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2006

GeoQUEST

Articles 1 - 18 of 18

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Cape Grim Scanning Uv Spectrometer, Stephen R. Wilson Feb 2006

The Cape Grim Scanning Uv Spectrometer, Stephen R. Wilson

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

The scanning spectral radiometer operating at Cape Grim provides estimates of irradiance for several spectral regions between 298 and 400 nm. The physical characteristics of the spectrometer system are documented, including the wavelength shift and cosine response of the detector head. The procedures used for the spectrometer’s in situ calibration are also described. The scatter in the resulting calibrations is quantified for the period between 2000 and 2003, providing an estimate of the (wavelength dependent) uncertainty in the measurement.


First Detection Of Meso-Thermospheric Nitric Oxide (No) By Ground-Based Ftir Solar Absorption Spectroscopy, Aldona Wiacek, Nicholas B. Jones, K Strong, J R. Taylor, Richard L. Mittermeier, Hans Fast Jan 2006

First Detection Of Meso-Thermospheric Nitric Oxide (No) By Ground-Based Ftir Solar Absorption Spectroscopy, Aldona Wiacek, Nicholas B. Jones, K Strong, J R. Taylor, Richard L. Mittermeier, Hans Fast

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

We report the first detection of mesospheric-lower thermospheric (MLT, 50–130 km) NO from ground-based FTIR solar absorption spectra using Lorentz- and Doppler-broadened solar absorption lines in the stratosphere and in the MLT, respectively. We present the first characterization of vertical sensitivity in the FTIR NO retrieval and show that MLT NO partial columns can be retrieved with ~1 independent piece of information using a climatological NO profile extending up to 130 km. The information content analysis also improves the characterization of stratospheric partial column retrievals and is relevant to NO results obtained at other Network for the Detection of ...


Antiquity Of The Oceans And Continents, Allen Phillip Nutman Jan 2006

Antiquity Of The Oceans And Continents, Allen Phillip Nutman

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Tracing the origin of the oceans and the division of the crust into distinct oceanic and continental realms relies on incomplete information from tiny vestiges of surviving oldest crust (>3.6 billions years old). Billions of years of tectonism, melting and erosion have obliterated the rest of that crust. Oceans and continental crust already existed almost four billion years ago because water-laid sedimentary rocks of this age have been found and because tonalites dominate in gneissic sequences dating from this period. Tonalites are igneous rocks produced by partial melting of hydrated basaltic crust at convergent plate boundaries. Collisional orogenic systems ...


Cyclicity In The Nearshore Marine To Coastal, Lower Permian, Pebbley Beach Formation, Southern Sydney Basin, Australia: A Record Of Relative Sea-Level Fluctuations At The Close Of The Late Palaeozoic Gondwanan Ice Age, Brian G. Jones, Stuart C. Tye, James A. Maceachern, Kerrie L. Bann, Christopher R. Fielding Jan 2006

Cyclicity In The Nearshore Marine To Coastal, Lower Permian, Pebbley Beach Formation, Southern Sydney Basin, Australia: A Record Of Relative Sea-Level Fluctuations At The Close Of The Late Palaeozoic Gondwanan Ice Age, Brian G. Jones, Stuart C. Tye, James A. Maceachern, Kerrie L. Bann, Christopher R. Fielding

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

The Lower Permian (Artinskian to Sakmarian) Pebbley Beach Formation of the southernmost Sydney Basin in New South Wales, Australia, records sediment accumulation in shallow marine to coastal environments at the close of the Late Palaeozoic Gondwanan ice age. This paper presents a sequence stratigraphic re-evaluation of the upper half of the unit based on the integration of sedimentology and ichnology. Ten facies are recognized, separated into two facies associations. Facies Association A (7 facies) comprises variably bioturbated siltstones and sandstones with marine body fossils, interpreted to record sediment accumulation in open marine environments ranging from lower offshore to middle shoreface ...


