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2006

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Peritrophic Membrane Of The Penaeid Shrimp, Sicyonia Ingentis; Structure, Formation And Permeability., Gary Martin Nov 2006

Peritrophic Membrane Of The Penaeid Shrimp, Sicyonia Ingentis; Structure, Formation And Permeability., Gary Martin

Gary Martin

Peritrophic membranes (PTMs) are secreted acellular layers that separate ingested materials from the gut epithelium in a variety of invertebrates. In insects and crustaceans, PTMs are produced in the midgut trunk (MGT, or intestine), but the MGT in decapod crustaceans, unlike that of insects, is not involved with digestion or absorption of food. We demonstrate that the PTM in the penaeid shrimp Sicyonia ingentis is similar to that in other crustaceans that have been studied and is primarily composed of chitin. The lectin WGA binds only to the PTM and glycocalyx along the microvilli of the midgut cells, which is ...


Physical And Structural Basis For The Strong Interactions Of The -Impy- Central Pairing Motif In The Polyamide F-Impyim, K. Buchmueller, S. Bailey, D. Matthews, Z. Taherbhai, J. Register, Z. Davis, Chrystal Bruce, C. O'Hare, J. Hartley, M. Lee Nov 2006

Physical And Structural Basis For The Strong Interactions Of The -Impy- Central Pairing Motif In The Polyamide F-Impyim, K. Buchmueller, S. Bailey, D. Matthews, Z. Taherbhai, J. Register, Z. Davis, Chrystal Bruce, C. O'Hare, J. Hartley, M. Lee

Chrystal D. Bruce

The polyamide f-ImPyIm has a higher affinity for its cognate DNA than either the parent analogue, distamycin A (10-fold), or the structural isomer, f-PyImIm (250-fold), has for its respective cognate DNA sequence. These findings have led to the formulation of a two-letter polyamide “language” in which the -ImPy- central pairings associate more strongly with Watson−Crick DNA than -PyPy-, -PyIm-, and -ImIm-. Herein, we further characterize f-ImPyIm and f-PyImIm, and we report thermodynamic and structural differences between -ImPy- (f-ImPyIm) and -PyIm- (f-PyImIm) central pairings. DNase I footprinting studies confirmed that f-ImPyIm is a stronger binder than distamycin A and f-PyImIm ...


The Exoribonuclease Xrn4 Is A Component Of The Ethylene Response Pathway In Arabidopsis, Brad Binder, Thomas Potuschak, Amérin Vansiri, Esther Lechner, Richard Vierstra, Pascal Genschik Oct 2006

The Exoribonuclease Xrn4 Is A Component Of The Ethylene Response Pathway In Arabidopsis, Brad Binder, Thomas Potuschak, Amérin Vansiri, Esther Lechner, Richard Vierstra, Pascal Genschik

Brad M. Binder

EXORIBONUCLEASE4 (XRN4), the Arabidopsis thaliana homolog of yeast XRN1, is involved in the degradation of several unstable mRNAs. Although a role for XRN4 in RNA silencing of certain transgenes has been reported, xrn4 mutant plants were found to lack any apparent visible phenotype. Here, we show that XRN4 is allelic to the unidentified components of the ethylene response pathway ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE5/ACC-INSENSITIVE1 (EIN5/AIN1) and EIN7. xrn4 mutant seedlings are ethylene-insensitive as a consequence of the upregulation of EIN3 BINDING F-BOX PROTEIN1 (EBF1) and EBF2 mRNA levels, which encode related F-box proteins involved in the turnover of EIN3 protein, a crucial ...


Ethylene-Stimulated Nutations Do Not Require Etr1 Receptor Histidine Kinase Activity, Brad Binder Oct 2006

Ethylene-Stimulated Nutations Do Not Require Etr1 Receptor Histidine Kinase Activity, Brad Binder

Brad M. Binder

Ethylene influences the growth and development of plants through the action of receptors that have homology to bacterial two-component receptors. In bacteria these receptors function via autophosphorylation of a His residue in the kinase domain followed by phosphotransfer to a conserved Asp residue in a response regulator protein. In Arabidopsis, two of the five receptor isoforms are capable of His kinase activity. However, the role of His kinase activity and phosphotransfer is unclear in ethylene signaling. A previous study showed that ethylene stimulates nutations of the hypocotyl in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings that are dependent on the ETR1 receptor isoform. The ...


