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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Baseline Characteristics Of Volunteers In The Smart Clinical Trial: Associations Between Habitual Physical Activity And Lifestyle Disease Risk Factors, Qingsheng Zhang, Jane E. O'Shea, Rebecca L. Thorne, Linda C. Tapsell, Marijka Batterham, Karen E. Charlton Aug 2013

Baseline Characteristics Of Volunteers In The Smart Clinical Trial: Associations Between Habitual Physical Activity And Lifestyle Disease Risk Factors, Qingsheng Zhang, Jane E. O'Shea, Rebecca L. Thorne, Linda C. Tapsell, Marijka Batterham, Karen E. Charlton

Qingsheng Zhang

Physical Activity has been suggested to have favorable effects on various cardiovascular risk factors, and may serve as an intervening variable in life-style intervention studies. We aimed to examine the relationship between habitual physical activity and selected cardiovascular markers at baseline in a sample of overweight women who participated in the SMART clinical trial [ACTRN12608000425392]. A sub-sample of eighty-six overweight/obese women (mean age ± S.D.: 45 ± 7.9 years) were included in this analysis. Anthropometric and fasting blood data was collected at baseline (t = 0). Habitual physical activity was assessed by a validated questionnaire (Baecke questionnaire). Associations were examined ...


Industry Partnerships For Health Nonprofits And Disease Awareness Advertising, Danika Hall, Sandra C. Jones, Donald C. Iverson Jun 2013

Industry Partnerships For Health Nonprofits And Disease Awareness Advertising, Danika Hall, Sandra C. Jones, Donald C. Iverson

Sandra Jones

Marketing partnerships between non-profit organisations (NPOs) and industry generally bring favourable results for both parties (Brønn and Vrioni 2001; Varadarajan and Menon 1988). However, there is some scepticism about corporate exploitation of such arrangements and growing concern in Australia and elsewhere about partnerships between the pharmaceutical industry and NPOs (Angell 2006; Moynihan and Cassels 2005) and the co-sponsorship of Disease Awareness Advertising (DAA). This paper reports the findings from a study of how Australian women respond to DAA with differing sponsors including their ability to identify, and their attitude toward, the sponsor. The results are of importance for health NPOs ...


Disease Awareness Advertisements In Australian Magazines: An Analysis Of Content And Compliance, Danika Hall, Sandra C. Jones, Donald C. Iverson Jun 2013

Disease Awareness Advertisements In Australian Magazines: An Analysis Of Content And Compliance, Danika Hall, Sandra C. Jones, Donald C. Iverson

Sandra Jones

In Australia, Direct to Consumer Advertising (DTCA) of prescription medicine is prohibited; however pharmaceutical companies can communicate directly with consumers via Disease Awareness Advertising (DAA). DAA can contain information about a disease including treatment information, but cannot mention the name of a particular product or brand. DAA is currently regulated by the industry body Medicines Australia (MA). In the current study, content analysis methodology was used to determine the extent and nature of DAA in popular Australian women’s magazines which were monitored for 12 months. Findings relating to the use of visual appeals in the imagery and rational appeals ...


Alzheimer's Disease: A Historical Perspective, Ariana Lim May 2013

Alzheimer's Disease: A Historical Perspective, Ariana Lim

Sound Neuroscience: An Undergraduate Neuroscience Journal

Alzheimer's disease is one of many degenerative diseases affecting the American population today and is one of the most devastating diseases. In the more recent years, Alzheimer's Disease has been researched. However, it was not always a commonly known disease and many aspects of Alzheimer's Disease still remain elusive. Enclosed is a summary of the history and discovery of Alzheimer's disease, what current research shows about it today, what is not known about Alzheimer's disease, and the future of exploring and slowing the progression of Alzheimer's disease.


Citrus Tristeza Virus-Host Interactions, W. O. Dawson, S. M. Garnsey, Satyanarayana Tatineni, S. Y. Folimonova, S. J. Harper, S. Gowda May 2013

Citrus Tristeza Virus-Host Interactions, W. O. Dawson, S. M. Garnsey, Satyanarayana Tatineni, S. Y. Folimonova, S. J. Harper, S. Gowda

Papers in Plant Pathology

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a phloem-limited virus whose natural host range is restricted to citrus and related species. Although the virus has killed millions of trees, almost destroying whole industries, and continually limits production in many citrus growing areas, most isolates are mild or symptomless in most of their host range. There is little understanding of how the virus causes severe disease in some citrus and none in others. Movement and distribution of CTV differs considerably from that of well-studied viruses of herbaceous plants where movement occurs largely through adjacent cells. In contrast, CTV systemically infects plants mainly by ...


