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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Importance Of Emerging Biobased Industries To Engineering And Technology, Kurt A. Rosentrater, R. Balamuralikrishma Oct 2006

The Importance Of Emerging Biobased Industries To Engineering And Technology, Kurt A. Rosentrater, R. Balamuralikrishma

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Our society has developed an insatiable demand for energy and material goods. Historically, these needs have been met primarily by fossil fuels and other non-renewable raw materials. As environmental concerns grow, however, renewable resources are gaining increased attention. This paper examines the emergence and importance that biobased industries are increasingly beginning to play. A biobased enterprise, similar in concept to a traditional refinery or factory, utilizes conversion technologies to produce various products. These operations are rapidly increasing both in number as well as in capacity throughout this country, and are poised to add significantly to the nation’s energy and ...


Analytical And Experimental Studies Of Properties Of Ethanol Coproduct-Filled Plastics, Robert Tatara, Andrew Otieno, Srikrishna Suraparaju, Kurt A. Rosentrater Oct 2006

Analytical And Experimental Studies Of Properties Of Ethanol Coproduct-Filled Plastics, Robert Tatara, Andrew Otieno, Srikrishna Suraparaju, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

As the renewable fuels industry continues to grow, the quantity of resulting byproducts has expanded in tandem. Currently, these materials are primarily used for animal feed, but at some point will saturate the animal feeds market. Thus, it is necessary to investigate alternative methods and applications by which these coproducts can be utilized. One potential application for these process residues involves plastics manufacturing. Due, in part, to the increasing cost of resins and conventional fillers, alternate fillers have been increasingly sought. Many of these include biological materials such as grasses, bamboo, starch, chicken feathers, soy protein, and cellulose. Not only ...


Considerations For Manufacturing Bio-Based Plastic Products, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Andrew W. Otieno Oct 2006

Considerations For Manufacturing Bio-Based Plastic Products, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Andrew W. Otieno

Kurt A. Rosentrater

One engine that drives the United States’ economic growth is an ever-increasing demand for manufactured products, both at home and abroad. This increase has created a major concern for the environment in terms of disposing used goods and ensuring that these products are safe. As environmental concerns grow, however, renewable resources are gaining increasing attention, especially as industrial ecology and product biodegradability gain importance. Added to this, biological materials are increasingly being utilized to replace traditional materials in manufacturing. To aid both educators as well as researchers, this paper examines several considerations that are essential for manufacturing plastic products that ...


Anaerobic Digestion Potential For Ethanol Processing Residues, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Heath R. Hall, Conly L. Hansen Jul 2006

Anaerobic Digestion Potential For Ethanol Processing Residues, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Heath R. Hall, Conly L. Hansen

Kurt A. Rosentrater

The production of corn-based ethanol in the U.S. is dramatically increasing, and consequently so is the quantity of byproduct materials generated from this processing sector. These coproduct streams are currently solely utilized as livestock feed, which is a route that provides ethanol processors with a substantial revenue source and significantly increases the profitability of the production process. With the construction and operation of many new plants in recent years, these residuals do, however, have much potential for value-added processing and utilization in other sectors as well. This option holds the promise of economic benefit for corn processors, especially if ...


Modeling Extrusion Processing Of Aquaculture Feed Incorporating Distillers Grains, Nehru Chevanan, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, James L. Julson Jul 2006

Modeling Extrusion Processing Of Aquaculture Feed Incorporating Distillers Grains, Nehru Chevanan, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, James L. Julson

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Three ingredient blends were prepared containing 20%, 30% and 40% DDGS and the net protein adjusted to 28% were formulated and extruded in a single screw extruder. Modeling of the viscosity of dough in the barrel by restricting the reference viscosity has shown shear thinning behavior, and the R2 value obtained between the apparent viscosity calculated by the concentric cylinder method, and viscosity calculated by the model equation, was found to be over 0.99. Increasing the DDGS content had resulted in higher mass flow rate and decreased absolute pressure inside the die. The torque requirement at 40% DDGS was ...


Effect Of Die Dimensions On Extruder Processing Parameters And Extrudate Properties For Distillers Grains Based Feeds, Nehru Chevanan, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, James L. Julson Jul 2006

Effect Of Die Dimensions On Extruder Processing Parameters And Extrudate Properties For Distillers Grains Based Feeds, Nehru Chevanan, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, James L. Julson

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Ingredient blends containing 28% protein with distillers dried grains with solubles, soy flour, corn flour, fish meal, mineral mix and vitamin mix was extruded in a C.W. Brabender single screw laboratory extruder using 7 different die nozzles. The die nozzle diameter (D), length (L) and L/D ratio of the dies were in the range of 2.0 mm to 6.0 mm, 10.0 mm to 30.0 mm and 3.33 to 10.00, respectively. The moisture content of the ingredient mix was varied from 15% to 25% and the temperature of the transition zone and die ...