Atmospheric Carbonyl Sulfide (Ocs) Variation From 1992-2004 By Ground-Based Solar Ftir Spectrometry, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Nicholas B. Jones, David W. Griffith, S. W. Wood, F Murcray Jan 2006

Atmospheric Carbonyl Sulfide (Ocs) Variation From 1992-2004 By Ground-Based Solar Ftir Spectrometry, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Nicholas B. Jones, David W. Griffith, S. W. Wood, F Murcray

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Analysis of ground-based high-resolution solar FTIR absorption spectra from four sites was performed to determine trends and variability in OCS columns over the period 1992–2004. The sites were Wollongong, Australia (34.45° S, 150.88° E), Lauder, New Zealand (45.0° S, 169.7° E), Arrival Heights, Antarctica (77.8° S, 166.6° E) and Mauna Loa, Hawaii (19.5° N, 155.6° W). Small but significant long-term trends of −0.18±0.02% yr-1 above Hawaii, −0.30±0.12% yr-1 above Wollongong and −0.29±0.14% yr-1 above Lauder, were seen. No significant ...


Aeolian-Fluvial Interaction: Evidence For Late Quaternary Channel Change And Wind-Rift Linear Dune Formation In The Northwestern Simpson Desert, Australia, Gerald C. Nanson, Brian G. Jones, David M. Price, Tim Pietsch, C Bristow, Cameron B. Hollands Jan 2006

Aeolian-Fluvial Interaction: Evidence For Late Quaternary Channel Change And Wind-Rift Linear Dune Formation In The Northwestern Simpson Desert, Australia, Gerald C. Nanson, Brian G. Jones, David M. Price, Tim Pietsch, C Bristow, Cameron B. Hollands

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

In central Australia the most easterly extent of the MacDonnell Ranges borders the northwestern Simpson Desert where widely spaced strike ridges intercept the regional linear dunefield. Topographic basins have disrupted regional drainage lines and isolated dune sets from the main dunefield. In the western part of Camel Flat basin large, red coloured linear dunes of fine sand, ~ 74 ka and older, are oriented almost due north. Through gaps in the ranges the Todd River traversed the eastern part of the basin until ~25 ka when it apparently avulsed ~25 km eastwards to its present position. Subsequently, linear dunes, smaller, lighter ...


Ostracodos (Crustacea, Ostracoda) Y Carofitos (Chlorophyta, Charales) De La Formacion Desencuentro (Mioceno Superior), Provincia De La Rioja, Argentina, Gabriela Cusminsky, Adriana Garcia, Rafael Herbst Jan 2006

Ostracodos (Crustacea, Ostracoda) Y Carofitos (Chlorophyta, Charales) De La Formacion Desencuentro (Mioceno Superior), Provincia De La Rioja, Argentina, Gabriela Cusminsky, Adriana Garcia, Rafael Herbst

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Dust deposition in the Wollongong-Port Kembla region, New South Wales, Australia, arising from local industrial and mining activities, has been of major concern since the early 1960s. Reports dealing with dust deposition rates in the region have been published by different organisations where the data have been averaged for the region. This provides a general trend for the deposition rates for the whole region without considering the trends occurring in specific locations. This study was the first to examine the trends observed at 35 individual gauges to identify more localised trends in dust deposition rates in the Wollongong-Port Kembla region ...


The Sydney Basin And Frozen Prawns - The Cool Mineral Connection, Paul Carr, Brian G. Jones, Bruce Selleck Jan 2006

The Sydney Basin And Frozen Prawns - The Cool Mineral Connection, Paul Carr, Brian G. Jones, Bruce Selleck

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Calcite pseudomorphs after ikaite (glendonite) are common in the Permian marine sequences of the Sydney Basin and have been recorded from more than 30 localities representing six major glenonite-forming intervals. Recognition of glenonites in Sydney Basin strata provides unequivocal evidence for coldwater deposition.