Short Term Effects Of Energy Restriction And Dietary Fat Sub-Type On Weight Loss And Disease Risk Factors, Linda C. Tapsell, Marijka Batterham, Xu-Feng Huang, Sze Yen Tan, Grigorijs Teuss, Karen E. Charlton, Jane E. O'Shea, Eva M. Warensjo Apr 2013

Short Term Effects Of Energy Restriction And Dietary Fat Sub-Type On Weight Loss And Disease Risk Factors, Linda C. Tapsell, Marijka Batterham, Xu-Feng Huang, Sze Yen Tan, Grigorijs Teuss, Karen E. Charlton, Jane E. O'Shea, Eva M. Warensjo

Karen E. Charlton

Background and aims: Decreasing energy intake relative to energy expenditure is the indisputable tenet of weight loss. In addition to caloric restriction modification of the type of dietary fat may provide further benefits. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of energy restriction alone and with dietary fat modification on weight loss and adiposity, as well as on risk factors for obesity related disease. Methods and results: One-hundred and fifty overweight men and women were randomized into a 3 month controlled trial with four low fat (30% energy) dietary arms: (1) isocaloric (LF); (2) isocaloric with ...


Baseline Characteristics Of Volunteers In The Smart Clinical Trial: Associations Between Habitual Physical Activity And Lifestyle Disease Risk Factors, Qingsheng Zhang, Jane E. O'Shea, Rebecca L. Thorne, Linda C. Tapsell, Marijka Batterham, Karen E. Charlton Apr 2013

Baseline Characteristics Of Volunteers In The Smart Clinical Trial: Associations Between Habitual Physical Activity And Lifestyle Disease Risk Factors, Qingsheng Zhang, Jane E. O'Shea, Rebecca L. Thorne, Linda C. Tapsell, Marijka Batterham, Karen E. Charlton

Karen E. Charlton

Physical Activity has been suggested to have favorable effects on various cardiovascular risk factors, and may serve as an intervening variable in life-style intervention studies. We aimed to examine the relationship between habitual physical activity and selected cardiovascular markers at baseline in a sample of overweight women who participated in the SMART clinical trial [ACTRN12608000425392]. A sub-sample of eighty-six overweight/obese women (mean age ± S.D.: 45 ± 7.9 years) were included in this analysis. Anthropometric and fasting blood data was collected at baseline (t = 0). Habitual physical activity was assessed by a validated questionnaire (Baecke questionnaire). Associations were examined ...


Evaluation Of Fixed Sources Of Variation And Estimation Of Genetic Parameters For Incidence Of Bovine Respiratory Disease In Preweaned Calves And Feedlot Cattle, M. J. Schneider, Richard G. Tait Jr., Marshall V. Ruble, W. Darrell Busby, James M. Reecy Apr 2013

Evaluation Of Fixed Sources Of Variation And Estimation Of Genetic Parameters For Incidence Of Bovine Respiratory Disease In Preweaned Calves And Feedlot Cattle, M. J. Schneider, Richard G. Tait Jr., Marshall V. Ruble, W. Darrell Busby, James M. Reecy

Richard G. Tait Jr.

The primary objective of this study was to estimate variance components and heritability of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) incidence in beef calves before weaning and during the finishing phase. The second objective was to investigate the impact of BRD incidence and treatment frequency on performance and carcass traits. Bovine respiratory disease is the biggest and most costly health challenge facing the cattle industry. The 2 populations used consisted of 1,519 preweaned calves and 3,277 head of feedlot cattle. The incidence rate of BRD in preweaned calves was 11.39%, and among treated cattle, 82.1% were treated once ...


Investigating The Role Of Epibiotic Bacteria In Defense Against Chytridiomycosis In The Green Frog, Lithobates Clamitans, Sarah Nalven Jan 2013

Investigating The Role Of Epibiotic Bacteria In Defense Against Chytridiomycosis In The Green Frog, Lithobates Clamitans, Sarah Nalven

Honors Theses

Amphibian populations have been declining for several decades, in part due to the emerging fungal skin disease, chytridiomycosis, caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Chytridiomycosis has caused extinctions and extirpations in many parts of the world, but its influence varies across species, populations, and individuals. The Green Frog (Lithobates clamitans), which inhabits the eastern half of the United States, seems capable of sustaining Bd infections without experiencing die-offs. It is possible that the Green Frog's epibiotic bacteria are contributing to its defense against Bd as the epibiotic bacteria of several amphibian species are known to play a ...