Accumulation And Bioavailability Of Dietary Carotenoids In Vegetable Crops, Dean Kopsell, David Kopsell Sep 2006

Accumulation And Bioavailability Of Dietary Carotenoids In Vegetable Crops, Dean Kopsell, David Kopsell

Dean A. Kopsell

Carotenoids are lipid-soluble pigments found in many vegetable crops that are reported to have the health benefits of cancer and eye disease reduction when consumed in the diet. Research shows that environmental and genetic factors can significantly influence carotenoid concentrations in vegetable crops, and that changing cultural management strategies could be advantageous, resulting in increased vegetable carotenoid concentrations. Improvements in vegetable carotenoid levels have been achieved using traditional breeding methods and molecular transformations to stimulate biosynthetic pathways. Postharvest and processing activities can alter carotenoid chemistry, and ultimately affect bioavailability. Bioavailability data emphasize the importance of carotenoid enhancement in vegetable crops ...


Serotonergic Pre-Treatments Block In Vitro Serotonergic Phase Shifts Of The Mouse Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Circadian Clock, Rebecca Prosser, H. Lee, A. Wehner Sep 2006

Serotonergic Pre-Treatments Block In Vitro Serotonergic Phase Shifts Of The Mouse Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Circadian Clock, Rebecca Prosser, H. Lee, A. Wehner

Rebecca Prosser

The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) contains a circadian clock that maintains its time-generating and phase-modulating capacities in vitro. Previous studies report clear differences in the ability of serotonergic stimuli to phase-shift the SCN clock when applied directly to the SCN either in vivo or in vitro: while mice and rat circadian clocks are readily phase-shifted by serotonin (5-HT) or 5-HT agonists applied in vitro, hamster and mice circadian clocks respond inconsistently to 5-HT agonists injected directly into the SCN in vivo. Here we have investigated one possible explanation for these differences: that the SCN isolated in vitro experiences reduced endogenous 5-HT ...


Cj1121c, A Novel Udp-4-Keto-6-Deoxy-Glcnac C-4 Aminotransferase Essential For Protein Glycosylation And Virulence In Campylobacter Jejuni, Somalinga Vijayakumar, Alexandra Merkx-Jacques, Dinath Ratnayake, Irene Gryski, Ravinder Obhi, Sébastien Houle, Charles M Dozois, Carole Creuzenet Sep 2006

Cj1121c, A Novel Udp-4-Keto-6-Deoxy-Glcnac C-4 Aminotransferase Essential For Protein Glycosylation And Virulence In Campylobacter Jejuni, Somalinga Vijayakumar, Alexandra Merkx-Jacques, Dinath Ratnayake, Irene Gryski, Ravinder Obhi, Sébastien Houle, Charles M Dozois, Carole Creuzenet

Alexandra Merkx-Jacques

Campylobacter jejuni produces glycoproteins that are essential for virulence. These glycoproteins carry diacetamidobacillosamine (DAB), a sugar that is not found in humans. Hence, the enzymes responsible for DAB synthesis represent potential therapeutic targets. We describe the biochemical characterization of Cj1121c, a putative aminotransferase encoded by the general protein glycosylation locus, to assess its role in DAB biosynthesis. By using overexpressed and affinity-purified enzyme, we demonstrate that Cj1121c has pyridoxal phosphate- and glutamate-dependent UDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-GlcNAc C-4 transaminase activity and produces UDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-GlcNAc. This is consistent with a role in DAB biosynthesis and distinguishes Cj1121c from Cj1294, a homologous UDP-2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-beta-l-arabino-4-hexulose C-4 aminotransferase ...


