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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Plant Structure Ontology, A Unified Vocabulary Of Anatomy And Morphology Of A Flowering Plant, Katica Ilic, Elizabeth A. Kellogg, Pankaj Jaiswal, Felipe Zapata, Peter F. Stevens, Leszek P. Vincent, Shulamit Avraham, Leonore Reiser, Anuradha Pujar, Martin M. Sachs, Noah T. Whitman, Susan R. Mccouch, Mary L. Schaeffer, Doreen H. Ware, Lincoln D. Stein, Seung Y. Rhee Dec 2006

The Plant Structure Ontology, A Unified Vocabulary Of Anatomy And Morphology Of A Flowering Plant, Katica Ilic, Elizabeth A. Kellogg, Pankaj Jaiswal, Felipe Zapata, Peter F. Stevens, Leszek P. Vincent, Shulamit Avraham, Leonore Reiser, Anuradha Pujar, Martin M. Sachs, Noah T. Whitman, Susan R. Mccouch, Mary L. Schaeffer, Doreen H. Ware, Lincoln D. Stein, Seung Y. Rhee

Peter Stevens

Formal description of plant phenotypes and standardized annotation of gene expression and protein localization data require uniform terminology that accurately describes plant anatomy and morphology. This facilitates cross species comparative studies and quantitative comparison of phenotypes and expression patterns. A major drawback is variable terminology that is used to describe plant anatomy and morphology in publications and genomic databases for different species. The same terms are sometimes applied to different plant structures in different taxonomic groups. Conversely, similar structures are named by their species-specific terms. To address this problem, we created the Plant Structure Ontology (PSO), the first generic ontological ...


Drought Tolerant Plant Species In Jordanian Rangeland, Raed Al-Tabini Oct 2006

Drought Tolerant Plant Species In Jordanian Rangeland, Raed Al-Tabini

Raed Al-Tabini

No abstract provided.


The Exoribonuclease Xrn4 Is A Component Of The Ethylene Response Pathway In Arabidopsis, Brad Binder, Thomas Potuschak, Amérin Vansiri, Esther Lechner, Richard Vierstra, Pascal Genschik Oct 2006

The Exoribonuclease Xrn4 Is A Component Of The Ethylene Response Pathway In Arabidopsis, Brad Binder, Thomas Potuschak, Amérin Vansiri, Esther Lechner, Richard Vierstra, Pascal Genschik

Brad M. Binder

EXORIBONUCLEASE4 (XRN4), the Arabidopsis thaliana homolog of yeast XRN1, is involved in the degradation of several unstable mRNAs. Although a role for XRN4 in RNA silencing of certain transgenes has been reported, xrn4 mutant plants were found to lack any apparent visible phenotype. Here, we show that XRN4 is allelic to the unidentified components of the ethylene response pathway ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE5/ACC-INSENSITIVE1 (EIN5/AIN1) and EIN7. xrn4 mutant seedlings are ethylene-insensitive as a consequence of the upregulation of EIN3 BINDING F-BOX PROTEIN1 (EBF1) and EBF2 mRNA levels, which encode related F-box proteins involved in the turnover of EIN3 protein, a crucial ...


Ethylene-Stimulated Nutations Do Not Require Etr1 Receptor Histidine Kinase Activity, Brad Binder Oct 2006

Ethylene-Stimulated Nutations Do Not Require Etr1 Receptor Histidine Kinase Activity, Brad Binder

Brad M. Binder

Ethylene influences the growth and development of plants through the action of receptors that have homology to bacterial two-component receptors. In bacteria these receptors function via autophosphorylation of a His residue in the kinase domain followed by phosphotransfer to a conserved Asp residue in a response regulator protein. In Arabidopsis, two of the five receptor isoforms are capable of His kinase activity. However, the role of His kinase activity and phosphotransfer is unclear in ethylene signaling. A previous study showed that ethylene stimulates nutations of the hypocotyl in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings that are dependent on the ETR1 receptor isoform. The ...


