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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

A Brief History Of Oyster Aquaculture In Rhode Island, Michael Rice Nov 2006

A Brief History Of Oyster Aquaculture In Rhode Island, Michael Rice

Michael A Rice

The history of the development of oyster aquaculture is reviewed, beginning with pre-colonial shellfishing by the Native American Narragansetts and Wampanoags of Narragansett Bay. Leasing of estuarine waters for aquaculture of oysters began with legislation by the Rhode Island General Assembly before the turn of the 19th Century. Legal developments during the 19th Century led to the expansion of oyster aquaculture to the point that about 21,000 acres of Rhode Island's estuarine and coastal waters were leased for oyster farming by 1910. Industrialization, sewage pollution, siltation, the Hurricane of 1938 and socio-political changes in the 1920s and 1930s ...


A New Species Of Emballonura (Chiroptera: Emballonuridae) From The Dry Regions Of Madagascar, Steven M. Goodman, Scott G. Cardiff, Julie Ranivo, Amy L. Russell, Anne D. Yoder Oct 2006

A New Species Of Emballonura (Chiroptera: Emballonuridae) From The Dry Regions Of Madagascar, Steven M. Goodman, Scott G. Cardiff, Julie Ranivo, Amy L. Russell, Anne D. Yoder

Amy L. Russell

We describe a new species of bat in the genus Emballonura (Chiroptera: Emballonuridae), E. tiavato, from the dry forest regions of Madagascar. This species is distinguished from the only other member of this genus found on the island, E. atrata, and extralimital species based on a variety of external and cranial characteristics. Details of the distribution, phylogeny, and natural history of the two species of Malagasy Emballonura are presented.


Modeling Extrusion Processing Of Aquaculture Feed Incorporating Distillers Grains, Nehru Chevanan, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, James L. Julson Jul 2006

Modeling Extrusion Processing Of Aquaculture Feed Incorporating Distillers Grains, Nehru Chevanan, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, James L. Julson

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Three ingredient blends were prepared containing 20%, 30% and 40% DDGS and the net protein adjusted to 28% were formulated and extruded in a single screw extruder. Modeling of the viscosity of dough in the barrel by restricting the reference viscosity has shown shear thinning behavior, and the R2 value obtained between the apparent viscosity calculated by the concentric cylinder method, and viscosity calculated by the model equation, was found to be over 0.99. Increasing the DDGS content had resulted in higher mass flow rate and decreased absolute pressure inside the die. The torque requirement at 40% DDGS was ...


Avian Vacuolar Myelinopathy Outbreaks At A Southeastern Reservoir, J Fischer, L Lewis-Weis, C Tate, J Gaydos, Richard Gerhold Jr., R Poppenga Jun 2006

Avian Vacuolar Myelinopathy Outbreaks At A Southeastern Reservoir, J Fischer, L Lewis-Weis, C Tate, J Gaydos, Richard Gerhold Jr., R Poppenga

Richard W. Gerhold Jr., DVM, MS, PhD

Avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) is a neurologic disease of unknown etiology that affects bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), American coots (Fulica americana), and several species of waterfowl. An unidentified neurotoxin is suspected as the cause of AVM, which has been documented at several reservoirs in the southeastern United States. We conducted diagnostic and epidemiologic studies annually during October-March from 1998-2004 at Clarks Hill/Strom Thurmond Lake on the Georgia/South Carolina border to better understand the disease. Avian vacuolar myelinopathy was confirmed or suspected as the cause of morbidity and mortality of 28 bald eagles, 16 Canada geese (Branta canadensis), six ...