Use Of A New Model To Quantify Compromises Between Embryo Development And Parental Self-Maintenance In Three Species Of Intermittently Incubating Passerines, Margaret Voss, F. Hainsworth, Susan Ellis-Felege Jul 2006

Use Of A New Model To Quantify Compromises Between Embryo Development And Parental Self-Maintenance In Three Species Of Intermittently Incubating Passerines, Margaret Voss, F. Hainsworth, Susan Ellis-Felege

Margaret A Voss

1.Instead of just times to cool (tcool) and heat (theat), intermittent incubation cycles contain a period (tequil) when eggs are kept at relatively high equilibrium temperatures after heating. 2.Relative allocations favoring parental self-maintenance [when (tcool+theat)>tequil] versus embryo development [when (tcool+theat)


Genetic Divergence In The Small Indian Mongoose (Herpestes Auropunctatus), A Widely Distributed Invasive Species, C-G. Thulin, D. Simberloff, A. Barun, Gary Mccracken, M. Pascals, A. Islam Jul 2006

Genetic Divergence In The Small Indian Mongoose (Herpestes Auropunctatus), A Widely Distributed Invasive Species, C-G. Thulin, D. Simberloff, A. Barun, Gary Mccracken, M. Pascals, A. Islam

Gary F. McCracken

The combination of founder events, random drift and new selective forces experienced by introduced species typically lowers genetic variation and induces differentiation from the ancestral population. Here, we investigate microsatellite differentiation between introduced and native populations of the small Indian mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus). Many expectations based on introduction history, such as loss of alleles and relationships among populations, are confirmed. Nevertheless, when applying population assignment methods to our data, we observe a few specimens that are incorrectly assigned and/or appear to have a mixed ancestry, despite estimates of substantial population differentiation. Thus, we suggest that population assignments of individuals ...


Irradiance Levels Affect Growth Parameters And Carotenoid Pigments In Kale And Spinach Grown In A Controlled Environment, Dean Kopsell, Mark Lefsrud, David Kopsell, Joanne Curran-Celentano Jul 2006

Irradiance Levels Affect Growth Parameters And Carotenoid Pigments In Kale And Spinach Grown In A Controlled Environment, Dean Kopsell, Mark Lefsrud, David Kopsell, Joanne Curran-Celentano

Dean A. Kopsell

Carotenoids play critical roles in both light harvesting and energy dissipation for the protection of photosynthetic structures. However, limited research is available on the impact of irradiance on the production of secondary plant compounds, such as carotenoid pigments. Kale (Brassica oleracea L.) and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) are two leafy vegetables high in lutein and β-carotene carotenoids. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of different irradiance levels on tissue biomass, elemental nutrient concentrations, and lutein β-carotene and chlorophyll (chl) pigment accumulation in the leaves of kale and spinach. ‘Winterbor’ kale and ‘Melody’ spinach were grown in ...


The Geometry Of The Forisome–Sieve Element–Sieve Plate Complex In The Phloem Of Vicia Faba L. Leaflets, Winfried Peters, Aart Van Bel, Michael Knoblauch Jul 2006

The Geometry Of The Forisome–Sieve Element–Sieve Plate Complex In The Phloem Of Vicia Faba L. Leaflets, Winfried Peters, Aart Van Bel, Michael Knoblauch

Winfried S. Peters

Forisomes are contractile protein bodies that appear to control flux rates in the phloem of faboid legumes by reversibly plugging the sieve tubes. Plugging is triggered by Ca2+ which induces an anisotropic deformation of forisomes, consisting of a longitudinal contraction and a radial expansion. By conventional light microscopy and confocal laser-scanning microscopy, the three-dimensional geometry of the forisome–sieve element–sieve plate complex in intact sieve tubes of leaflets of Vicia faba L. was reconstructed. Forisomes were mostly located close to sieve plates, and occasionally were observed drifting unrestrainedly along the sieve element, suggesting that they might be utilized as ...


