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2006

DNA

Articles 1 - 16 of 16

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Saccharomyces Cerevisiae-Based Molecular Tool Kit For Manipulation Of Genes From Gram-Negative Bacteria, Robert M. Q. Shanks, Nicky C. Caiazza, Shannon M. Hinsa, Christine M. Toutain, George A. O'Toole Jul 2006

Saccharomyces Cerevisiae-Based Molecular Tool Kit For Manipulation Of Genes From Gram-Negative Bacteria, Robert M. Q. Shanks, Nicky C. Caiazza, Shannon M. Hinsa, Christine M. Toutain, George A. O'Toole

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

A tool kit of vectors was designed to manipulate and express genes from a wide range of gram-negative species by using in vivo recombination. Saccharomyces cerevisiae can use its native recombination proteins to combine several amplicons in a single transformation step with high efficiency. We show that this technology is particularly useful for vector design. Shuttle, suicide, and expression vectors useful in a diverse group of bacteria are described and utilized. This report describes the use of these vectors to mutate clpX and clpP of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa and to explore their roles in biofilm formation and surface ...


Bacillus Anthracis Virulent Plasmid Px02 Genes Found In Large Plasmids Of Two Other Bacillus Species, Vicki A. Luna, Debra S. King, K. Kealy Peak, Frank Reeves, Lea Heberlein-Larson, William Veguilla, L. Heller, Kathleen E. Duncan, Andrew C. Cannons, Philip Amuso, Jacqueline Cattani Jul 2006

Bacillus Anthracis Virulent Plasmid Px02 Genes Found In Large Plasmids Of Two Other Bacillus Species, Vicki A. Luna, Debra S. King, K. Kealy Peak, Frank Reeves, Lea Heberlein-Larson, William Veguilla, L. Heller, Kathleen E. Duncan, Andrew C. Cannons, Philip Amuso, Jacqueline Cattani

Bioelectrics Publications

In order to cause the disease anthrax, Bacillus anthracis requires two plasmids, pX01 and pX02, which carry toxin and capsule genes, respectively, that are used as genetic targets in the laboratory detection of the bacterium. Clinical, forensic, and environmental samples that test positive by PCR protocols established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for B. anthracis are considered to be potentially B. anthracis until confirmed by culture and a secondary battery of tests. We report the presence of 10 genes (acpA, capA, capB, capC, capR, capD, IS1627, ORF 48, ORF 61, and repA) and the sequence for the ...


A Determination Of Phylogeny And Hybridization History Within Clematis L. (Ranunculaceae) Using Actin And Nitrate Reductase Intron Sequences, Kimberly Fearn Do Apr 2006

A Determination Of Phylogeny And Hybridization History Within Clematis L. (Ranunculaceae) Using Actin And Nitrate Reductase Intron Sequences, Kimberly Fearn Do

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The phylogeny of Clematis, section Viorna, was characterized in this study using molecular data. Two nuclear introns were sequenced for a variety of taxa: actin and nitrate reductase. Actin intron sequence data yielded very little phylogenetic information. Some basal clades were resolved, but there were very few well supported relationships between species of the Viorna section in both the neighbor joining and maximum parsimony analyses. Nitrate reductase intron sequence data was slightly more variable. The number of well supported relationships in both the neighbor joining and maximum parsimony analyses for nitrate reductase was greater, but still not sufficient to yield ...


Plasmid Probes For Screening Specific Genes In Large Fragment Dna Libraries, Leah Ferguson Apr 2006

Plasmid Probes For Screening Specific Genes In Large Fragment Dna Libraries, Leah Ferguson

Senior Honors Projects

Heliothis virescens, a member of the lepidopteran family, is of great importance to many people who rely on agriculture as a source of income because it is a pest of many important crops. Because H. virescens feeds on a broad array of hosts including cotton, tobacco, tomato, and soybean it has earned its place as a major nuisance in the United States. Heliothis subflexa is a close taxonomic relative of H. virescens, but the two species differ in that H. subflexa is a specialized herbivore that only feeds on plants in the genus Physalis. Studies have been performed to determine ...