Male Influx, Infanticide, And Female Transfer In Macaca Radiata Radiata, Mewa Singh, H Kumara, M. Kumar, Mirdula Singh, Matthew Cooper Mar 2006

Male Influx, Infanticide, And Female Transfer In Macaca Radiata Radiata, Mewa Singh, H Kumara, M. Kumar, Mirdula Singh, Matthew Cooper

Matthew A. Cooper

In bonnet macaques, males usually disperse between groups and females remain philopatric, but researchers have reported female transfer. We report a rare case of male influx during the mating season in our bonnet macaque study group in the Anaimalai Hills. The density of bonnet macaques in the study region was unusually high. The study group had a single, crippled adult male with a long tenure and 5 adult females. During the mating season, adult females approached and mated with outgroup males, and then several males entered the group. The adult male left the group without any resistance. The incoming males ...


Phenotypic And Genetic Parameters Of Reproductive Traits For Ayrshire Cattle On Large-Scale Farms In Kenya, Joshua O. Amimo Jan 2006

Phenotypic And Genetic Parameters Of Reproductive Traits For Ayrshire Cattle On Large-Scale Farms In Kenya, Joshua O. Amimo

Joshua O Amimo

No abstract provided.


Use Of Fatty Acid Profiles To Distinguish Between Selected Game Fish And Farm-Raised Channel Catfish, Randy S. Stahl, Brian S. Dorr, Scott C. Barras, John J. Johnston Jan 2006

Use Of Fatty Acid Profiles To Distinguish Between Selected Game Fish And Farm-Raised Channel Catfish, Randy S. Stahl, Brian S. Dorr, Scott C. Barras, John J. Johnston

Brian S Dorr

No abstract provided.


Notch1 Augments Nf- ĸb Activity By Facilitating Its Nuclear Retention, H. M. Shin, Lisa Minter, O.H. Cho, S. Gottipati, A.H. Fauq, T.E. Golde, G.E. Sonenshein, B.A. Osborne Jan 2006

Notch1 Augments Nf- ĸb Activity By Facilitating Its Nuclear Retention, H. M. Shin, Lisa Minter, O.H. Cho, S. Gottipati, A.H. Fauq, T.E. Golde, G.E. Sonenshein, B.A. Osborne

Lisa Minter

Notch1 specifically upregulates expression of the cytokine interferon-gamma in peripheral T cells through activation of NF-kappaB. However, how Notch mediates NF-kappaB activation remains unclear. Here, we examined the temporal relationship between Notch signaling and NF-kappaB induction during T-cell activation. NF-kappaB activation occurs within minutes of T-cell receptor (TCR) engagement and this activation is sustained for at least 48 h following TCR signaling. We used gamma-secretase inhibitor (GSI) to prevent the cleavage and subsequent activation of Notch family members. We demonstrate that GSI blocked the later, sustained NF-kappaB activation, but did not affect the initial activation of NF-kappaB. Using biochemical approaches ...


Enhanced Antiscrapie Effect Using Combination Drug Treatment, D. A. Kocisko, B. Caughey, John D. Morrey, R. E. Race Jan 2006

Enhanced Antiscrapie Effect Using Combination Drug Treatment, D. A. Kocisko, B. Caughey, John D. Morrey, R. E. Race

John D. Morrey

Combination treatment with pentosan polysulfate and Fe(III)meso-tetra(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphine in mice beginning 14 or 28 days after scrapie inoculation significantly increased survival times. This increase may be synergistic, implying that the compounds act cooperatively in vivo. Combination therapy may therefore be more effective for treatment of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies and other protein-misfolding diseases.


Application Of Broken-Line Analysis To Assess Floor Space Requirements Of Nursery And Grower-Finisher Pigs Expressed On An Allometric Basis, Anna K. Johnson, H. W. Gonyou, M. C. Brumm, E. Bush, J. Deen, S. A. Edwards, T. Fangman, J. J. Mcglone, M. Meunier-Salaun, R. B. Morrison, H. Spoolder, P. L. Sundberg Jan 2006

