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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Drd2 And Xkr4: A Genetic Approach To Fescue Toxicosis., Kristine Marie Ely Dec 2014

Drd2 And Xkr4: A Genetic Approach To Fescue Toxicosis., Kristine Marie Ely

Masters Theses

Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum Schreb) is the most prevalent forage in the Mid-south United States due to its observed hearty nature and ability to withstand heavy grazing. This is due to a symbiotic relationship with an endophytic fungus (Neotyphodium coenophialum). This fungus produces ergot alkaloids, which can bind to many adrenergic, serotonergic, and dopaminergic receptors. One of the primary functions of dopamine is to inhibit prolactin response. Decreased growth, reproduction, lactation, and depressed serum prolactin concentrations are commonly observed in beef cattle grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue. These symptoms are collectively referred to as fescue toxicosis, and are estimated to cause ...


The Benefits Of Ffa Membership As Part Of The Three-Circle Model In Agricultural Education, Chelsea Brooke Rose Dec 2014

The Benefits Of Ffa Membership As Part Of The Three-Circle Model In Agricultural Education, Chelsea Brooke Rose

Masters Theses

The purpose of this study was to understand the benefits of membership in the Future Farmers of America (FFA) student leadership organization among Tennessee FFA members by surveying members attending Camp Clements FFA Leadership Training Camp. The study focused on the fulfillment of FFA members’ basic human needs as defined by Abraham Maslow (1943). The three needs on which this study focused are: love and belonging, self-esteem, and self-actualization (1943). The study found that a majority of FFA members’ three basic human needs are met due to their involvement in career development events, leadership positions, and other FFA activities. Of ...


World Wide Diversity Of Phytophthora Capsici, Dylan B. Storey Aug 2014

World Wide Diversity Of Phytophthora Capsici, Dylan B. Storey

Doctoral Dissertations

The plant pathogen Phytophthora capsici is a genetically diverse organism that is a global problem. It effects many crops across the Solanacea, Cucurbitacea, andLeguminosea. As a result of the large diversity between individuals (and by extension populations) it has been previously near impossible to make meaningful comparisons between individuals of geographically distinct locations. Here we present the results of applying Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies to a representative panel of isolates. This information and data is further used to demonstrate how this diversity has a functionally relevent effect on a class of proteins responsible for the infectious process. We ...


Investigating The Effect(S) Of Contrasting Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), And Potassium (K) Fertilizer Rates On Cassava Tuber Yield And Quality And Maize Grain Yield In Southern Africa, Ivan Bernardo Cuvaca Aug 2014

Investigating The Effect(S) Of Contrasting Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), And Potassium (K) Fertilizer Rates On Cassava Tuber Yield And Quality And Maize Grain Yield In Southern Africa, Ivan Bernardo Cuvaca

Masters Theses

Fertilizer is a major limiting factor to agriculture in southern Africa (SA). Coupled with this is lack of appropriate fertilizer recommendation rates for high productivity in existing agricultural systems. Field experiments were conducted to determine nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) fertilizer rates for high cassava tuber yield and quality for the coastal semiarid Dondo District of Mozambique, and high maize grain yields for both vertisol and inceptisol of Maphutseng in Lesotho. In general, the results showed that cassava tuber yield, cassava tuber quality as measured by tuber starch content, and maize grain yield were significantly increased by fertilizer ...


Willingness To Adopt Best Management Practices By Beef Cattle Producers In A Southeastern Tennessee Watershed, Alicia Marie Signore Aug 2014

Willingness To Adopt Best Management Practices By Beef Cattle Producers In A Southeastern Tennessee Watershed, Alicia Marie Signore

Masters Theses

Extensive beef cattle farming in the ridge and valley region of East Tennessee suggests that cattle producers could play an important role in improving water quality through the adoption of livestock best management practices (BMPs). This study examines factors influencing willingness to adopt four BMPs—rotational grazing, pasture improvement, stream water crossing, and water tank systems—by beef cattle operations in a southeast Tennessee watershed. Factors examined include farm and farmer characteristics, farmer attitudes, and a hypothetical incentive program encouraging adoption of these practices. Data was collected through a mail survey of 5,150 farmland owners in McMinn, Bradley, and ...


