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Tall Fescue Seed Extraction And Partial Purification Of Ergot Alkaloids, Huihua Ji, Franklin Fannin, J. Klotz, Lowell P. Bush Dec 2014

Tall Fescue Seed Extraction And Partial Purification Of Ergot Alkaloids, Huihua Ji, Franklin Fannin, J. Klotz, Lowell P. Bush

Kentucky Tobacco Research and Development Center Faculty Publications

Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because synthetically produced ergovaline is difficult to obtain, we developed a seed extraction and partial purification protocol for ergovaline/ergovalinine that provided a biologically active product. Tall fescue seed was ground and packed into several different sized columns for liquid extraction. Smaller particle size and increased extraction time increased efficiency of extraction. Our largest column was a 114 × 52 × 61 cm (W ...


An Introduction To Sheep, Debra K. Aaron, Donald G. Ely Dec 2014

An Introduction To Sheep, Debra K. Aaron, Donald G. Ely

Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications

The information in this fact sheet was developed to provide a quick reference to the most frequently asked questions about sheep and sheep production.


So You Want To Produce Your Own Eggs?, Jacquie Jacob, Anthony J. Pescatore Dec 2014

So You Want To Produce Your Own Eggs?, Jacquie Jacob, Anthony J. Pescatore

Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications

Backyard chicken flocks are becoming popular throughout the country in urban, suburban and rural communities. Preparation is essential for a successful backyard flock.


Proper Handling And Transportation Of Eggs For Sale At Kentucky Farmers’ Markets, Anthony J. Pescatore, Jacquie Jacob Dec 2014

Proper Handling And Transportation Of Eggs For Sale At Kentucky Farmers’ Markets, Anthony J. Pescatore, Jacquie Jacob

Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications

Regardless of the number of eggs produced, and whether the eggs are for home use or sale, careful egg handling is very important. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) lists eggs as a potentially hazardous food, therefore careful handling is important. In Kentucky, if you sell more than 60 dozen eggs a week you need to purchase a retail license. The same holds true if you want to sell your eggs to a retail store to be re-sold or to a distributor that will sell them for you. If you produce fewer than 60 dozen eggs a week ...


Keeping And Using Flock Performance Records, Debra K. Aaron Dec 2014

Keeping And Using Flock Performance Records, Debra K. Aaron

Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications

Performance records serve as the cornerstone of any good livestock management program. Unfortunately, the task of collecting, maintaining and using performance records is the one area of livestock production in general that gets the least attention. This fact sheet provides ten reasons why all sheep producers need to keep performance records on their flocks. Then, some ways of maintaining and using those records are discussed.


Basic Sheep Genetics, Debra K. Aaron Dec 2014

Basic Sheep Genetics, Debra K. Aaron

Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications

Genetics is the science of heredity. It seeks to explain differences and similarities exhibited by related individuals. The application of genetics to livestock improvement is known as animal breeding. The objective of this fact sheet is to provide a refresher course on basic genetics and to show how knowledge of genetics can be used to improve sheep production.


Sheep Breeding: Heritability, Ebvs, Epds And The Nsip, Debra K. Aaron Dec 2014

Sheep Breeding: Heritability, Ebvs, Epds And The Nsip, Debra K. Aaron

Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications

Genetic improvement in a flock depends on the producer’s ability to select breeding sheep that are genetically superior for traits of economic importance. This is complicated by the fact that an animal’s own performance is not always a true indicator of its genetic potential as a parent.


Inbreeding In Sheep, Debra K. Aaron Dec 2014

Inbreeding In Sheep, Debra K. Aaron

Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications

Inbreeding is broadly defined as the mating of individuals that are related. Strictly speaking, however, all animals within a breed are related. So, in a sense, every purebred sheep producer practices some degree of inbreeding. In most cases this relationship is very slight. Therefore, inbreeding is more practically defined as the mating of individuals more closely related than the average of the breed. This practice includes mating brother to sister, sire to daughter and son to dam.


Crossbreeding Considerations In Sheep, Debra K. Aaron Dec 2014

Crossbreeding Considerations In Sheep, Debra K. Aaron

Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications

Crossbreeding is the mating of individuals from different breeds. To a certain extent, it is a simple concept, but embarking upon a crossbreeding program, in sheep or any other livestock species, involves long-term decisions.

The primary benefits of a crossbreeding program are heterosis and breed complementarity.