Dna Damage Responses In Progeroid Syndromes Arise From Defective Maturation Of Prelamin A, Michael Sinensky, Y. Liu, A. Rusinol, Y. Wang, Y. Zou Jan 2006

Dna Damage Responses In Progeroid Syndromes Arise From Defective Maturation Of Prelamin A, Michael Sinensky, Y. Liu, A. Rusinol, Y. Wang, Y. Zou

Michael Sinensky

The genetic diseases Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) and restrictive dermopathy (RD) arise from accumulation of farnesylated prelamin A because of defects in the lamin A maturation pathway. Both of these diseases exhibit symptoms that can be viewed as accelerated aging. The mechanism by which accumulation of farnesylated prelamin A leads to these accelerated aging phenotypes is not understood. Here we present evidence that in HGPS and RD fibroblasts, DNA damage checkpoints are persistently activated because of the compromise in genomic integrity. Inactivation of checkpoint kinases Ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and ATR (ATM- and Rad3-related) in these patient cells can partially overcome their ...


A Comparison And Combination Of Plastid Atpb And Rbcl Gene Sequences For Inferring Phylogenetic Relationships Within Orchidaceae, Kenneth M. Cameron Jan 2006

A Comparison And Combination Of Plastid Atpb And Rbcl Gene Sequences For Inferring Phylogenetic Relationships Within Orchidaceae, Kenneth M. Cameron

Aliso: A Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany

Parsimony analyses of DNA sequences from the plastid genes atpB and rbcL were completed for 173 species of Orchidaceae (representing 150 different genera) and nine genera from outgroup families in Asparagales. The atpB tree topology is similar to the rbcL tree, although the atpB data contain less homoplasy and provide greater jackknife support than rbcL alone. In combination, the two-gene tree recovers five monophyletic clades corresponding to subfamilies within Orchidaceae, and fully resolves them with moderate to high jackknife support as follows: Epidendroideae are sister to Orchidoideae, followed by Cypripedioideae, then Vanilloideae, and with ...


Analyzing Dna Microarrays With Undergraduate Statisticians, Johanna S. Hardin, Laura Hoopes, Ryan Murphy '06 Jan 2006

Analyzing Dna Microarrays With Undergraduate Statisticians, Johanna S. Hardin, Laura Hoopes, Ryan Murphy '06

Pomona Faculty Publications and Research

With advances in technology, biologists have been saddled with high dimensional data that need modern statistical methodology for analysis. DNA microarrays are able to simultaneously measure thousands of genes (and the activity of those genes) in a single sample. Biologists use microarrays to trace connections between pathways or to identify all genes that respond to a signal. The statistical tools we usually teach our undergraduates are inadequate for analyzing thousands of measurements on tens of samples. The project materials include readings on microarrays as well as computer lab activities. The topics covered include image analysis, filtering and normalization techniques, and ...


Polyamide Platinum Anti-Cancer Complexes Designed To Target Specific Dna Sequences, David Jaramillo, Nial J. Wheate, Stephen F. Ralph, Warren A. Howard, Yitzhak Tor, Janice Aldrich-Wright Jan 2006

Polyamide Platinum Anti-Cancer Complexes Designed To Target Specific Dna Sequences, David Jaramillo, Nial J. Wheate, Stephen F. Ralph, Warren A. Howard, Yitzhak Tor, Janice Aldrich-Wright

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Two new platinum complexes, trans-chlorodiammine[N-(2-aminoethyl)-4-[4-(N-methylimidazole-2-carboxamido)-N-methylpyrrole-2-carboxamido]-N-methylpyrrole-2-carboxamide]platinum(II) chloride (DJ1953-2) and trans-chlorodiammine[N-(6-aminohexyl)-4-[4-(N-methylimidazole-2-carboxamido)-N-methylpyrrole-2-carboxamido]-N-methylpyrrole-2-carboxamide]platinum(II) chloride (DJ1953-6) have been synthesized as proof-of-concept molecules in the design of agents that can specifically target genes in DNA. Coordinate covalent binding to DNA was demonstrated with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Using circular dichroism, these complexes were found to show greater DNA binding affinity to the target sequence:  d(CATTGTCAGAC)2, than toward either d(GTCTGTCAATG)2, which contains different flanking sequences, or d(CATTGAGAGAC)2, which contains a double base pair ...