Avian Vacuolar Myelinopathy Outbreaks At A Southeastern Reservoir, J Fischer, L Lewis-Weis, C Tate, J Gaydos, Richard Gerhold Jr., R Poppenga Jun 2006

Avian Vacuolar Myelinopathy Outbreaks At A Southeastern Reservoir, J Fischer, L Lewis-Weis, C Tate, J Gaydos, Richard Gerhold Jr., R Poppenga

Richard W. Gerhold Jr., DVM, MS, PhD

Avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) is a neurologic disease of unknown etiology that affects bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), American coots (Fulica americana), and several species of waterfowl. An unidentified neurotoxin is suspected as the cause of AVM, which has been documented at several reservoirs in the southeastern United States. We conducted diagnostic and epidemiologic studies annually during October-March from 1998-2004 at Clarks Hill/Strom Thurmond Lake on the Georgia/South Carolina border to better understand the disease. Avian vacuolar myelinopathy was confirmed or suspected as the cause of morbidity and mortality of 28 bald eagles, 16 Canada geese (Branta canadensis), six ...


Forisome Based Biomimetic Smart Materials, Amy Shen, Benjamin Hamlington, Michael Knoblauch, Winfried Peters, William Pickard Jun 2006

Forisome Based Biomimetic Smart Materials, Amy Shen, Benjamin Hamlington, Michael Knoblauch, Winfried Peters, William Pickard

Winfried S. Peters

With the discovery in plants of the proteinaceous forisome crystalloid (Knoblauch, et al. 2003), a novel, non-living, ATP-independent biological material became available to the designer of smart materials for advanced actuating and sensing. The in vitro studies of Knoblauch, et al. show that forisomes (2-4 micron wide and 10-40 micron long) can be repeatedly stimulated to contract and expand anisotropically by shifting either the ambient pH or the ambient calcium ion concentration. Because of their unique abilities to develop and reverse strains greater than 20% in time periods less than one second, forisomes have the potential to outperform current smart ...


Economic Value Of The Pest Control Service Provided By Brazilian Free-Tailed Bats In South-Central Texas, Gary Mccracken, C. Cleveland, M. Betke, P. Federico, J. Frank, T. Hallam, H. Horn, J. Lopez, R. Medellin, A. Moreno-Valdez, C. Sansone, J. Westbrook, T. Kunz May 2006

Economic Value Of The Pest Control Service Provided By Brazilian Free-Tailed Bats In South-Central Texas, Gary Mccracken, C. Cleveland, M. Betke, P. Federico, J. Frank, T. Hallam, H. Horn, J. Lopez, R. Medellin, A. Moreno-Valdez, C. Sansone, J. Westbrook, T. Kunz

Gary F. McCracken

Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) form enormous summer breeding colonies, mostly in caves and under bridges, in south-central Texas and northern Mexico. Their prey includes several species of adult insects whose larvae are known to be important agricultural pests, including the corn earworm or cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa zea). We estimate the bats' value as pest control for cotton production in an eight-county region in south-central Texas. Our calculations show an annual value of $741 000 per year, with a range of $121 000–$1 725 000, compared to a $4.6–$6.4 million per year annual cotton harvest.

Read ...


Splenic Endothelial Cell Lines Support Development Of Dendritic Cells From Bone Marrow, Geneviève Despars, Helen O'Neill May 2006

Splenic Endothelial Cell Lines Support Development Of Dendritic Cells From Bone Marrow, Geneviève Despars, Helen O'Neill

Helen O'Neill

Although growth factors are commonly used to generate dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro, the role of the microenvironment necessary for DC development is still poorly understood. The mixed splenic stromal cell population STX3 defines an in vitro microenvironment supportive of DC development. Dissection of cellular components of the STX3 stroma should provide information about a niche for DC development. STX3 was therefore cloned by single-cell sorting, and a panel of 102 splenic stromal cell lines was established. Four representative splenic stromal cell lines that support hematopoiesis from bone marrow are described here in terms of stromal cell type and DC ...