Nucleic Acid Oxidation In Human Health And Disease, Mu-Rong Chao, Pavel Rossner Jr., Siamak Haghdoost, Hueiwang Anna Jeng, Chiung-Wen Hu Jan 2013

Nucleic Acid Oxidation In Human Health And Disease, Mu-Rong Chao, Pavel Rossner Jr., Siamak Haghdoost, Hueiwang Anna Jeng, Chiung-Wen Hu

Community & Environmental Health Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Heritable Melanism And Parasitic Infection Both Result In Black-Spotted Mosquitofish, Lisa Horth, David Gauthier, Wolfgang Vogelbein Jan 2013

Heritable Melanism And Parasitic Infection Both Result In Black-Spotted Mosquitofish, Lisa Horth, David Gauthier, Wolfgang Vogelbein

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Male Gamhusia holhrooki (Eastern Mosquitofish) express a heritable pigmentation polymorphism approximate to 99% of males are silver, and only approximate to 1% have a melanic, black-spotted pattern. Sex-linkage, an autosomal modifier, and temperature control the expression of this heritable melanism. In many teleosts, melanin also accumulates around the site of parasitic invasion. We have identified black-spot disease in wild mosquitofish from their native habitat. Here, we demonstrate convergence upon the black-pigmented phenotype through two means: 1) heritable melanism, and 2) melanic spotting on the silver genotype that results from infection with immature encysted trematodes. Females are silver and express greater ...


Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells As Tools For Disease Modelling And Drug Discovery In Alzheimer's Disease, Lezanne Ooi, Kuldip Sidhu, Anne Poljak, Greg Sutherland, Michael D. O'Connor, Perminder Sachdev, Gerald Munch Jan 2013

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells As Tools For Disease Modelling And Drug Discovery In Alzheimer's Disease, Lezanne Ooi, Kuldip Sidhu, Anne Poljak, Greg Sutherland, Michael D. O'Connor, Perminder Sachdev, Gerald Munch

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative brain disorder that leads to a progressive decline in a person’s memory and ability to communicate and carry out daily activities. The brain pathology in AD is characterized by extensive neuronal loss, particularly of cholinergic neurons, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles composed of the tau protein (NFTs) and extracellular deposition of plaques composed of β-amyloid (Aβ), a cleavage product of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). These two insoluble protein aggregates are accompanied by a chronic inflammatory response and extensive oxidative damage. Whereas dys-regulation of APP expression or processing appears to be important for ...


Integrated Genomic Approaches To Enhance Genetic Resistance In Chickens, Hans H. Cheng, Pete Kaiser, Susan J. Lamont Jan 2013

Integrated Genomic Approaches To Enhance Genetic Resistance In Chickens, Hans H. Cheng, Pete Kaiser, Susan J. Lamont

Animal Science Publications

The chicken has led the way among agricultural animal species in infectious disease control and, in particular, selection for genetic resistance. The generation of the chicken genome sequence and the availability of other empowering tools and resources greatly enhance the ability to select for enhanced disease resistance via genetic markers and to understand more deeply the biological basis of host resistance. In this review, we discuss how integrated genomic approaches are able to identify specific genes and genetic markers associated with disease resistance, give select examples of contemporary work involving various genomic strategies to identify disease resistance genes, and finish ...


Understanding Amphibian Decline: The Role Of Pesticides And The Pathogenic Chytrid Fungus On Amphibians And Aquatic Communities, Taegan A. Mcmahon Jan 2013

Understanding Amphibian Decline: The Role Of Pesticides And The Pathogenic Chytrid Fungus On Amphibians And Aquatic Communities, Taegan A. Mcmahon

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Amphibians are the most threatened taxon on the planet. Declines have been associated with over-exploitation, habitat loss, pollution, and pathogenic diseases, but of these factors, pollution and disease have been relatively under-studied. Here, I investigated: 1) the impacts of commonly used pesticides on aquatic communities, 2) the effect of these pesticides on amphibian susceptibility to the pathogenic chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), and 3) whether there are non-amphibian hosts of Bd and 4) how to best quantify the survival of Bd through ontogeny of the host.

In my first research chapter, I quantified the effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of ...


Metamodels For Transdisciplinary Analysis Of Wildlife Population Dynamics, Robert C. Lacy, Philip S. Miller, Philip J. Nyhus, J. P. Pollak, B. E. Raboy, S. L. Zeigler Dec 2012

Metamodels For Transdisciplinary Analysis Of Wildlife Population Dynamics, Robert C. Lacy, Philip S. Miller, Philip J. Nyhus, J. P. Pollak, B. E. Raboy, S. L. Zeigler

Philip J. Nyhus

Wildlife population models have been criticized for their narrow disciplinary perspective when analyzing complexity in coupled biological – physical – human systems. We describe a “metamodel” approach to species risk assessment when diverse threats act at different spatiotemporal scales, interact in non-linear ways, and are addressed by distinct disciplines. A metamodel links discrete, individual models that depict components of a complex system, governing the flow of information among models and the sequence of simulated events. Each model simulates processes specific to its disciplinary realm while being informed of changes in other metamodel components by accessing common descriptors of the system, populations, and ...