). Clonal Micropropagation Of Indian Gooseberry (Emblica Officinalis Gaertn)., Rajesh Pati Oct 2006

). Clonal Micropropagation Of Indian Gooseberry (Emblica Officinalis Gaertn)., Rajesh Pati

Rajesh Pati

No abstract provided.


Implicating An Introduced Generalist Parasitoid In The Invasive Browntail Moth's Enigmatic Demise, Joseph Elkinton, D. Parry, G. Boettner Oct 2006

Implicating An Introduced Generalist Parasitoid In The Invasive Browntail Moth's Enigmatic Demise, Joseph Elkinton, D. Parry, G. Boettner

Joseph Elkinton

Recent attention has focused on the harmful effects of introduced biological control agents on nontarget species. The parasitoid Compsilura concinnata is a notable example of such biological control gone wrong. Introduced in 1906 primarily for control of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, this tachinid fly now attacks more than 180 species of native Lepidoptera in North America. While it did not prevent outbreaks or spread of gypsy moth, we present reanalyzed historical data and experimental findings suggesting that parasitism by C. concinnata is the cause of the enigmatic near-extirpation of another of North America's most successful invaders, the browntail moth ...


Accumulation And Bioavailability Of Dietary Carotenoids In Vegetable Crops, Dean Kopsell, David Kopsell Sep 2006

Accumulation And Bioavailability Of Dietary Carotenoids In Vegetable Crops, Dean Kopsell, David Kopsell

Dean A. Kopsell

Carotenoids are lipid-soluble pigments found in many vegetable crops that are reported to have the health benefits of cancer and eye disease reduction when consumed in the diet. Research shows that environmental and genetic factors can significantly influence carotenoid concentrations in vegetable crops, and that changing cultural management strategies could be advantageous, resulting in increased vegetable carotenoid concentrations. Improvements in vegetable carotenoid levels have been achieved using traditional breeding methods and molecular transformations to stimulate biosynthetic pathways. Postharvest and processing activities can alter carotenoid chemistry, and ultimately affect bioavailability. Bioavailability data emphasize the importance of carotenoid enhancement in vegetable crops ...


The Elimination Of Madagascar’S Vanilla Marketing Board, Ten Years On, Laure C. Dutoit, Olivier Cadot, Jaime De Melo Aug 2006

The Elimination Of Madagascar’S Vanilla Marketing Board, Ten Years On, Laure C. Dutoit, Olivier Cadot, Jaime De Melo

Olivier Cadot

This paper explores how the elimination of Madagascar’s Vanilla Marketing Board (VMB) in 1993 affected prices paid to farmers, incentives, and regional indicators of poverty and inequality. After steadily losing market share, Madagascar has been able to regain some of the lost ground since the mid-1990s. Margins between FOB and farmgate prices have narrowed down and analysis of changes in poverty and inequality suggests some positive impact in regions where vanilla is grown, though it is difficult to control for other intervening factors. A counterfactual analysis based on a model of Cournot competition between vanilla traders suggests that whatever ...


Irradiance Levels Affect Growth Parameters And Carotenoid Pigments In Kale And Spinach Grown In A Controlled Environment, Dean Kopsell, Mark Lefsrud, David Kopsell, Joanne Curran-Celentano Jul 2006

Irradiance Levels Affect Growth Parameters And Carotenoid Pigments In Kale And Spinach Grown In A Controlled Environment, Dean Kopsell, Mark Lefsrud, David Kopsell, Joanne Curran-Celentano

Dean A. Kopsell

Carotenoids play critical roles in both light harvesting and energy dissipation for the protection of photosynthetic structures. However, limited research is available on the impact of irradiance on the production of secondary plant compounds, such as carotenoid pigments. Kale (Brassica oleracea L.) and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) are two leafy vegetables high in lutein and β-carotene carotenoids. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of different irradiance levels on tissue biomass, elemental nutrient concentrations, and lutein β-carotene and chlorophyll (chl) pigment accumulation in the leaves of kale and spinach. ‘Winterbor’ kale and ‘Melody’ spinach were grown in ...


