Many farmers are also interested in barley as a concentrated, high-energy feed source for livestock. Depending on the variety, barley can be planted in either the spring or fall, and both two- and six-row barley can be used for malting. In 2012-2014, UVM Extension conducted a spring barley trial to evaluate the yield ...


Flax Variety Trial, Heather Darby, Susan Monahan, Conner Burke, Erica Cummings, Hannah Harwood Jan 2014

Flax Variety Trial, Heather Darby, Susan Monahan, Conner Burke, Erica Cummings, Hannah Harwood

Northwest Crops & Soils Program

Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is a multi-purpose crop grown for its fiber, oil (linseed oil), and meal. The importance of flax as a major crop in the United States dropped drastically in the 1980’s when latex paints replaced linseed oil based paint. Recently there has been renewed interest in flax, both for human consumption and for animal feed, for its high levels of heart-healthy omega-3 fatty acids. This variety trial was established to determine what flax varieties can grow and thrive in Vermont’s climatic conditions.


Farmer Adoption Of Best Management Practices Using Incentivized Conservation Programs, Jennifer Christine Miller Jan 2014

Farmer Adoption Of Best Management Practices Using Incentivized Conservation Programs, Jennifer Christine Miller

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Many farms in the United States impose negative externalities on society. Population growth and the accompanying increase in demand for food further promote this trend of environmental degradation as a by-product of food production. The USDA's Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP) provides financial assistance to farmers who wish to address natural resource concerns by making structural improvements or implementing best management practices (BMPs) on their farms. Regional examinations of program implementation and incentive levels are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of EQIP at both the farm and environmental level. This research addresses this need in the following two ways ...


Diversification Activities Of Vermont Dairy Farmers: A Study Of Raw Milk And Local Beef Processing In The State., Ryan Leamy Jan 2014

Diversification Activities Of Vermont Dairy Farmers: A Study Of Raw Milk And Local Beef Processing In The State., Ryan Leamy

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

The vast majority of earned agricultural dollars in Vermont come from the dairy industry, but with volatility in the market in recent years, including rising costs of feed and the fluctuating price of milk, state officials have begun to recommend diversification of farm activities to instill resiliency into the system. The research presented in this thesis explores two avenues for diversification, farm-to-consumer sales of raw milk and local beef production.

The second chapter utilizes diffusion theory to understand the prevalence of raw milk consumption in Vermont, develop a profile of the raw milk consumer, document the motivations of raw milk ...


Organic Winter Wheat Variety Trial Report, Heather Darby, Erica Cummings, Susan Monahan, Julian Post, Sara Zeigler Jan 2014

Organic Winter Wheat Variety Trial Report, Heather Darby, Erica Cummings, Susan Monahan, Julian Post, Sara Zeigler

Northwest Crops & Soils Program

In 2014, the University of Vermont Extension conducted an extensive organic variety trial to evaluate hard red winter wheat in order to determine which varieties thrive in the Northeast. The trial was established at the Borderview Research Farm in Alburgh, Vermont.


Organic Winter Wheat Planting Date Trial, Heather Darby, Erica Cummings, Susan Monahan, Julian Post, Sara Ziegler Jan 2014

Organic Winter Wheat Planting Date Trial, Heather Darby, Erica Cummings, Susan Monahan, Julian Post, Sara Ziegler

Northwest Crops & Soils Program

In 2014, the University of Vermont Extension Northwest Crops and Soils Program conducted a winter wheat planting date trial. As the demand for local organic wheat has risen over the last few years, UVM Extension has been trying to determine the best agronomic practices for wheat production in the Northeastern climate. Traditionally, producers have planted winter wheat after the Hessian fly free date, 15-Sep. Producers are interested in knowing how late they can plant their wheat in order to plan rotations and maximize yield while maintaining quality.


Organic Spring Wheat Variety Trial, Heather Darby, Erica Cummings, Susan Monahan, Julian Post, Sara Zeigler Jan 2014

Organic Spring Wheat Variety Trial, Heather Darby, Erica Cummings, Susan Monahan, Julian Post, Sara Zeigler

Northwest Crops & Soils Program

In 2014, the University of Vermont Extension Northwest Crops and Soils Program evaluated nineteen hard red spring wheat to determine which varieties thrive in organic systems. The trial was established at the Borderview Research Farm in Alburgh, Vermont. Several varieties that did not perform well in previous trial years were eliminated from the 2014 variety trial. Newly released varieties were also sought for evaluation.