2015-2016 Burley And Dark Tobacco Production Guide, Robert C. Pearce, William A. Bailey, Lowell P. Bush, Jonathan D. Green, Anne M. Jack, Robert D. Miller, William M. Snell, Lee H. Townsend, Mark A. Purschwitz, Larry D. Swetnam, John H. Wilhoit, Eric Walker, Steve Bost, Neil Rhodes, David Reed, Chuck Johnson, Loren Fisher, Matthew Vann, Scot Whitley, Mina Mila Dec 2014

2015-2016 Burley And Dark Tobacco Production Guide, Robert C. Pearce, William A. Bailey, Lowell P. Bush, Jonathan D. Green, Anne M. Jack, Robert D. Miller, William M. Snell, Lee H. Townsend, Mark A. Purschwitz, Larry D. Swetnam, John H. Wilhoit, Eric Walker, Steve Bost, Neil Rhodes, David Reed, Chuck Johnson, Loren Fisher, Matthew Vann, Scot Whitley, Mina Mila

Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications

Burley and dark tobacco growers in the U.S. make hundreds of decisions every growing season that impact the yield and quality of the crops that they produce. These decisions may include choosing appropriate varieties, planning effective pest control measures or perhaps deciding the best time to top or harvest a crop. Increasingly, tobacco growers are being required by the industry to record and justify their management decisions and actions. The most comprehensive example of this is the U.S. Tobacco Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) program that was initiated during the 2013 growing season and expanded in ...


Irrigation Tips To Conserve Water And Grow A Healthy Lawn, Gregg Munshaw, Brad Lee Nov 2014

Irrigation Tips To Conserve Water And Grow A Healthy Lawn, Gregg Munshaw, Brad Lee

Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications

Turfgrasses are composed of thousands of cells, all containing water, in which metabolic processes such as photosynthesis and respiration take place. Water makes up 80 to 90 percent of the total plant mass. If this level drops below 60 percent, these processes may slow and wilting will occur. Water is critically important for:

  • Maintaining turgidity, which keeps plants standing upright
  • Transporting nutrients and sugars through the plant
  • Chemical reactions
  • Transpirational cooling when water moves out of the leaves and evaporates


Common Hazards In Karst Terrain, Benjamin J. Currens, Alan Fryar, Carmen T. Agouridis Nov 2014

Common Hazards In Karst Terrain, Benjamin J. Currens, Alan Fryar, Carmen T. Agouridis

Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications

Karst refers to terrain largely drained by subsurface conduits and caves. Karst landscapes are characterized by surface features such as springs, sinkholes, shallow depressions, and rolling hills (Figure 1). Karst regions are also known for their subsurface or below-ground features such as conduits and caves (Figure 2). What makes a karst region unique is the way runoff drains from the land. In karst regions, some of the runoff flows into surface features such as sinkholes where it then travels underground. Some of this infiltrated water re-emerges at springs (Figure 1a), and some continues moving underground.


Aerifying And Dethatching Lawns, Gregg Munshaw Nov 2014

Aerifying And Dethatching Lawns, Gregg Munshaw

Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications

Lawns in Kentucky will occasionally suffer due to compacted (hard) soils and excessive thatch layers. Although most lawns will not have problems with these issues, you may occasionally need to dethatch or aerify (core) to maintain a high quality lawn.


Mineral And Protein Blocks And Tubs For Beef Cattle, Jeff Lehmkuhler, Roy Burris, Donna M. Amaral-Phillips Nov 2014

Mineral And Protein Blocks And Tubs For Beef Cattle, Jeff Lehmkuhler, Roy Burris, Donna M. Amaral-Phillips

Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications

Nutritional supplement blocks and tubs are convenient for beef producers, require no investment in feeding troughs and require a limited area for storing. One of the most attractive features is that they lower the labor needed to supplement livestock. Many producers use these products to provide supplemental nutrients to cattle consuming low-quality forages or as a mechanism to promote a more consistent intake of minerals. These products are also attractive to producers who have off-farm employment as they eliminate the need for daily feeding. Yet, they often come at a greater cost per unit of nutrient than more conventional feedstuffs ...


Reading A Feed Tag, Jacquie Jacob, Anthony J. Pescatore Nov 2014

Reading A Feed Tag, Jacquie Jacob, Anthony J. Pescatore

Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications

Feed stores carry a variety of feed types. How do you chose which to buy? You need to read the feed tag. A lot of information is on a feed tag that can help you make your selection.


Renovating Your Lawn, Gregg Munshaw Oct 2014

Renovating Your Lawn, Gregg Munshaw

Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications

Often a poor lawn can be improved by using proper maintenance practices, including mowing, fertilizing, watering, and pest control. In some instances, however, portions of the lawn must be reseeded. You may consider re-establishing your lawn if:

  • Less than 50 percent of the lawn contains the desired turf.
  • Soil is excessively compacted.
  • You want to replace existing grass with an improved variety more tolerant to pests, heat, and drought (Figure 1).
  • You need to decrease weeds such as bermudagrass or quackgrass.
  • You want to reduce thatch and reseed with a non-thatch forming grass.
  • You want to improve a turf damaged ...