The Geometry Of The Forisome–Sieve Element–Sieve Plate Complex In The Phloem Of Vicia Faba L. Leaflets, Winfried Peters, Aart Van Bel, Michael Knoblauch Jul 2006

The Geometry Of The Forisome–Sieve Element–Sieve Plate Complex In The Phloem Of Vicia Faba L. Leaflets, Winfried Peters, Aart Van Bel, Michael Knoblauch

Winfried S. Peters

Forisomes are contractile protein bodies that appear to control flux rates in the phloem of faboid legumes by reversibly plugging the sieve tubes. Plugging is triggered by Ca2+ which induces an anisotropic deformation of forisomes, consisting of a longitudinal contraction and a radial expansion. By conventional light microscopy and confocal laser-scanning microscopy, the three-dimensional geometry of the forisome–sieve element–sieve plate complex in intact sieve tubes of leaflets of Vicia faba L. was reconstructed. Forisomes were mostly located close to sieve plates, and occasionally were observed drifting unrestrainedly along the sieve element, suggesting that they might be utilized as ...


Carbon Sequestration In Dryland Soils And Plant Residue As Influenced By Tillage And Crop Rotation, Andrew W. Lenssen, Upendra M. Sainju, Thecan Caesar-Thonthat, Jed Waddell Jul 2006

Carbon Sequestration In Dryland Soils And Plant Residue As Influenced By Tillage And Crop Rotation, Andrew W. Lenssen, Upendra M. Sainju, Thecan Caesar-Thonthat, Jed Waddell

Andrew W. Lenssen

Long-term use of conventional tillage and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)–fallow systems in the northern Great Plains have resulted in low soil organic carbon (SOC) levels. We examined the effects of two tillage practices [conventional till (CT) and no-till (NT)], five crop rotations [continuous spring wheat (CW), spring wheat–fallow (W–F), spring wheat–lentil (Lens culinaris Medic.) (W–L), spring wheat–spring wheat–fallow (W–W–F), and spring wheat–pea (Pisum sativum L.)–fallow (W–P–F)], and Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) planting on plant C input, SOC, and particulate organic carbon (POC). A field experiment was conducted ...


Forisome Based Biomimetic Smart Materials, Amy Shen, Benjamin Hamlington, Michael Knoblauch, Winfried Peters, William Pickard Jun 2006

Forisome Based Biomimetic Smart Materials, Amy Shen, Benjamin Hamlington, Michael Knoblauch, Winfried Peters, William Pickard

Winfried S. Peters

With the discovery in plants of the proteinaceous forisome crystalloid (Knoblauch, et al. 2003), a novel, non-living, ATP-independent biological material became available to the designer of smart materials for advanced actuating and sensing. The in vitro studies of Knoblauch, et al. show that forisomes (2-4 micron wide and 10-40 micron long) can be repeatedly stimulated to contract and expand anisotropically by shifting either the ambient pH or the ambient calcium ion concentration. Because of their unique abilities to develop and reverse strains greater than 20% in time periods less than one second, forisomes have the potential to outperform current smart ...


Cropping Sequence And Tillage System Influences Annual Crop Production And Water Use In Semiarid Montana, Usa, Andrew W. Lenssen, G. D. Johnson, G. R. Carlson May 2006

Cropping Sequence And Tillage System Influences Annual Crop Production And Water Use In Semiarid Montana, Usa, Andrew W. Lenssen, G. D. Johnson, G. R. Carlson

Andrew W. Lenssen

Available water is typically the biggest constraint to spring wheat production in the northern Great Plains of the USA. The most common rotation for spring wheat is with summer fallow, which is used to accrue additional soil moisture. Tillage during fallow periods controls weeds, which otherwise would use substantial amounts of water, decreasing the efficiency of fallow. Chemical fallow and zero tillage systems improve soil water conservation, allowing for increased cropping intensity. We conducted a field trial from 1998 through 2003 comparing productivity and water use of crops in nine rotations under two tillage systems, conventional and no-till. All rotations ...