Membrane Coupled Fungi Reactor - An Innovative Approach To Bioremediation Of Hazardous Dye Wastewater, Faisal I. Hai, Kazuo Yamamoto, Kensuke Fukushi Jan 2006

Membrane Coupled Fungi Reactor - An Innovative Approach To Bioremediation Of Hazardous Dye Wastewater, Faisal I. Hai, Kazuo Yamamoto, Kensuke Fukushi

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Virtually all the known physico-chemical and biological techniques have been explored for treatment of extremely recalcitrant dye wastewater; none, however, has emerged as a panacea. A single universally applicable end-of-pipe solution appears to be unrealistic, and combination of appropriate techniques is deemed imperative to devise technically and economically feasible options. An in-depth evaluation of wide range of potential hybrid technologies delineated in literature along with plausible analyses of available cost information has been furnished. In addition to underscoring the indispensability of hybrid technologies, this paper also endorses the inclusion of energy and water reuse plan within the treatment scheme, and ...


New U-Pb Shrimp Zircon Ages For Pre-Variscan Orthogneisses From Portugal And Their Bearing On The Evolution Of The Ossa-Morena Tectonic Zone, Umberto G. Cordani, Allen Phillip Nutman, Antonio S. Andrade, Jose F. Santos, Maria Do Rosario Azevedo, Maria Helena Mendes, Manuel S. Pinto Jan 2006

New U-Pb Shrimp Zircon Ages For Pre-Variscan Orthogneisses From Portugal And Their Bearing On The Evolution Of The Ossa-Morena Tectonic Zone, Umberto G. Cordani, Allen Phillip Nutman, Antonio S. Andrade, Jose F. Santos, Maria Do Rosario Azevedo, Maria Helena Mendes, Manuel S. Pinto

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

New SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages for the Portalegre and Alcáçovas orthogneisses document a complex pre-Variscan history for the Iberian basement in Portugal. The available geochemical and geochronological data for the Alcáçovas orthogneiss (ca. 540 Ma) tend to favor its involvement in a Cadomian orogenic event. This is consistent with the development of an active continental margin setting at the end of the Proterozoic and supports a Gondwanan provenance for the Iberian crust. On the other hand, the Ordovician emplacement age obtained for the magmatic precursors of the Portalegre orthogneisses (497 ± 10 Ma) provides additional evidence for the occurrence of rift-related ...


Comment On ‘‘Zircon Thermometer Reveals Minimum Melting Conditions On Earliest Earth’’ Ii, Allen Phillip Nutman Jan 2006

Comment On ‘‘Zircon Thermometer Reveals Minimum Melting Conditions On Earliest Earth’’ Ii, Allen Phillip Nutman

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

No abstract provided.


743 ± 17 Ma Granite Clast From Jurassic Conglomerate, Kamiaso, Mino Terrane, Japan: The Case For South China Craton Provenance (Korean Gyeonggi Block?), Allen Phillip Nutman, Y Sano, K Terada, H Hidaka Jan 2006

743 ± 17 Ma Granite Clast From Jurassic Conglomerate, Kamiaso, Mino Terrane, Japan: The Case For South China Craton Provenance (Korean Gyeonggi Block?), Allen Phillip Nutman, Y Sano, K Terada, H Hidaka

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

The polymict Kamiaso Conglomerate (Mino Terrane, Japan) contains Jurassic to Palaeoproterozoic clasts—probably derived from Korean basement that lay nearby to the northwest at time of deposition. Clast K2 broke cleanly into two halves during sampling (but the halves were recombined for zircon separation). A third of the K2 zircons are colourless euhedral prisms with oscillatory zoning, with no inheritance and yielded a SHRIMP U/Pb date of 743±17 Ma. Two thirds of K2 zircons are brown oscillatory-zoned corroded prisms with a date of 1860±8 Ma, with inherited cores up to ∼2460 Ma. A likely explanation for this ...


