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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Reproduction, Embryonic Development, And Maternal Transfer Of Contaminants In The Amphibian Gastrophryne Carolinensis, William Alexander Hopkins, Sarah Elizabeth Durant, Brandon Patrick Staub, Christopher Lee Rowe, Brian Phillip Jackson Dec 2006

Reproduction, Embryonic Development, And Maternal Transfer Of Contaminants In The Amphibian Gastrophryne Carolinensis, William Alexander Hopkins, Sarah Elizabeth Durant, Brandon Patrick Staub, Christopher Lee Rowe, Brian Phillip Jackson

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Although many amphibian populations around the world are declining at alarming rates, the cause of most declines remains unknown. Environmental contamination is one of several factors implicated in declines and may have particularly important effects on sensitive developmental stages. Despite the severe effects of maternal transfer of contaminants on early development in other vertebrate lineages, no studies have examined the effects of maternal transfer of contaminants on reproduction or development in amphibians. We examined maternal transfer of contaminants in eastern narrow-mouth toads (Gastrophryne carolinensis) collected from a reference site and near a coal-burning power plant. Adult toads inhabiting the industrial ...


Prior Experience As A Stimulus Category Confound: An Example Using Facial Expressions Of Emotion, Leah H. Somerville, Paul J. Whalen Dec 2006

Prior Experience As A Stimulus Category Confound: An Example Using Facial Expressions Of Emotion, Leah H. Somerville, Paul J. Whalen

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Facial expressions of emotion represent a stimulus set widely used to assess a broad range of psychological processes. However, a consideration of systematic differences between expression categories, other than differences relating to characteristics of the expressions themselves, has remained largely unaddressed. By collecting experience rankings in a large sample of undergraduates, we observed that the amount of reported experience individuals have had with different facial expressions of emotion systematically differed between all expression categories. These findings shed light on the potential for identifying confounds inherent to comparing some stimulus categories and, in this case, may aid in the interpretation of ...


The Pulmonary Effects Of Intravenous Adenosine In Asthmatic Subjects, Nausherwan K. Burki, Mahmud Alam, Lu-Yuan Lee Nov 2006

The Pulmonary Effects Of Intravenous Adenosine In Asthmatic Subjects, Nausherwan K. Burki, Mahmud Alam, Lu-Yuan Lee

Physiology Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: We have shown that intravenous adenosine in normal subjects does not cause bronchospasm, but causes dyspnea, most likely by an effect on vagal C fibers in the lungs [Burki et al. J Appl Physiol 2005; 98:180-5]. Since airways inflammation and bronchial hyperreactivity are features of asthma, it is possible that intravenous adenosine may be associated with an increased intensity of dyspnea, and may cause bronchospasm, as noted anecdotally in previous reports.

METHODS: We compared the effects of placebo and 10 mg intravenous adenosine, in 6 normal and 6 asthmatic subjects.

RESULTS: Placebo injection had no significant (p > 0 ...


Fat Mass Gain Is Lower In Calcium-Supplemented Than In Unsupplemented Preschool Children With Low Dietary Calcium Intakes, Elizabeth D. Dejongh, Teresa L. Binkley, Bonny Specker Nov 2006

Fat Mass Gain Is Lower In Calcium-Supplemented Than In Unsupplemented Preschool Children With Low Dietary Calcium Intakes, Elizabeth D. Dejongh, Teresa L. Binkley, Bonny Specker

Ethel Austin Martin Program Publications

BACKGROUND: Dietary calcium may play a role in the stimulation of lipolysis and the inhibition of lipogenesis, thereby reducing body fat.
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to determine whether an association existed between change in percentage body fat (%BF) or fat mass and calcium intake in children aged 3-5 y.
DESIGN: A secondary analysis of a 1-y randomized calcium and activity trial in 178 children was conducted. Three-day diet records and 48-h accelerometer readings were obtained at 0, 6, and 12 mo. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at 0 and 12 mo.
RESULTS: The decrease in %BF was ...


The Allantois And Chorion, When Isolated Before Circulation Or Chorio-Allantoic Fusion, Have Hematopoietic Potential, Brandon M. Zeigler, Daisuke Sugiyama, Michael Chen, Yalin Guo, K. M. Downs, N. A. Speck Nov 2006

The Allantois And Chorion, When Isolated Before Circulation Or Chorio-Allantoic Fusion, Have Hematopoietic Potential, Brandon M. Zeigler, Daisuke Sugiyama, Michael Chen, Yalin Guo, K. M. Downs, N. A. Speck

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The chorio-allantoic placenta forms through the fusion of the allantois (progenitor tissue of the umbilical cord), with the chorionic plate. The murine placenta contains high levels of hematopoietic stem cells, and is therefore a stem cell niche. However, it is not known whether the placenta is a site of hematopoietic cell emergence, or whether hematopoietic cells originate from other sites in the conceptus and then colonize the placenta. Here, we show that the allantois and chorion, isolated prior to the establishment of circulation, have the potential to give rise to myeloid and definitive erythroid cells following explant culture. We further ...