Proteomic Dissection Of Dna Polymerization, Jennifer L. Beck, Thitima Urathamakul, Stephen James Watt, Margaret Sheil, Patrick M. Schaeffer, Nicholas E. Dixon Jan 2006

Proteomic Dissection Of Dna Polymerization, Jennifer L. Beck, Thitima Urathamakul, Stephen James Watt, Margaret Sheil, Patrick M. Schaeffer, Nicholas E. Dixon

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

DNA polymerases replicate the genome by associating with a range of other proteins that enable rapid, high-fidelity copying of DNA. This complex of proteins and nucleic acids is called the replisome. Proteins of the replisome must interact with other networks of proteins, such as those involved in DNA repair. Many of the proteins involved in DNA polymerisation and the accessory proteins are known, but the array of proteins they interact with, and the spatial and temporal arrangement of these interactions is a current research topic. Mass spectrometry is a technique that can be used to identify the sites of these ...


A Nuclear Rdna Phylogeny Of Smilax (Smilacaceae), Kenneth M. Cameron, Chengxin Fu Jan 2006

A Nuclear Rdna Phylogeny Of Smilax (Smilacaceae), Kenneth M. Cameron, Chengxin Fu

Aliso: A Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany

Smilacaceae are a taxonomically confused, cosmopolitan family of Liliales characterized by climbing habit, reticulate leaf venation, paired petiolar tendrils, unisexual flowers, and superior ovaries. Deviations from this generalized morphology have led to the division of Smilacaceae into at least seven different genera and five sections within the large genus Smilax. In particular, taxa with connate tepals (Heterosmilax), more than six stamens (Pleiosmilax, Oligosmilax), or herbaceous habit (Hemexia) have been variously classified. Using DNA sequences of 96 taxa from the nuclear rDNA ITS gene region, parsimony analyses provide moderate resolution, but generally poor bootstrap support for phylogenetic relationships in the family ...


The Never-Ending Story: Multigene Approaches To The Phylogeny Of Amaryllidaceae, Alan W. Meerow, Deirdre A. Snuman Jan 2006

The Never-Ending Story: Multigene Approaches To The Phylogeny Of Amaryllidaceae, Alan W. Meerow, Deirdre A. Snuman

Aliso: A Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany

a whole, strongly supported the mostly African tribe Amaryllideae as sister to the rest of the family, and resolved geographically-based monophyletic groups, but failed to resolve the relationships among several basal lineages in the family (the African Haemantheae and Cyrtantheae, the Australasian Calostemmateae, and the American and Eurasian sister clades). We present analysis of plastid ndhF sequences that fully resolved the major clades of the family. The baccate-fruited Haemantheae and Calostemmateae are sister tribes, and the African endemic Cyrtantheae is sister to them both. This clade is sister to an American/Eurasian clade. We also present preliminary nuclear ribosomal ...


Dna Damage Responses In Progeroid Syndromes Arise From Defective Maturation Of Prelamin A, Michael Sinensky, Y. Liu, A. Rusinol, Y. Wang, Y. Zou Jan 2006

Dna Damage Responses In Progeroid Syndromes Arise From Defective Maturation Of Prelamin A, Michael Sinensky, Y. Liu, A. Rusinol, Y. Wang, Y. Zou

Faculty Publications

The genetic diseases Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) and restrictive dermopathy (RD) arise from accumulation of farnesylated prelamin A because of defects in the lamin A maturation pathway. Both of these diseases exhibit symptoms that can be viewed as accelerated aging. The mechanism by which accumulation of farnesylated prelamin A leads to these accelerated aging phenotypes is not understood. Here we present evidence that in HGPS and RD fibroblasts, DNA damage checkpoints are persistently activated because of the compromise in genomic integrity. Inactivation of checkpoint kinases Ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and ATR (ATM- and Rad3-related) in these patient cells can partially overcome their ...