Chemical Control Of Turfgrass Diseases 2015, Paul C. Vincelli, Gregg Munshaw Oct 2014

Chemical Control Of Turfgrass Diseases 2015, Paul C. Vincelli, Gregg Munshaw

Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications

Turgrasses under intensive management are often subject to outbreaks of infectious diseases. Diseases usually are most damaging when weather or cultural conditions favor the disease-causing agent but not plant growth and vigor. Cultural conditions that predispose turfgrass to diseases include close mowing, inadequate or excessive nitrogen fertility, light or frequent irrigation, excessive thatch, poor drainage, and shade.


Is Creep Feeding Lambs A Profitable Undertaking?, Donald G. Ely, Endre Fink Sep 2014

Is Creep Feeding Lambs A Profitable Undertaking?, Donald G. Ely, Endre Fink

Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications

Creep feeding is a technique of providing feed to nursing lambs to supplement the milk they consume. Creep-fed lambs grow faster than noncreep-feds and are more aggressive in nursing ewes. This aggression stimulates greater ewe milk production which, in turn, increases creep feed intake because these lambs will be bigger at a given age.


Hypomagnesemic Tetany Or “Grass Tetany”, Michelle Arnold, Jeff Lehmkuhler Sep 2014

Hypomagnesemic Tetany Or “Grass Tetany”, Michelle Arnold, Jeff Lehmkuhler

Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications

Magnesium is a vital component of normal nerve conduction, muscle function, and bone mineral formation. Hypomagnesemic tetany or “grass tetany” is a disorder caused by an abnormally low blood concentration of the essential mineral magnesium (Mg). Synonyms for this disorder include spring tetany, grass staggers, wheat pasture poisoning, or lactation tetany.


Closing A Liquid Manure Storage Structure, Stephen F. Higgins, Kylie Schmidt Aug 2014

Closing A Liquid Manure Storage Structure, Stephen F. Higgins, Kylie Schmidt

Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications

Liquid manure storage structures, such as a lagoon, holding pond, or pit, serve an essential purpose on an active livestock operation. However, when this structure is no longer actively managed it can become a major liability to the producer because of its potential to have a discharge. The discharge from a liquid manure storage structure can contain pollutants such as nutrients, heavy metals, hormones, pathogens, and agriculture chemicals, all of which can pose serious threats to human health and aquatic ecosystems. Because of the pollution potential, livestock producers ceasing their operation are required to close their liquid manure storage structure ...


Evaluating Land Resource Potentials In Kentucky, Edwin L. Ritchey, David C. Ditsch Aug 2014

Evaluating Land Resource Potentials In Kentucky, Edwin L. Ritchey, David C. Ditsch

Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications

The most successful land use decisions are those where the intended use matches the capabilities of the land. Determining the capability of the land begins with a visual assessment of the landscape such as topography (percent slope) and surface drainage patterns followed by a closer examination of the soil physical and chemical characteristics. The purpose of this publication is to provide a basic understanding of the relationship between these landscape and soil properties to facilitate wise land use decisions. Topics such as soil testing to determine plant nutrient supply, plant species selection, and management are not covered in this publication ...


Brassicas: Be Aware Of The Animal Health Risks, Michelle Arnold, Jeff Lehmkuhler Aug 2014

Brassicas: Be Aware Of The Animal Health Risks, Michelle Arnold, Jeff Lehmkuhler

Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications

Winter annuals are often used to extend the grazing season. These forages can be used as supplemental feed when lower quality perennial forages dominate or to provide grazing at times when other forages are not available. On farms where row crops are grown, the combination of crop residues and fall growth of annual crops can allow livestock grazing to be extended well into the winter months. The annuals provide a cover for the soil during winter as well. Winter annuals planted in the early fall will allow grazing in late fall to early winter similar to stockpiled fescue. Based on ...


Generating Members, Volunteers And Leaders In Community Organizations [2014], Ken Culp Iii, Christy Eastwood, Janet H. Johnson Aug 2014

Generating Members, Volunteers And Leaders In Community Organizations [2014], Ken Culp Iii, Christy Eastwood, Janet H. Johnson

Community and Economic Development Publications

Successful organizations consist of members, volunteers and leaders who engage creative talents and interests to serve the community more effectively. To effectively address community issues, the organization must assess its participant needs with specific roles and responsibilities necessary to take action.