The Role Of Mapks In B Cell Receptor-Induced Down-Regulation Of Egr-1 In Immature B Lymphoma Cells, Jiyuan Ke, Murali Gururajan, Anupam Kumar, Alan Simmons, Lilia Turcios, Ralph Lakshman Chelvarajan, David M. Cohen, David L. Wiest, John G. Monroe, Subbarao Bondada Oct 2006

The Role Of Mapks In B Cell Receptor-Induced Down-Regulation Of Egr-1 In Immature B Lymphoma Cells, Jiyuan Ke, Murali Gururajan, Anupam Kumar, Alan Simmons, Lilia Turcios, Ralph Lakshman Chelvarajan, David M. Cohen, David L. Wiest, John G. Monroe, Subbarao Bondada

Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics Faculty Publications

Cross-linking of the B cell receptor (BCR) on the immature B lymphoma cell line BKS-2 induces growth inhibition and apoptosis accompanied by rapid down-regulation of the immediate-early gene egr-1. In these lymphoma cells, egr-1 is expressed constitutively and has a prosurvival role, as Egr-1-specific antisense oligonucleotides or expression of a dominant-negative inhibitor of Egr-1 also prevented the growth of BKS-2 cells. Moreover, enhancement of Egr-1 protein with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate or an egr-1 expression vector rescued BKS-2 cells from BCR signal-induced growth inhibition. Nuclear run-on and mRNA stability assays indicated that BCR-derived signals act at the transcriptional level to reduce ...


Arsenic Exposure Is Associated With Decreased Dna Repair In Vitro And In Individuals Exposed To Drinking Water Arsenic, Angeline S. Andrew, Jefferey L. Burgess, Maria M. Meza, Eugene Demidenko, Mary G. Waugh, Joshua W. Hamilton, Margaret R. Karagas Aug 2006

Arsenic Exposure Is Associated With Decreased Dna Repair In Vitro And In Individuals Exposed To Drinking Water Arsenic, Angeline S. Andrew, Jefferey L. Burgess, Maria M. Meza, Eugene Demidenko, Mary G. Waugh, Joshua W. Hamilton, Margaret R. Karagas

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The mechanism(s) by which arsenic exposure contributes to human cancer risk is unknown; however, several indirect cocarcinogenesis mechanisms have been proposed. Many studies support the role of As in altering one or more DNA repair processes. In the present study we used individual-level exposure data and biologic samples to investigate the effects of As exposure on nucleotide excision repair in two study populations, focusing on the excision repair cross-complement 1 (ERCC1) component. We measured drinking water, urinary, or toenail As levels and obtained cryopreserved lymphocytes of a subset of individuals enrolled in epidemiologic studies in New Hampshire (USA) and ...


Dissociation Of Automatic And Strategic Lexical-Semantics: Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Evidence For Differing Roles Of Multiple Frontotemporal Regions, Brian T. Gold, David A. Balota, Sara J. Jones, David K. Powell, Charles D. Smith, Anders H. Andersen Jun 2006

Dissociation Of Automatic And Strategic Lexical-Semantics: Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Evidence For Differing Roles Of Multiple Frontotemporal Regions, Brian T. Gold, David A. Balota, Sara J. Jones, David K. Powell, Charles D. Smith, Anders H. Andersen

Neuroscience Faculty Publications

Behavioral research has demonstrated three major components of the lexical-semantic processing system: automatic activation of semantic representations, strategic retrieval of semantic representations, and inhibition of competitors. However, these component processes are inherently conflated in explicit lexical-semantic decision tasks typically used in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research. Here, we combine the logic of behavioral priming studies and the neurophysiological phenomenon of fMRI priming to dissociate the neural bases of automatic and strategic lexical-semantic processes across a series of three studies. A single lexical decision task was used in all studies, with stimulus onset asynchrony or linguistic relationship between prime and ...


Medial Prefrontal Activity Differentiates Self From Close Others, Todd F. Heatherton, Carrie L. Wyland, C. Neil Macrae, Kathryn E. Demos, Bryan T. Denny, William M. Kelley Jun 2006

Medial Prefrontal Activity Differentiates Self From Close Others, Todd F. Heatherton, Carrie L. Wyland, C. Neil Macrae, Kathryn E. Demos, Bryan T. Denny, William M. Kelley

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

No abstract provided.