Application Of Broken-Line Analysis To Assess Floor Space Requirements Of Nursery And Grower-Finisher Pigs Expressed On An Allometric Basis, Anna K. Johnson, H. W. Gonyou, M. C. Brumm, E. Bush, J. Deen, S. A. Edwards, T. Fangman, J. J. Mcglone, M. Meunier-Salaun, R. B. Morrison, H. Spoolder, P. L. Sundberg

Anna K. Butters-Johnson

Few issues in swine production are as complex as floor space allowances. One method for pork producers to calculate floor space allowance (A) is to convert BW into a 2-dimensional concept yielding an expression of A = k * BW(0.667). Data on ADG, ADFI, and G:F were obtained from published peer-reviewed studies. Five data sets were created: A = grower-finisher pigs, fully slatted floors, and consistent group size; B = grower-finisher pigs and fully slatted floors (group size did not need to be consistent); C = grower-finisher pigs, partially slatted floors, and consistent group size; D = grower-finisher pigs, partially slatted floors (group ...


Eastern Bluebirds Eject Brown-Headed Cowbird Eggs, Brian D. Peer, Lyndon R. Hawkins, Edwin P. Steinke, Patricia Blair Bollinger, Eric K. Bollinger Jan 2006

Eastern Bluebirds Eject Brown-Headed Cowbird Eggs, Brian D. Peer, Lyndon R. Hawkins, Edwin P. Steinke, Patricia Blair Bollinger, Eric K. Bollinger

Eric K. Bollinger

The relationship between the Brownheaded Cowbird (Molothrus ater) and its cavitynesting hosts has received little attention because of the assumption that cowbirds rarely parasitize these hosts. We tested the Eastern Bluebird (Sialia sialis), a host that is sometimes heavily parasitized by cowbirds, for egg ejection behavior. Bluebirds ejected 65% of experimentally added cowbird eggs (n = 20), but ejected no experimentally added conspecific eggs (n = 66). This suggests that cowbird parasitism, not conspecific brood parasitism, is the selective pressure responsible for egg ejection in this species. This level of rejection may be conservative because bluebirds nest in dark cavities, which may ...


A Porphyrin Increases Survival Time Of Mice After Intracerebral Prion Infection, D. A. Kocisko, W. S. Caughey, R. E. Race, G. Roper, B. Caughey, John D. Morrey Jan 2006

A Porphyrin Increases Survival Time Of Mice After Intracerebral Prion Infection, D. A. Kocisko, W. S. Caughey, R. E. Race, G. Roper, B. Caughey, John D. Morrey

John D. Morrey

Prion diseases, including scrapie, are incurable neurodegenerative disorders. Some compounds can delay disease after a peripheral scrapie inoculation, but few are effective against advanced disease. Here, we tested multiple related porphyrins, but only Fe(III)meso-tetra(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphine injected into mouse brains after intracerebral scrapie inoculation substantially increased survival times.


The Relationship Of Soil Province To Molecular Characterization And Phylogenetic Analysis Of Cryptosporidium Parvum Isolated From Calves In Georgia., Debra Miller, M. Mauel, A. Liggett, M. Hines Ii, K. Fraizer, M. Pence, L. Whittington, C. Baldwin Dec 2005

The Relationship Of Soil Province To Molecular Characterization And Phylogenetic Analysis Of Cryptosporidium Parvum Isolated From Calves In Georgia., Debra Miller, M. Mauel, A. Liggett, M. Hines Ii, K. Fraizer, M. Pence, L. Whittington, C. Baldwin

Debra L Miller

Although Cryptosporidium spp. are found throughout the world and in multiple environmental conditions, few data are available that explore the possibility of an association between specific environmental parameters and the species or strain of Cryptosporidium. This study examines the potential association between a particular Cryptosporidium species/strain found in calves and soil provinces in Georgia, USA. Necropsy cases spanning the years 1996-2002 were tested. No significant differences (P=0.962, chi(2) test of homogeneity) between numbers of positive cases were noted among soil provinces. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences for the PCR products revealed sequence similarity of the products ...