Streambank Erosion, Matthew C. Burnette, Carmen T. Agouridis Jul 2014

Streambank Erosion, Matthew C. Burnette, Carmen T. Agouridis

Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications

Streambank erosion refers to the removal of soil and other material, such as rock and vegetation, from the streambank (Figure 1). Streambank erosion is a naturally occurring process, but the rate at which it occurs is often increased by anthropogenic or human activities such as urbanization and agriculture. Changes in land use can cause streambanks to erode at rates much faster than those seen in natural, undisturbed systems.


Fertilizing Your Lawn, Gregg Munshaw Jul 2014

Fertilizing Your Lawn, Gregg Munshaw

Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications

Lawns require fertilizer to remain healthy. Proper fertilization practices will lead to a thick, dark green, uniform lawn that is competitive against weed and disease invasions. The nutrients contained in fertilizers are necessary to support many processes occurring within the plants. If any essential nutrient is limiting, the plants will not perform at their highest level.


Liming Kentucky Lawns, Gregg Munshaw, Edwin L. Ritchey Jul 2014

Liming Kentucky Lawns, Gregg Munshaw, Edwin L. Ritchey

Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications

Most homeowners desire an aesthetically pleasing landscape and will take steps to ensure success. Proper fertilizing, watering, and pest control are all steps that will lead to a quality lawn. However, some confusion surrounds when and why lime should be applied to a lawn. Many homeowners believe that lime needs to be applied on an annual basis for a quality lawn. The purpose of this publication is to explain why lime is needed and whether it is required on your lawn.


Understanding Soilless Media Test Results And Their Implications On Nursery And Greenhouse Crop Management, Dewayne L. Ingram Jul 2014

Understanding Soilless Media Test Results And Their Implications On Nursery And Greenhouse Crop Management, Dewayne L. Ingram

Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications

Soilless media, sometimes called growth media or substrates, are one of the most important components of crop production in containers or raised beds with restricted volume. The word media is the plural of medium. The physical and chemical properties of media greatly influence optimal management protocols. Primary components of these media may be peat, pine bark, perlite, vermiculite, compost and/or perhaps coarse sand. Understanding the chemical and physical properties of optimal media, or the chosen medium for a production system, allows more effective system management. Although choosing or formulating media with optimum physical properties (such as pore air space ...


Guía De Monitoreo De Mip Para Plagas Comunes De Los Cultivos De Solanáceas En Kentucky, Timothy Coolong, John Strang, Ricardo Bessin, Kenneth W. Seebold Jul 2014

Guía De Monitoreo De Mip Para Plagas Comunes De Los Cultivos De Solanáceas En Kentucky, Timothy Coolong, John Strang, Ricardo Bessin, Kenneth W. Seebold

Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications

Este manual es el resultado de los esfuerzos del equipo de MIP en vegetales de la Universidad de Kentucky. Financiamiento para esta publicación fue proporcionado por el Programa de Manejo Integrado de Plagas de la Universidad de Kentucky y el Servicio Cooperativo de Extensión de la Universidad de Kentucky.


Fescue Toxicosis, Michelle Arnold, Cynthia Gaskill, S. Ray Smith Jul 2014

Fescue Toxicosis, Michelle Arnold, Cynthia Gaskill, S. Ray Smith

Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications

Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] is a cool-season, perennial grass frequently infected with the fungal endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum. An endophyte is a fungus or bacteria that lives entirely within the tissue spaces of plants and is only visible microscopically. The plant and fungus enjoy a relationship that is symbiotic—mutually beneficial to both organisms. The fungus has free access to the plant’s nutrients and the plant provides a means for the endophyte to reproduce through infected seeds. The fungus, in turn, produces chemicals (ergot alkaloids) that function as chemical defenses, making the plant more vigorous, pest-resistant, drought-resistant, and ...


Considering The Environment In The Maintenance Of Your Kentucky Lawn: A Season By Season Approach, Gregg Munshaw, Paul C. Vincelli Jul 2014

Considering The Environment In The Maintenance Of Your Kentucky Lawn: A Season By Season Approach, Gregg Munshaw, Paul C. Vincelli

Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications

“Going Green” is a buzz phrase that is heard a lot these days. Everything from driving hybrid cars to recycling plastics can be considered going green. But can we go green when it comes to maintaining our lawns? The answer to that question is not all that simple. Most people do not realize the environmental benefits of lawns. Lawns are known to cool the air, reduce soil erosion, remove dust and pollutants (including CO2) from the air, reduce run-off of water and pollutants, create oxygen for humans, and improve soils over time by supplying organic matter. Lawns are also ...