The Shoot-Specific Expression Of Γ-Glutamylcysteine Synthetase Directs The Long-Distance Transport Of Thiol-Peptides To Roots Conferring Tolerance To Mercury And Arsenic, Yujing Li, Om Parkash, Laura Carreira, Aaron Smith, Richard Meagher Apr 2006

The Shoot-Specific Expression Of Γ-Glutamylcysteine Synthetase Directs The Long-Distance Transport Of Thiol-Peptides To Roots Conferring Tolerance To Mercury And Arsenic, Yujing Li, Om Parkash, Laura Carreira, Aaron Smith, Richard Meagher

Om Parkash

Thiol-peptides synthesized as intermediates in phytochelatin (PC) biosynthesis confer cellular tolerance to toxic elements like arsenic, mercury, and cadmium, but little is known about their long-distance transport between plant organs. A modified bacterial γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (ECS) gene, S1pt∷ECS, was expressed in the shoots of the ECS-deficient, heavy-metal-sensitive cad2-1 mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). S1pt∷ECS directed strong ECS protein expression in the shoots, but no ECS was detected in the roots of transgenic plant lines. The S1pt∷ECS gene restored full mercury tolerance and partial cadmium tolerance to the mutant and enhanced arsenate tolerance significantly beyond wild-type levels. After ...


Conference Keynoter Defends Practices Buried In New England’S Agricultural History, Plans For Future, Madeleine K. Charney Mar 2006

Conference Keynoter Defends Practices Buried In New England’S Agricultural History, Plans For Future, Madeleine K. Charney

Madeleine K. Charney

Brian Donahue, environmental historian, debunks the myths of early New England farming practices.


Tillage And Crop Rotation Effects On Dryland Soil And Residue Carbon And Nitrogen, Upendra M. Sainju, Andrew W. Lenssen, Thecan Caesar-Tonthat, Jed Waddell Mar 2006

Tillage And Crop Rotation Effects On Dryland Soil And Residue Carbon And Nitrogen, Upendra M. Sainju, Andrew W. Lenssen, Thecan Caesar-Tonthat, Jed Waddell

Andrew W. Lenssen

Sustainable management practices are needed to enhance soil productivity in degraded dryland soils in the northern Great Plains. We examined the effects of two tillage practices [conventional till (CT) and no-till (NT)], five crop rotations [continuous spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (CW), spring wheat-fallow (W-F), spring wheat-lentil (Lens culinaris Medic.) (W-L), spring wheat-spring wheat-fallow (W-W-F), and spring wheat-pea (Pisum sativum L.)-fallow (W-P-F)], and a Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) on plant biomass returned to the soil, residue C and N, and soil organic C (SOC), soil total N (STN), and particulate organic C and N (POC and PON) at the ...


The Importance Of Maltose In Transitory Starch Breakdown, Yan Lu, Thomas Sharkey Feb 2006

The Importance Of Maltose In Transitory Starch Breakdown, Yan Lu, Thomas Sharkey

Yan Lu

No abstract provided.


Production Of A Completely Organic Fertilizer Economically And Testing Its Effect On The Morphology Of Plants, Dominique Frances Hoover, Akash Prabhu Feb 2006

Production Of A Completely Organic Fertilizer Economically And Testing Its Effect On The Morphology Of Plants, Dominique Frances Hoover, Akash Prabhu

Dominique Frances Hoover Ms.

No abstract provided.


Variation In Shoot Anatomy And Rooting Behaviour Of Stem Cuttings In Relation To Age Of Donor Plants In Teak (Tectona Grandis Linn. F.), Azamal Husen Dr., Mohinder Pal Jan 2006

Variation In Shoot Anatomy And Rooting Behaviour Of Stem Cuttings In Relation To Age Of Donor Plants In Teak (Tectona Grandis Linn. F.), Azamal Husen Dr., Mohinder Pal

Dr. Azamal Husen

No abstract provided.