Identifying Exclusion Genes Of Bacteriophage Hk239, Ali Wright Jan 2006

Identifying Exclusion Genes Of Bacteriophage Hk239, Ali Wright

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

Temperate bacteriophage can adopt either a lytic or a lysogenic lifestyle. In the lytic lifestyle, the bacteriophage infects a cell, uses the host's cellular machinery to replicate, and lyses the cell to release the phage progeny. In the lysogenic lifestyle the bacteriophage genome is integrated into the bacterial genome to generate a prophage. Most of the genes of the prophage are repressed. However, those genes that are expressed have a wide variety of functions including exclusion, the prevention of phage infection. Lysogens of bacteriophage HK239 have the ability to exclude a wide variety of phage, including (lambda), T4rII, Plvir ...


Degenerate Oligonucleotide Primed-Pcr: Thermalcycling Modifications And Comparison Studies, Denise N. Rodier Jan 2006

Degenerate Oligonucleotide Primed-Pcr: Thermalcycling Modifications And Comparison Studies, Denise N. Rodier

Theses and Dissertations

Degenerate Oligonucleotide Primed-PCR (DOP-PCR) can potentially enhance analysis of low copy number DNA samples. Theoretically, this procedure replicates fragments of the genome that can then be used for downstream multiplex STR analysis. The objective of this study is to optimize DOP-PCR by examining ramplelongation times and cycle numbers in the non-specific amplification portion of DOP-PCR, and by modifying the degenerate primer. Additionally, other methods such as Multiple Displacement Amplification (MDA) and Low Copy Number PCR (LCN PCR) were examined for their ability to create accurate DNA profiles from low DNA input amounts. Increasing the ramplelongation times showed no effect on ...


Atm-Dependent Erk Signaling In Response To Dna Double Strand Breaks, Ashraf Khalil Jan 2006

Atm-Dependent Erk Signaling In Response To Dna Double Strand Breaks, Ashraf Khalil

Theses and Dissertations

Ionizing radiation (IR) triggers many signaling pathways stemming from DNA damage, and, independently, from extra-nuclear events. To generate radio-mimetic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) without and minimizing the effects on extra-nuclear radiation targets, human (p53+) glioma and carcinoma cells containing bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)- substituted DNA were treated with Hoechst 33258 followed by long wave-length UV (UV-A) (BrdU photolysis). BrdU photolysis resulted in well-controlled, dose-dependent generation of DSBs equivalent to 0.2 - 20 Gy of IR, as detected by pulse-field gel electrophoresis, accompanied by dose-dependent H2AX phosphorylation at ser-139 and ATM phosphorylation at ser-1981, indicating ATM activation. Furthermore, BrdU photolysis increased phosphorylation of ...


Evaluation Of A Plasmid Delivery System For Production Of Gnrh And Ghrh In The Horse And Goat, William Andrew Storer Jan 2006

Evaluation Of A Plasmid Delivery System For Production Of Gnrh And Ghrh In The Horse And Goat, William Andrew Storer

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

The efficacy of a novel plasmid delivery system was assessed for long-term expression of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) in horses and goats. The efficacy of the technology was demonstrated using 3 novel plasmids: pSEAP [expressing secreted embryonic alkaline phosphatase (SEAP)], pGHRH (expressing GHRH), and pGnRH (expressing GnRH). Geldings were electroporated with a reporter plasmid expressing SEAP in 3 muscle sites. Expression of SEAP, measured from jugular plasma samples, indicated muscle specificity for uptake and expression of the plasmid. Concentrations of SEAP were greatest (P < 0.05) after pectoralis injection, which was chosen as the site for electroporation in subsequent studies. In a second experiment, stallions were electroporated with pGHRH or pSEAP to evaluate the effect of long-term GHRH treatment on the growth hormone (GH) axis and testicular function. Stallions treated with pGHRH had increased (P < 0.05) plasma concentrations of IGF-I, increased (P < 0.05) volume of accessory sex gland fluid, and increased (P < 0.05) number of normal spermatozoa in the ejaculate relative to controls. In the third experiment, stallions were electroporated with pGnRH or pSEAP to test the effects of GnRH on the reproductive axis. Treatment with pGnRH increased (P < 0.05) plasma testosterone concentrations to d 56 and increased (P < 0.01) the LH response to GnRH on d 21, but did not alter (P > 0.1) seminal characteristics evaluated after 36 d of treatment ...