Sorption Isotherm Characteristics Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs), Vykundeshwari Ganesan, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jul 2006

Sorption Isotherm Characteristics Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs), Vykundeshwari Ganesan, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) is widely recognized as a highly nutritious animal feed ingredient. With the exponential growth of the fuel ethanol industry in the past several years, significant quantities of distillers grains are now being produced. To effectively utilize these feeds in the domestic market, however, these coproduct streams are increasingly being transported greater distances, and must be stored in various structures until final use. Unfortunately, DDGS flow is often problematic, as it frequently becomes restricted by caking and bridging during storage and transport. This issue may arise from a number of factors, including storage moisture, temperature ...


Effect Of Flow Agent Addition On The Physical Properties Of Ddg With Varying Moisture Content Soluble Percentages, Vykundeshwari Ganesan, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jul 2006

Effect Of Flow Agent Addition On The Physical Properties Of Ddg With Varying Moisture Content Soluble Percentages, Vykundeshwari Ganesan, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) is widely recognized as a highly nutritious animal feed ingredient. With the exponential growth of the fuel ethanol industry in the past several years, significant quantities of distillers' grains are now being produced. To effectively utilize these feeds in the domestic market, however, these coproduct streams are increasingly being transported greater distances, and must be stored in various structures until final use. Unfortunately, DDGS flow is often problematic, as it frequently becomes restricted by caking and bridging during storage and transport. This issue may arise from a number of factors, including storage moisture, temperature ...


Characteristics Of North American Meat & Bone Meal Relevant To The Development Of Non-Feed Applications, Rafael A. Garcia, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Rolando A. Flores Jul 2006

Characteristics Of North American Meat & Bone Meal Relevant To The Development Of Non-Feed Applications, Rafael A. Garcia, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Rolando A. Flores

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Unmarketable animal tissues are typically processed by rendering plants, which transform them into meat & bone meal (MBM) or similar products. MBM’s traditional use as animal feed has become increasingly threatened, but MBM has potential for non-feed applications. Development of new products and processes is hindered by lack of reliable data on many of MBM’s chemical and physical properties. MBM samples as well as data on raw material and process were collected from 19 rendering facilities in the United States and Canada. A large majority of the raw material was tissue from cattle, swine and poultry. All facilities surveyed practiced continuous dry rendering; 89% of the facilities use continuous cookers and 11% use falling film evaporators. MBM is high in protein (44.6-62.8%, mfb), but this protein is poorly soluble; at pH 7 solubility ranged from 2.20 to 7.22 %. Among all samples, the particles’ median geometric mean diameter was 387 µm, and the size distribution was broad. The median density of MBM particles was 1.41 (g/ml); median density of MBM in bulk ranged from 0.50 g/ml when loose-filled to 0.68 g ...


Physical Properties Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs), Kurt A. Rosentrater Jul 2006

Physical Properties Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs), Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

The production of corn-based ethanol in the U.S. is dramatically increasing, and consequently so is the amount of coproduct materials generated from this processing sector. These streams are primarily utilized as livestock feed, which is a route that provides ethanol processors with a substantial revenue source and significantly increases the profitability of the production process. With the construction and operation of many new plants in recent years, these residuals do, however, have much potential for value-added processing and utilization in other sectors as well. Extensive research has been conducted into determining the nutritional properties of distillers dried grains with ...


The Global Relevance Of Bio-Based Industries To Engineering And Technology Education, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Radha Balamuralikrishma Jun 2006

The Global Relevance Of Bio-Based Industries To Engineering And Technology Education, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Radha Balamuralikrishma

Kurt A. Rosentrater

The society in which we live has developed an insatiable demand for energy and material goods. In particular, recent data reveals that the aggressive pursuit of improved standards of living in the highly populated countries of India and China has contributed to increased demand for fossil fuels, which has exacerbated the recent spike in energy costs. Historically, these needs have been met primarily by fossil fuels and other non-renewable raw materials. As environmental concerns grow, however, renewable resources are gaining increased attention. This paper examines the emergence and importance that bio-based industries are increasingly beginning to play. A bio-based enterprise ...