Subcutaneous Haemangiosarcoma In A Cockatiel (Nymphicus Hollandicus)., D. Sledge, Z. Radi, Debra Miller, B. Lynn Dec 2005

Subcutaneous Haemangiosarcoma In A Cockatiel (Nymphicus Hollandicus)., D. Sledge, Z. Radi, Debra Miller, B. Lynn

Debra L Miller

An ulcerated, 1 x 0.5 cm, subcutaneous mass on the craniolateral aspect of the right tibiotarsus of a 4-year-old male cockatiel was removed. Histologically, the neoplasm was non-encapsulated, infiltrative and composed of irregular vascular channels lined by branching and variably sized spindle-shaped cells with large vesicular nuclei, prominent nucleoli and rare mitoses. Surrounding these vascular channels were fibroblasts and mixed inflammatory cells. Neoplastic cells had diffuse immunoreactivity to factor VIII supporting a diagnosis of haemangiosarcoma.


Cutting Edge: Cd4 Is The Receptor For The Tick Saliva Immunosuppressor, Salp15, Juan Anguita, R. Garg, I.J. Juncadella, N. Ramamoorthi, Ashish, S.K. Ananthanarayanan, V. Thomas, M. Rincon, J.K Krueger, E. Fikrig, C.M. Yengo Dec 2005

Cutting Edge: Cd4 Is The Receptor For The Tick Saliva Immunosuppressor, Salp15, Juan Anguita, R. Garg, I.J. Juncadella, N. Ramamoorthi, Ashish, S.K. Ananthanarayanan, V. Thomas, M. Rincon, J.K Krueger, E. Fikrig, C.M. Yengo

Juan Anguita

No abstract provided.


Feline Immunodeficiency Virus And Puma Lentivirus In Florida Panthers (Puma Concolor Coryi): Epidemiology And Diagnostic Issues., Debra Miller, S. Taylor, D. Rotstein, M. Pough, M. Barr, C. Baldwin, M. Cunningham, M. Roelke, D. Ingram Dec 2005

Feline Immunodeficiency Virus And Puma Lentivirus In Florida Panthers (Puma Concolor Coryi): Epidemiology And Diagnostic Issues., Debra Miller, S. Taylor, D. Rotstein, M. Pough, M. Barr, C. Baldwin, M. Cunningham, M. Roelke, D. Ingram

Debra L Miller

This study documents the seroprevalence of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and puma lentivirus (PLV) in free-ranging and captive Florida panthers (Puma concolor coryi) (n = 51) and translocated Texas cougars (P. concolor stanleyana) (n = 10) from 1985 to 1998. The sera were tested for anti-FIV antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot tests. The ELISAs were read kinetically (KELA) and the sera were retrospectively examined by PLV peptide ELISA. Eleven panthers and one cougar were positive by KELA; 4 panthers and 4 cougars were equivocal; 35 panthers and 5 cougars were negative; and 1 panther had no data. Seven ...


Binding The Full-Length Hiv-1 Gp120 To Cd4 Induces Structural Reorientation Around The Gp120 Core, Juan Anguita, R. Ashish, J. Garg, J.K. Kruger Dec 2005

Binding The Full-Length Hiv-1 Gp120 To Cd4 Induces Structural Reorientation Around The Gp120 Core, Juan Anguita, R. Ashish, J. Garg, J.K. Kruger

Juan Anguita

No abstract provided.


Lipoid Liver Disease And Steatitis In A Captive Sapphire Damsel, Pomacentrus Pavo., Debra Miller, J. Weisman Dec 2005

Lipoid Liver Disease And Steatitis In A Captive Sapphire Damsel, Pomacentrus Pavo., Debra Miller, J. Weisman

Debra L Miller

Background. Sapphire damselfish, Pomacentrus pavo (Bloch, 1787) (family Pomacentridae) are reef fish found in tropical and temperate oceans but also are popular aquaria species in commercial and private operations; yet, there remains a paucity of information regarding diseases in this species. Thus, reporting of disease occurrences in this species is vital and serves as a foundation upon which to gather and build our knowledge base for this species. Material and Methods. A captive sapphire damsel presented with severe nonresolving abdominal distension. The fish was humanely euthanized and fixed tissues submitted for routine histological examination. Additionally, special histochemical stains were done ...