Male Influx, Infanticide, And Female Transfer In Macaca Radiata Radiata, Mewa Singh, H Kumara, M. Kumar, Mirdula Singh, Matthew Cooper Mar 2006

Male Influx, Infanticide, And Female Transfer In Macaca Radiata Radiata, Mewa Singh, H Kumara, M. Kumar, Mirdula Singh, Matthew Cooper

Matthew A. Cooper

In bonnet macaques, males usually disperse between groups and females remain philopatric, but researchers have reported female transfer. We report a rare case of male influx during the mating season in our bonnet macaque study group in the Anaimalai Hills. The density of bonnet macaques in the study region was unusually high. The study group had a single, crippled adult male with a long tenure and 5 adult females. During the mating season, adult females approached and mated with outgroup males, and then several males entered the group. The adult male left the group without any resistance. The incoming males ...


Linking Bats To Emerging Diseases, M. Fenton, M. Davison, T. Kunz, Gary Mccracken Jan 2006

Linking Bats To Emerging Diseases, M. Fenton, M. Davison, T. Kunz, Gary Mccracken

Gary F. McCracken

DOI: 10.1126/science.311.5764.1098c


Induction Of Temperate Cyanophage As-1 By Heavy Metal - Copper, Lee Lee, Lui Doris, Patricia Platner, Shi-Fang Hsu, Tin-Chun Chu, John Gaynor, Quinn Vega, Bonnie Lustigman Jan 2006

Induction Of Temperate Cyanophage As-1 By Heavy Metal - Copper, Lee Lee, Lui Doris, Patricia Platner, Shi-Fang Hsu, Tin-Chun Chu, John Gaynor, Quinn Vega, Bonnie Lustigman

Tin-Chun Chu, Ph.D.

No abstract provided.


“On The Catholic Vision Of Conjugal Love And The Morality Of Embryo Transfer", Father Nicanor Austriaco Dec 2005

“On The Catholic Vision Of Conjugal Love And The Morality Of Embryo Transfer", Father Nicanor Austriaco

Rev. Nicanor Austriaco, O.P.

No abstract provided.


The Relationship Of Soil Province To Molecular Characterization And Phylogenetic Analysis Of Cryptosporidium Parvum Isolated From Calves In Georgia., Debra Miller, M. Mauel, A. Liggett, M. Hines Ii, K. Fraizer, M. Pence, L. Whittington, C. Baldwin Dec 2005

The Relationship Of Soil Province To Molecular Characterization And Phylogenetic Analysis Of Cryptosporidium Parvum Isolated From Calves In Georgia., Debra Miller, M. Mauel, A. Liggett, M. Hines Ii, K. Fraizer, M. Pence, L. Whittington, C. Baldwin

Debra L Miller

Although Cryptosporidium spp. are found throughout the world and in multiple environmental conditions, few data are available that explore the possibility of an association between specific environmental parameters and the species or strain of Cryptosporidium. This study examines the potential association between a particular Cryptosporidium species/strain found in calves and soil provinces in Georgia, USA. Necropsy cases spanning the years 1996-2002 were tested. No significant differences (P=0.962, chi(2) test of homogeneity) between numbers of positive cases were noted among soil provinces. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences for the PCR products revealed sequence similarity of the products ...


Disarming The Paradox Of Sublethal-Plant Defense Against Insects: Trirhabda Virgata Larval Development Time And Leaf Tissue Loss On Solidago Altissima, Warren Abrahamson, M.J. Wise, R.J. Fox Dec 2005

Disarming The Paradox Of Sublethal-Plant Defense Against Insects: Trirhabda Virgata Larval Development Time And Leaf Tissue Loss On Solidago Altissima, Warren Abrahamson, M.J. Wise, R.J. Fox

Warren G. Abrahamson, II

No abstract provided.