Fractionation Techniques To Concentrate Nutrient Streams In Distillers Grains, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Deepa Subramanian, Padmanaban G. Krishnan Jun 2006

Fractionation Techniques To Concentrate Nutrient Streams In Distillers Grains, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Deepa Subramanian, Padmanaban G. Krishnan

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Corn, the most widely produced feed grain in the United States, accounts for more than 90% of the total value and production of feed grains. It is also used for food, industrial materials, and fuel ethanol production. Distillers grains, the major coproduct from ethanol manufacturing, are used as livestock feed. There are, however, other potential options, including value-added food, industrial, chemical, and energy applications. Fractionating distillers grains into concentrated streams of protein, fiber, and fat may be key to facilitating these types of utilization. Previous studies on other products have shown that fractionation is a promising mechanism for extracting valuable ...


Expanding The Role Of Systems Modeling: Considering Byproduct Generation From Biofuel Production, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jan 2006

Expanding The Role Of Systems Modeling: Considering Byproduct Generation From Biofuel Production, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

The bioethanol industry has been experiencing rapid growth over the past several years, and is expected to continue to increase production for the foreseeable future. A vital component to the success of this industry is the sales and marketing of processing residues, which are primarily sold as dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). Systems modeling, a technique that has been used to predict future demand for bioethanol, can also be used to determine potential byproduct generation rates. This paper discusses the development of one such model, and presents predicted generation of DDGS as well as carbon dioxide emissions from this ...


Some Physical Properties Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs), Kurt A. Rosentrater Jan 2006

Some Physical Properties Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs), Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

With the rapid growth in the fuel ethanol industry in recent years, considerable research is being devoted to determining distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) nutritional properties and to optimizing their inclusion in livestock diets; physical properties of these materials, however, have been largely ignored. Using standard laboratory methods, several physical properties for typical DDGS streams were determined, including moisture content, water activity, thermal properties (conductivity, resistivity, and diffusivity), bulk density, angle of repose, and color. The DDGS samples in this study were golden-brown in color and exhibited physical properties similar to other dry feed ingredients, such as hominy feed ...


Renewable Energy Alternatives—A Growing Opportunity For Engineering And Technology Education, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jan 2006

Renewable Energy Alternatives—A Growing Opportunity For Engineering And Technology Education, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

A hallmark of the United States’ economic growth is an ever-increasing demand for energy, which has traditionally been met primarily by combusting the hydrocarbons found in fossil fuels. As national security and environmental concerns grow, renewable energy resources are gaining increased attention. Unfortunately, there is currently a dearth of renewable energy coverage in engineering and technology curricula. The objectives of this paper are to examine historical energy data for both traditional as well as alternative energy sources, and to motivate educators to address this gap. Even with the progressive developments of non-traditional energy sources over the years, the U.S ...


Methodology To Determine Soluble Content In Dry Grind Ethanol Coproduct Streams, Vykundeshwari Ganesan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan Jan 2006

Methodology To Determine Soluble Content In Dry Grind Ethanol Coproduct Streams, Vykundeshwari Ganesan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Distillers grains and syrup are coproducts from fuel ethanol dry grind processing. Ethanol manufacturing is dramatically increasing in the United States, primarily in Midwestern states, and thus the availability of these feed products is also growing. Confusion currently exists in industrial nomenclature regarding "solubles" in these streams because no standards are in place. In our study, dissolved materials were considered soluble matter. We developed a methodology to determine the dry basis soluble content in condensed distillers solubles (CDS) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). A mass balance analytical approach was initially used, but results were not in good agreement ...


Characteristics Of North American Meat And Bone Meal Relevant To The Development Of Non-Feed Applications, Rafael A. Garcia, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Rolando A. Flores Jan 2006

Characteristics Of North American Meat And Bone Meal Relevant To The Development Of Non-Feed Applications, Rafael A. Garcia, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Rolando A. Flores

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Unmarketable animal tissues are typically processed by rendering plants, which transform them into meat and bone meal (MBM) or similar products. MBM's traditional use as animal feed has become increasingly threatened, but MBM has potential for non-feed applications. Development of new products and processes is hindered by lack of reliable data on many of MBM's chemical and physical properties. MBM samples, as well as data on raw material and process, were collected from 19 rendering facilities in the United States and Canada. A large majority of the raw material was tissue from cattle, swine, and poultry. All facilities ...


A Review Of Corn Masa Processing Residues: Generation, Properties, And Potential Utilization, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jan 2006

A Review Of Corn Masa Processing Residues: Generation, Properties, And Potential Utilization, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

The production of corn masa-based products in the US has been increasing over the last several years, and as a result, so has the quantity of waste materials being generated from this industry. Although currently landfilled, these byproduct streams may have potential for value-added processing and utilization, which are options that simultaneously hold the promise of increased economic benefit for masa processors as well as decreased potential pollution for the environment. Fundamental to any byproduct development effort is knowledge of the characteristics of the residue stream, because physical and chemical properties are vital for the proper design of subsequent processing ...