Carbon Sequestration, Carbon Markets, Technical Efficiency And Maize Production Using Conservation Agriculture In Mozambique, Timoteo Eduardo Simone Aug 2014

Carbon Sequestration, Carbon Markets, Technical Efficiency And Maize Production Using Conservation Agriculture In Mozambique, Timoteo Eduardo Simone

Masters Theses

Conservation agriculture practices are a promising sustainable farming system being promoted by various organizations in Mozambique. This thesis analyzes the impact of adoption of conservation agriculture practices on maize production technical efficiency, carbon sequestration and farmer income. The technical efficiency estimation utilizes data from a household survey conducted in Manica and Tete provinces of Mozambique. Soil carbon simulations use information from various sources including the household survey, European Energy markets and local meteorological data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

The second chapter of the thesis evaluates the technical efficiency of maize production using conservation agriculture practices. This section ...


Aminocyclopyrachlor Efficacy For Non-Cropland Weed Control, José Javier Vargas Almodóvar Aug 2014

Aminocyclopyrachlor Efficacy For Non-Cropland Weed Control, José Javier Vargas Almodóvar

Masters Theses

The production of chemicals for crop protection purposes evolved after World War II with the commercialization of the auxin herbicides 2,4-D and MCPA. Their utility and effectiveness created an interest for North American and European companies to develop and research thousands of agrochemicals available today.

Recently discovered and introduced to the market by DuPont Crop Protection, aminocyclopyrachlor is the first broad spectrum synthetic auxin herbicide in this chemical class, and is structurally similar to the auxin herbicides: aminopyralid, clopyralid and picloram. Aminocyclopyrachlor has activity on broadleaf weed species with limited activity on monocot species. Aminocyclopyrachlor is absorbed via plant ...


Synchronization Of Developmental Processes And Defense Signaling By Growth Regulating Transcription Factors, Jinyi Liu, John Hollis Rice, Nana Chen, Thomas J. Baum, Tarek Hewezi May 2014

Synchronization Of Developmental Processes And Defense Signaling By Growth Regulating Transcription Factors, Jinyi Liu, John Hollis Rice, Nana Chen, Thomas J. Baum, Tarek Hewezi

Plant Sciences Publications and Other Works

Growth regulating factors (GRFs) are a conserved class of transcription factor in seed plants. GRFs are involved in various aspects of tissue differentiation and organ development. The implication of GRFs in biotic stress response has also been recently reported, suggesting a role of these transcription factors in coordinating the interaction between developmental processes and defense dynamics. However, the molecular mechanisms by which GRFs mediate the overlaps between defense signaling and developmental pathways are elusive. Here, we report large scale identification of putative target candidates of Arabidopsis GRF1 and GRF3 by comparing mRNA profiles of the grf1/grf2/grf3 triple mutant ...


Application Of Botanicals In Poultry Production To Improve Microbiological Quality, Francisco Javier Gonzalez-Gil May 2014

Application Of Botanicals In Poultry Production To Improve Microbiological Quality, Francisco Javier Gonzalez-Gil

Masters Theses

Foodborne illness and outbreaks associated with poultry products are commonly caused by Campylobacter jejuni or Salmonella enterica. These pathogens colonize the bird intestines during rearing, and if processing, handling or cooking is not done properly, contamination and human illness can occur. Probiotics, prebiotics and botanicals are being evaluated as novel feed additives to reduce pathogen colonization and serve as growth promoter additives in poultry production. Some botanicals are of industrial interest because they are natural antimicrobials or possess beneficial effects on human health. In this research, the application of a botanical (yerba mate) and a probiotic were evaluated as feed ...


Value-Added Lignin Based Carbon Fiber From Organosolv Fractionation Of Poplar And Switchgrass, Andreas Attwenger May 2014

Value-Added Lignin Based Carbon Fiber From Organosolv Fractionation Of Poplar And Switchgrass, Andreas Attwenger

Masters Theses

Carbon fiber has unique properties that include high strength, low density and excellent chemical and thermal resistance. However, they have a low level of utilization because of their high price; typically around $30/kg for an entry level polyacrylonitrile (PAN) based carbon fiber. Low-cost carbon fibers derived from lignin are currently being investigated at the University of Tennessee, because using lignin as a precursor could significantly reduce production costs. Lignin obtained from the pulp and paper and the emerging biofuel industries have the potential to be used for carbon fiber production, however, they are typically unsuitable because of the high ...