Pka-Mediated Erk1/2 Inactivation And Hsp70 Gene Expression Following Exercise, C.W. Melling, Matthew Krause, Earl Noble Dec 2005

Pka-Mediated Erk1/2 Inactivation And Hsp70 Gene Expression Following Exercise, C.W. Melling, Matthew Krause, Earl Noble

Jamie Melling

Exercise induces the expression of the cardioprotective protein, Hsp70, through the activation of its transcription factor HSF1. Recently, we reported that administration of a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor suppressed exercise-induced hsp70 gene expression, suggesting a role for PKA in the regulation of HSF1 activation in vivo. While the mechanism by which PKA regulates HSF1 is unclear, studies in vitro have reported that HSF1 is phosphorylated on two serine residues by mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs); ERK1/2 (ser307) and JNK/SAPK (ser363). As PKA is a regulator of these protein kinases, the current study examined the role of PKA ...


Fecundity, Reproductive Ecology, And Influence Of Precipitation On Clutch Size In The Western Slimy Salamander (Plethodon Albagula), Joseph Milanovich Dec 2005

Fecundity, Reproductive Ecology, And Influence Of Precipitation On Clutch Size In The Western Slimy Salamander (Plethodon Albagula), Joseph Milanovich

Joseph Milanovich

We investigated the reproductive ecology of the western slimy salamander (Plethodon albagula) in an abandoned mine shaft in the Ouachita National Forest of south-central Arkansas. The mine habitat provided an opportunity to observe nesting behavior, quantify reproductive output, and evaluate the influence of precipitation on fecundity for a population of P. albagula that utilize this particular mine shaft to brood and defend egg clutches. We collected reproductive data on 372 clutches between 1982 and 2004. There was no relationship between the number of eggs per egg clutch versus egg size; snout–vent length, body mass, and tail length were not ...


First Record Of Macrolabis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) In America: A New Inquiline Species From Dasineura Folliculi Galls On Goldenrods, Warren Abrahamson, N. Dorchin, E.R. Scott Dec 2005

First Record Of Macrolabis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) In America: A New Inquiline Species From Dasineura Folliculi Galls On Goldenrods, Warren Abrahamson, N. Dorchin, E.R. Scott

Warren G. Abrahamson, II

No abstract provided.


Iron Form And Concentration Affect Nutrition Of Container-Grown Pelargonium And Calibrachoa, Dean Kopsell, Ron Wik, Paul Fisher, William Argo Dec 2005

Iron Form And Concentration Affect Nutrition Of Container-Grown Pelargonium And Calibrachoa, Dean Kopsell, Ron Wik, Paul Fisher, William Argo

Dean A. Kopsell

Two experiments were completed to determine whether the form and concentration of iron (Fe) affected Fe toxicity in the Fe-efficient species Pelargonium xhortorum `Ringo Deep Scarlet' L.H. Bail. grown at a horticulturally low substrate pH of 4.1 to 4.9 or Fe deficiency in the Fe-inefficient species Calibrachoa xhybrida `Trailing White' Cerv. grown at a horticulturally high substrate pH of 6.3 to 6.9. Ferric ethylenediaminedi(o-hydroxyphenylacetic) acid (Fe-EDDHA), ferric ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (Fe-EDTA), and ferrous sulfate heptahydrate (FeSO4·7H2O) were applied at 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, or 4.0 mg ·L–1 ...


Spinach Cultigen Variation For Tissue Carotenoid Concentrations Influences Human Serum Carotenoid Levels And Macular Pigment Optical Density Following A 12-Week Dietary Intervention, Dean Kopsell, David Kopsell, Adam Wenzel, Catherine Gerweck, Joanne Curran-Celentano Dec 2005

Spinach Cultigen Variation For Tissue Carotenoid Concentrations Influences Human Serum Carotenoid Levels And Macular Pigment Optical Density Following A 12-Week Dietary Intervention, Dean Kopsell, David Kopsell, Adam Wenzel, Catherine Gerweck, Joanne Curran-Celentano

Dean A. Kopsell

Increasing intakes of carotenoid-rich plant foods can increase serum carotenoid concentrations and macular pigment optical density (MPOD) in most, but not all, individuals. Research objectives for this study were to (1) characterize tissue lutein (L) and β-carotene (BC) concentrations in carotenoid-rich spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) cultigens and (2) determine serum carotenoid and MPOD responses in human subjects consuming spinach cultigens differing in tissue L and BC concentrations. Thirteen spinach cultigens were evaluated for carotenoid accumulations over two consecutive growing seasons. ‘Springer' (8.4 and 6.5 mg/100 g of fresh mass for L and BC, respectively) and ‘Spinner' (12 ...