Investigation Of Large-Scale Washover Of A Small Barrier System On The Southeast Australian Coast Using Ground Penetrating Radar, Brian G. Jones, C Bristow, Adam D. Switzer Jan 2006

Investigation Of Large-Scale Washover Of A Small Barrier System On The Southeast Australian Coast Using Ground Penetrating Radar, Brian G. Jones, C Bristow, Adam D. Switzer

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Prehistoric depositional signatures for large-scale washover involving marine inundation events such as storm and tsunami have been the subject of considerable research over the last 15 years. Much of this research has focused on the identification of sand sheets in back-barrier environments as depositional records for extreme washover events. All these deposits must have a sediment source, and by their nature, the most likely source of sediment for washover into back-barrier environments is the barrier itself. This study identifies an erosional signature for large-scale washover from a small coastal barrier on the southeast Australian coast. A distinct lense of marine ...


Landscape Variability And The Response Of Asian Megadeltas To Environmental Change, Colin D. Woodroffe, Robert J. Nicholls, Yoshiki Saito, Zhongyuan Chen, S L. Goodbred Jan 2006

Landscape Variability And The Response Of Asian Megadeltas To Environmental Change, Colin D. Woodroffe, Robert J. Nicholls, Yoshiki Saito, Zhongyuan Chen, S L. Goodbred

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Deltas, occurring at the mouths of river systems that deposit sediments as they enter the sea, are some of the most dynamic sedimentary environments. They contain a long, and often economically significant, sedimentary record of their response to past episodes of climate and sea-level change. Geological investigation of these deposits, and the processes controlling sedimentation, provide insights into the response of deltas to environmental change, which in turn may offer rational and cost-effective strategies for the sustainable management of natural resources and land use in these dynamic systems in the face of future environmental change.


Comparisons Between Sciamachy And Ground-Based Ftir Data For Total Columns Of Co, Ch4, Co2 And N2o, B Dils, M De Maziere, J F. Muller, T Blumenstock, Nicholas B. Jones, David W. Griffith, C P Rinsland, E Mahieu, S Wood, R De Beek, P Demoulin, M Buchwitz, P Duchatelet, C Frankenberg, A Gloudemans, T Kerzenmacher, I Kramer, J Mellqvist, H Shrijver, A Strandberg, D Smale, W Stremme, A G. Straume, R Sussmann, M Van Den Broek, T Wagner, K Strong, Aldona Wiacek, J R. Taylor, Hans Fast, Thorsten Warneke, Richard L. Mittermeier, Justus Notholt, Voltaire A. Velazco Jan 2006

Comparisons Between Sciamachy And Ground-Based Ftir Data For Total Columns Of Co, Ch4, Co2 And N2o, B Dils, M De Maziere, J F. Muller, T Blumenstock, Nicholas B. Jones, David W. Griffith, C P Rinsland, E Mahieu, S Wood, R De Beek, P Demoulin, M Buchwitz, P Duchatelet, C Frankenberg, A Gloudemans, T Kerzenmacher, I Kramer, J Mellqvist, H Shrijver, A Strandberg, D Smale, W Stremme, A G. Straume, R Sussmann, M Van Den Broek, T Wagner, K Strong, Aldona Wiacek, J R. Taylor, Hans Fast, Thorsten Warneke, Richard L. Mittermeier, Justus Notholt, Voltaire A. Velazco

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Total column amounts of CO, CH4, CO2 and N2O retrieved from SCIAMACHY nadir observations in its near-infrared channels have been compared to data from a ground-based quasi-global network of Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers. The SCIAMACHY data considered here have been produced by three different retrieval algorithms, WFM-DOAS (version 0.5 for CO and CH4 and version 0.4 for CO2 and N2O), IMAP-DOAS (version 1.1 and 0.9 (for CO)) and IMLM (version 6.3) and cover the January to December 2003 time period. Comparisons have been made for individual data, as well as for monthly averages. To maximize ...


