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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Accumulation And Bioavailability Of Dietary Carotenoids In Vegetable Crops, Dean Kopsell, David Kopsell Sep 2006

Accumulation And Bioavailability Of Dietary Carotenoids In Vegetable Crops, Dean Kopsell, David Kopsell

Dean A. Kopsell

Carotenoids are lipid-soluble pigments found in many vegetable crops that are reported to have the health benefits of cancer and eye disease reduction when consumed in the diet. Research shows that environmental and genetic factors can significantly influence carotenoid concentrations in vegetable crops, and that changing cultural management strategies could be advantageous, resulting in increased vegetable carotenoid concentrations. Improvements in vegetable carotenoid levels have been achieved using traditional breeding methods and molecular transformations to stimulate biosynthetic pathways. Postharvest and processing activities can alter carotenoid chemistry, and ultimately affect bioavailability. Bioavailability data emphasize the importance of carotenoid enhancement in vegetable crops ...


Irradiance Levels Affect Growth Parameters And Carotenoid Pigments In Kale And Spinach Grown In A Controlled Environment, Dean Kopsell, Mark Lefsrud, David Kopsell, Joanne Curran-Celentano Jul 2006

Irradiance Levels Affect Growth Parameters And Carotenoid Pigments In Kale And Spinach Grown In A Controlled Environment, Dean Kopsell, Mark Lefsrud, David Kopsell, Joanne Curran-Celentano

Dean A. Kopsell

Carotenoids play critical roles in both light harvesting and energy dissipation for the protection of photosynthetic structures. However, limited research is available on the impact of irradiance on the production of secondary plant compounds, such as carotenoid pigments. Kale (Brassica oleracea L.) and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) are two leafy vegetables high in lutein and β-carotene carotenoids. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of different irradiance levels on tissue biomass, elemental nutrient concentrations, and lutein β-carotene and chlorophyll (chl) pigment accumulation in the leaves of kale and spinach. ‘Winterbor’ kale and ‘Melody’ spinach were grown in ...


Iron Form And Concentration Affect Nutrition Of Container-Grown Pelargonium And Calibrachoa, Dean Kopsell, Ron Wik, Paul Fisher, William Argo Dec 2005

Iron Form And Concentration Affect Nutrition Of Container-Grown Pelargonium And Calibrachoa, Dean Kopsell, Ron Wik, Paul Fisher, William Argo

Dean A. Kopsell

Two experiments were completed to determine whether the form and concentration of iron (Fe) affected Fe toxicity in the Fe-efficient species Pelargonium xhortorum `Ringo Deep Scarlet' L.H. Bail. grown at a horticulturally low substrate pH of 4.1 to 4.9 or Fe deficiency in the Fe-inefficient species Calibrachoa xhybrida `Trailing White' Cerv. grown at a horticulturally high substrate pH of 6.3 to 6.9. Ferric ethylenediaminedi(o-hydroxyphenylacetic) acid (Fe-EDDHA), ferric ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (Fe-EDTA), and ferrous sulfate heptahydrate (FeSO4·7H2O) were applied at 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, or 4.0 mg ·L–1 ...


Spinach Cultigen Variation For Tissue Carotenoid Concentrations Influences Human Serum Carotenoid Levels And Macular Pigment Optical Density Following A 12-Week Dietary Intervention, Dean Kopsell, David Kopsell, Adam Wenzel, Catherine Gerweck, Joanne Curran-Celentano Dec 2005

Spinach Cultigen Variation For Tissue Carotenoid Concentrations Influences Human Serum Carotenoid Levels And Macular Pigment Optical Density Following A 12-Week Dietary Intervention, Dean Kopsell, David Kopsell, Adam Wenzel, Catherine Gerweck, Joanne Curran-Celentano

Dean A. Kopsell

Increasing intakes of carotenoid-rich plant foods can increase serum carotenoid concentrations and macular pigment optical density (MPOD) in most, but not all, individuals. Research objectives for this study were to (1) characterize tissue lutein (L) and β-carotene (BC) concentrations in carotenoid-rich spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) cultigens and (2) determine serum carotenoid and MPOD responses in human subjects consuming spinach cultigens differing in tissue L and BC concentrations. Thirteen spinach cultigens were evaluated for carotenoid accumulations over two consecutive growing seasons. ‘Springer' (8.4 and 6.5 mg/100 g of fresh mass for L and BC, respectively) and ‘Spinner' (12 ...


Kale Carotenoids Are Unaffected By, Whereas Biomass Production, Elemental Concentrations, And Selenium Accumulation Respond To, Changes In Selenium Fertility, Dean Kopsell, Mark Lefsrud, David Kopsell, William Randle Dec 2005

Kale Carotenoids Are Unaffected By, Whereas Biomass Production, Elemental Concentrations, And Selenium Accumulation Respond To, Changes In Selenium Fertility, Dean Kopsell, Mark Lefsrud, David Kopsell, William Randle

Dean A. Kopsell

Selenium (Se) is a micronutrient in mammalian nutrition and is accumulated in kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala), which has high levels of lutein and β-carotene. Selenium, lutein, and β-carotene have important human health benefits and possess strong antioxidant properties. The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of different Se [as sodium selenate (Na2SeO4) and sodium selenite (Na2SeO3)] fertility levels on (1) biomass accumulation, (2) the accumulation patterns of carotenoid pigments, and (3) elemental accumulation in the leaves of kale. Winterbor kale was greenhouse-grown using nutrient solution culture with Se treatment concentrations of 0.0, 0.5 ...


Biomass Production And Pigment Accumulation In Kale Grown Under Increasing Photoperiods, Dean Kopsell, Mark Lefsrud, Robert Augé, A. Both Dec 2005

Biomass Production And Pigment Accumulation In Kale Grown Under Increasing Photoperiods, Dean Kopsell, Mark Lefsrud, Robert Augé, A. Both

Dean A. Kopsell

Consumption of fruit and vegetable crops rich in lutein and ß-carotene carotenoids is associated with reduced risk of cancers and aging eye diseases. Kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala D.C.) ranks highest for lutein concentrations and is an excellent source of dietary carotenoids. Kale plants were grown under varied photoperiods to determine changes in the accumulation of fresh and dry biomass, chlorophyll a and b, and lutein and ß-carotene carotenoids. The plants were cultured in a controlled environment using nutrient solutions under photoperiod treatments of 6, 12, 16, or 24 hours (continuous). Fresh and dry mass production increased linearly ...


Biomass Production And Pigment Accumulation In Kale Grown Under Different Radiation Cycles In A Controlled Environment, Dean Kopsell, Mark Lefsrud Dec 2005

Biomass Production And Pigment Accumulation In Kale Grown Under Different Radiation Cycles In A Controlled Environment, Dean Kopsell, Mark Lefsrud

Dean A. Kopsell

Controlled plant growing systems have consistently used the standard earth day as the radiation cycle for plant growth. However, the radiation cycle can be controlled using automated systems to regulate the exact amount of time plants are exposed to irradiation (and darkness). This experiment investigated the influence of different radiation cycle periods on plant growth and carotenoid accumulation in kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC.). Plants were grown in a controlled environment using nutrient solutions under radiation cycle treatments of 2, 12, 24 and 48 hours, with 50% irradiance and 50% darkness during each cycle. The radiation cycles significantly ...