Kale Carotenoids Are Unaffected By, Whereas Biomass Production, Elemental Concentrations, And Selenium Accumulation Respond To, Changes In Selenium Fertility, Dean Kopsell, Mark Lefsrud, David Kopsell, William Randle Dec 2005

Kale Carotenoids Are Unaffected By, Whereas Biomass Production, Elemental Concentrations, And Selenium Accumulation Respond To, Changes In Selenium Fertility, Dean Kopsell, Mark Lefsrud, David Kopsell, William Randle

Dean A. Kopsell

Selenium (Se) is a micronutrient in mammalian nutrition and is accumulated in kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala), which has high levels of lutein and β-carotene. Selenium, lutein, and β-carotene have important human health benefits and possess strong antioxidant properties. The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of different Se [as sodium selenate (Na2SeO4) and sodium selenite (Na2SeO3)] fertility levels on (1) biomass accumulation, (2) the accumulation patterns of carotenoid pigments, and (3) elemental accumulation in the leaves of kale. Winterbor kale was greenhouse-grown using nutrient solution culture with Se treatment concentrations of 0.0, 0.5 ...


Edaphic Environment, Gall Midges, And Goldenrod Clonal Expansion In A Mid-Successional Old Field, Warren Abrahamson, M.J. Wise, K. Landis Dec 2005

Edaphic Environment, Gall Midges, And Goldenrod Clonal Expansion In A Mid-Successional Old Field, Warren Abrahamson, M.J. Wise, K. Landis

Warren G. Abrahamson, II

No abstract provided.


Biomass Production And Pigment Accumulation In Kale Grown Under Increasing Photoperiods, Dean Kopsell, Mark Lefsrud, Robert Augé, A. Both Dec 2005

Biomass Production And Pigment Accumulation In Kale Grown Under Increasing Photoperiods, Dean Kopsell, Mark Lefsrud, Robert Augé, A. Both

Dean A. Kopsell

Consumption of fruit and vegetable crops rich in lutein and ß-carotene carotenoids is associated with reduced risk of cancers and aging eye diseases. Kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala D.C.) ranks highest for lutein concentrations and is an excellent source of dietary carotenoids. Kale plants were grown under varied photoperiods to determine changes in the accumulation of fresh and dry biomass, chlorophyll a and b, and lutein and ß-carotene carotenoids. The plants were cultured in a controlled environment using nutrient solutions under photoperiod treatments of 6, 12, 16, or 24 hours (continuous). Fresh and dry mass production increased linearly ...


Endothelial Cell Cortactin Coordinates Icam-1 Clustering And Actin Cytoskeleton Remodeling During Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Adhesion And Transmigration, Jennifer Kowalski Dec 2005

Endothelial Cell Cortactin Coordinates Icam-1 Clustering And Actin Cytoskeleton Remodeling During Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Adhesion And Transmigration, Jennifer Kowalski

Jennifer Kowalski

Endothelial cell ICAM-1 interacts with leukocyte beta2 integrins to mediate adhesion and transmit outside-in signals that facilitate leukocyte transmigration. ICAM-1 redistribution and clustering appear necessary for leukocyte transmigration, but the mechanisms controlling ICAM-1 redistribution and clustering have not been identified. We recently reported that Src kinase phosphorylation of endothelial cortactin regulates polymorphonuclear cell (PMN) transmigration. In this study, we tested the hypotheses that the Src family kinase-cortactin pathway mediates association of ICAM-1 with the actin cytoskeleton and that this association is required for ICAM-1 clustering and leukocyte transmigration. Cross-linking ICAM-1 induced cytoskeletal remodeling and a decrease in ICAM-1 lateral mobility ...