Correlations Among Traits Associated With Herbivore Resistance And Pollination: Implications For Pollination And Nectar Robbing In A Distylous Plant, Rebecca E. Irwin, Lynn Adler Jan 2006

Correlations Among Traits Associated With Herbivore Resistance And Pollination: Implications For Pollination And Nectar Robbing In A Distylous Plant, Rebecca E. Irwin, Lynn Adler

Lynn Adler

Plants interact simultaneously with a diversity of visitors, including herbivores and pollinators. Correlations among traits associated with herbivory and pollination may constrain the degree to which plants can evolve in response to any one interactor. Using the distylous plant, Gelsemium sempervirens, we tested the hypothesis that traits typically associated with pollination (distyly) and herbivore resistance (secondary compounds) were phenotypically correlated and examined how these traits influenced plant interactions with floral visitors. The flowers of G. sempervirens are visited by pollinators and a nectar robber, and the leaves and flowers express gelsemine, an alkaloid that is deterrent and sometimes toxic to ...


A Comparison Of Vineland Apple Rootstocks And M.26 Emla In The 1996 Mcintosh Rootstock Trial, Wesley Autio, James Krup, Jon Clements Jan 2006

A Comparison Of Vineland Apple Rootstocks And M.26 Emla In The 1996 Mcintosh Rootstock Trial, Wesley Autio, James Krup, Jon Clements

Wesley Autio

No abstract provided.


Several New Dwarfing Rootstocks Compared To Lovell In The 2002 Nc-140 Peach Rootstock Trial, Wesley Autio, James Krupa Jan 2006

Several New Dwarfing Rootstocks Compared To Lovell In The 2002 Nc-140 Peach Rootstock Trial, Wesley Autio, James Krupa

Wesley Autio

No abstract provided.


Cg.4814, Cg.7707, G.30, And Supporter 4 Versus M.26 Emla And M.7 Emla In The 1999 Nc-140 Semidwarf Apple Rootstock Trial, Wesley Autio Jan 2006

Cg.4814, Cg.7707, G.30, And Supporter 4 Versus M.26 Emla And M.7 Emla In The 1999 Nc-140 Semidwarf Apple Rootstock Trial, Wesley Autio

Wesley Autio

No abstract provided.


G.16 Versus M.9 In The 1998 Nc-140 Apple Rootstock Trial, Wesley Autio, Jon Clements, James Krupa Jan 2006

G.16 Versus M.9 In The 1998 Nc-140 Apple Rootstock Trial, Wesley Autio, Jon Clements, James Krupa

Wesley Autio

No abstract provided.


Do Surfactants Affect Response To Chemical Thinners?, James Krupa, Wesley Autio Jan 2006

Do Surfactants Affect Response To Chemical Thinners?, James Krupa, Wesley Autio

Wesley Autio

No abstract provided.


Chemical Thinning Of Apples Using Ethephon: Another Unsuccessful Year, Wesley Autio, James Krupa Jan 2006

Chemical Thinning Of Apples Using Ethephon: Another Unsuccessful Year, Wesley Autio, James Krupa

Wesley Autio

No abstract provided.


Alternative Fungicides For Management Of Sooty Blotch And Flyspeck, Daniel Cooley, Wesley Autio, Arthur Tuttle, James Krupa Jan 2006

Alternative Fungicides For Management Of Sooty Blotch And Flyspeck, Daniel Cooley, Wesley Autio, Arthur Tuttle, James Krupa

Wesley Autio

No abstract provided.


G.16 Versus M.9 And B.9 In The 2002 Massachusetts-New Jersey Cameo Rootstock Trial, Jon Clements, Wesley Autio Jan 2006

G.16 Versus M.9 And B.9 In The 2002 Massachusetts-New Jersey Cameo Rootstock Trial, Jon Clements, Wesley Autio

Wesley Autio

No abstract provided.


New Cg Rootstocks, G.16, And Supporter 1, 2, And 3 Versus M.9 And M.26 Emla In The 1999 Nc-140 Dwarf Apple Rootstock Trial, Wesley Autio, Jon Clements, James Krups Jan 2006

New Cg Rootstocks, G.16, And Supporter 1, 2, And 3 Versus M.9 And M.26 Emla In The 1999 Nc-140 Dwarf Apple Rootstock Trial, Wesley Autio, Jon Clements, James Krups

Wesley Autio

No abstract provided.


Chemical Thinning Of Apples Using Ethephon, Wesley Autio, James Krupa Jan 2006

Chemical Thinning Of Apples Using Ethephon, Wesley Autio, James Krupa

Wesley Autio

No abstract provided.