A Role For Cetp Taqib Polymorphism In Determining Susceptibility To Atrial Fibrillation: A Nested Case Control Study, Folkert W. Asselbergs, Jason H. Moore, Maarten P. Van Den Berg, Eric B. Rimm Apr 2006

A Role For Cetp Taqib Polymorphism In Determining Susceptibility To Atrial Fibrillation: A Nested Case Control Study, Folkert W. Asselbergs, Jason H. Moore, Maarten P. Van Den Berg, Eric B. Rimm

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Studies investigating the genetic and environmental characteristics of atrial fibrillation (AF) may provide new insights in the complex development of AF. We aimed to investigate the association between several environmental factors and loci of candidate genes, which might be related to the presence of AF. A nested case-control study within the PREVEND cohort was conducted. Standard 12 lead electrocardiograms were recorded and AF was defined according to Minnesota codes. For every case, an age and gender matched control was selected from the same population (n = 194). In addition to logistic regression analyses, the multifactor-dimensionality reduction (MDR) method and interaction entropy ...


Prenatal Cocaine Exposure Alters Alpha2 Receptor Expression In Adolescent Rats, Rosemarie M. Booze, David R. Wallace, Janelle M. Silvers, Barbara J. Strupp, Diane M. Snow, Charles F. Mactutus Apr 2006

Prenatal Cocaine Exposure Alters Alpha2 Receptor Expression In Adolescent Rats, Rosemarie M. Booze, David R. Wallace, Janelle M. Silvers, Barbara J. Strupp, Diane M. Snow, Charles F. Mactutus

Neuroscience Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Prenatal cocaine exposure produces attentional deficits which to persist through early childhood. Given the role of norepinephrine (NE) in attentional processes, we examined the forebrain NE systems from prenatal cocaine exposed rats. Cocaine was administered during pregnancy via the clinically relevant intravenous route of administration. Specifically, we measured alpha2-adrenergic receptor (alpha2-AR) density in adolescent (35-days-old) rats, using [3H]RX821002 (5 nM).

RESULTS: Sex-specific alterations of alpha2-AR were found in the hippocampus and amygdala of the cocaine-exposed animals, as well as an upregulation of alpha2-AR in parietal cortex.

CONCLUSION: These data suggest that prenatal cocaine exposure results in a persistent ...


Distinct Toll-Like Receptor Expression In Monocytes And T Cells In Chronic Hcv Infection, Angela Dolganiuc, Catherine Garcia, Karen Kodys, Gyongyi Szabo Mar 2006

Distinct Toll-Like Receptor Expression In Monocytes And T Cells In Chronic Hcv Infection, Angela Dolganiuc, Catherine Garcia, Karen Kodys, Gyongyi Szabo

Gyongyi Szabo

AIM: Hepatitis C virus often establishes chronic infections. Recent studies suggest that viral and bacterial infections are more common in HCV-infected patients compared to controls. Pathogens are recognized by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) to shape adaptive and innate immune responses.

METHODS: In this study, to assess the ability of HCV-infected host to recognize invading pathogens, we investigated Toll-like receptor expression in innate (monocytes) and adaptive (T cells) immune cells by real-time PCR.

RESULTS: We determined that RNA levels for TLRs 2, 6. 7, 8, 9 and 10 mRNA levels were upregulated in both monocytes and T cells in HCV-infected patients compared ...


Type 3 Deiodinase Is Critical For The Maturation And Function Of The Thyroid Axis, Arturo Hernandez, M. Elena Martinez, Steven Flering, Valerie Anne Galton, Donald St. German Feb 2006

Type 3 Deiodinase Is Critical For The Maturation And Function Of The Thyroid Axis, Arturo Hernandez, M. Elena Martinez, Steven Flering, Valerie Anne Galton, Donald St. German

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Developmental exposure to appropriate levels of thyroid hormones (THs) in a timely manner is critical to normal development in vertebrates. Among the factors potentially affecting perinatal exposure of tissues to THs is type 3 deiodinase (D3). This enzyme degrades THs and is highly expressed in the pregnant uterus, placenta, and fetal and neonatal tissues. To determine the physiological role of D3, we have generated a mouse D3 knockout model (D3KO) by a targeted inactivating mutation of the Dio3 gene in mouse ES cells. Early in life, D3KO mice exhibit delayed 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine (T3) clearance, a markedly elevated serum ...