The Geomorphological Evolution Of A Wave-Dominated Barrier Estuary: Burrill Lake, New South Wales, Australia, Brian G. Jones, Craig R. Sloss, David M. Price, C.E. Mcclennen, John De Carli Jan 2006

The Geomorphological Evolution Of A Wave-Dominated Barrier Estuary: Burrill Lake, New South Wales, Australia, Brian G. Jones, Craig R. Sloss, David M. Price, C.E. Mcclennen, John De Carli

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

The geomorphological evolution of the Holocene wave-dominated barrier estuary at Burrill Lake on the New South Wales coast, Australia, has been delineated using a combination of seismic stratigraphy and the lithostratigraphic analysis of vibracores collected from the back-barrier estuarine environment. A combination of radiocarbon and aspartic acid racemisation-derived ages obtained on Holocene fossil molluscs, and the thermoluminescent signal in remnant Last Interglacial barrier sediments provides the chronological framework for this investigation. Results from this paper show that the barrier estuary occupies a relatively narrow (<1.5 km wide) and shallow (<40 m deep) incised bedrock valley formed during sea-level lowstands. Late Pleistocene sedimentary successions and remnants of the Last Interglacial barrier have been preserved within the incised valley axis and the mouth of the incised valley. These sediments, deposited during the Last Interglacial sea-level highstand, have subsequently been partially removed during the last glacial maximum. Overlying the antecedent late Pleistocene landsurface is a near basin-wide basal marine sand deposited in response to rising sea level associated with the most recent post-glacial marine transgression, which inundated the shallow incised valley ca.7800 years ago. More open marine conditions, with a diverse assemblage of estuarine and marine mollusc species, persisted until ca. 4500 years ago when the stabilizing Holocene barrier resulted in the development of a lowenergy back-barrier lagoonal environment. A late Holocene 1-2 m regression of sea level ca. 3000 years ago further restricted oceanic circulation, increased the rate of fluvial bay-head delta progradation and the extension of the backbarrier central basin mud facies. This evolutionary model of barrier estuary evolution developed for Burrill Lake is consistent with recent research conducted in Lake Illawarra and St Georges Basin and can be applied to other estuaries that have formed in relatively shallow and narrow incised bedrock valleys on tectonically stable, wave-dominated coastlines.


Performance Of Newly Developed Hollow Fiber Module With Spacer In Integrated Anaerobic–Aerobic Fungi Reactor Treating Textile Wastewater, Faisal I. Hai, Kazuo Yamamoto, Kensuke Fukushi Jan 2006

Performance Of Newly Developed Hollow Fiber Module With Spacer In Integrated Anaerobic–Aerobic Fungi Reactor Treating Textile Wastewater, Faisal I. Hai, Kazuo Yamamoto, Kensuke Fukushi

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

A submerged microfiltration membrane bioreactor implementing the white-rot fungus Coriolus versicolor was developed for effective treatment of textile dye wastewater [1]. In that system membrane fouling was precluded by placing a bundle of hollow fibers within a pre-filtration assembly, so as to avoid direct deposition of sludge onto it, together with its periodic high-pressure back-washing and low-dose chemical back-flushing. However, the extreme vulnerability of the bare membrane used in that study to inter-fibral deposition of sludge leading to merging of fibers indicated necessity of development of an appropriate module so that the proposed system may enjoy more flexibility in terms ...


Development Of A Submerged Membrane Fungi Reactor For Textile Wastewater Treatment, Faisal I. Hai, Kazuo Yamamoto, Kensuke Fukushi Jan 2006

Development Of A Submerged Membrane Fungi Reactor For Textile Wastewater Treatment, Faisal I. Hai, Kazuo Yamamoto, Kensuke Fukushi

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

A submerged microfiltration membrane bioreactor implementing the white-rot fungus Coriolus versicolor was developed for the treatment of textile dye wastewater following explorations with different fouling-prevention techniques. The optimum combination ensuring permeate quality and precluding membrane fouling comprises of placing a bundle of hollow fibers within a non-woven coarse-pore (50–200 μm) mesh cage, so as to avoid direct deposition of sludge onto it, together with arrangements for its periodic high-pressure back-washing (3 s/10 min) and chemical back-flushing (100 ml/m2, every third day). Under controlled temperature (29±1°C) and pH (4.5±0.2), and applied HRT and ...