Politics And Pollen: Mountain Top Removal's Potential Effects Upon Honey Bees, Tammy Horn Dec 2005

Politics And Pollen: Mountain Top Removal's Potential Effects Upon Honey Bees, Tammy Horn

Tammy Horn

No abstract provided.


Control Of Borrelia Burgdorferi-Specific Cd4+ T Cell Effector Function By Il-12 And Tcr Induced P38 Map Kinase Activity, Juan Anguita, M.N. Hendrick, C.M. Olsen, D. Conze, T.C. Bates, M. Rincon Dec 2005

Control Of Borrelia Burgdorferi-Specific Cd4+ T Cell Effector Function By Il-12 And Tcr Induced P38 Map Kinase Activity, Juan Anguita, M.N. Hendrick, C.M. Olsen, D. Conze, T.C. Bates, M. Rincon

Juan Anguita

No abstract provided.


Animal Carcinogenicity Studies: 1. Poor Human Predictivity, Andrew Knight, Jarrod Bailey, Jonathan P. Balcombe Dec 2005

Animal Carcinogenicity Studies: 1. Poor Human Predictivity, Andrew Knight, Jarrod Bailey, Jonathan P. Balcombe

Jonathan Balcombe, Ph.D.

No abstract provided.


Size Selectivity Of Purse Seines In The Southern Philippines Multispecies Tuna Fisheries, Michael A. Rice, Joseph T. Dealteris, Samuel E. Resma Dec 2005

Size Selectivity Of Purse Seines In The Southern Philippines Multispecies Tuna Fisheries, Michael A. Rice, Joseph T. Dealteris, Samuel E. Resma

Michael A Rice

The multi-species Philippine tuna purse seine fishery targets three tuna species: skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis), yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) and bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus). These are highly migratory pelagic fishes that grow to different maximum lengths and weights. At present there is no mesh size regulation specific to the fishery in the Philippines although tuna purse seines generally use 8.9cm (3.5 in) mesh size in the bunt of the net. An empirical analysis was conducted to compare the catches of purse seine nets with two different mesh sizes in the top portion of the bunt: 8.9cm and 12 ...


Aquaculture In Tanzania, Michael A. Rice, Aviti J. Mmochi, Lugazo Zubieri, Rebecca M. Savoie Dec 2005

Aquaculture In Tanzania, Michael A. Rice, Aviti J. Mmochi, Lugazo Zubieri, Rebecca M. Savoie

Michael A Rice

Aquaculture in Tanzania is represented primarily by the culture if seaweeds, Kappaphycus alvarezi and Eucheuma denticulatum as source of carageenan for food additives. During the 1950s, there was considerable effort to establish freshwater pond culture of tilapia in the country, but the projects proved to be unfeasible due to robust capture fisheries in lakes and rivers and a lack of transportation and infrastructure to access distant markets. There has been some culture of penaeid shrmp in brackish ponds, and renewed interest in pond culture of tilapia. A number of species are being cultured experimentally, including milkfish, giant clams (Tridacna gigas ...


Animal Carcinogenicity Studies: Implications For The Reach System, Andrew Knight, Jarrod Bailey, Jonathan P. Balcombe Dec 2005

Animal Carcinogenicity Studies: Implications For The Reach System, Andrew Knight, Jarrod Bailey, Jonathan P. Balcombe

Jonathan Balcombe, Ph.D.

No abstract provided.


Laboratory Environments And Rodents' Behavioural Needs: A Review, Jonathan P. Balcombe Dec 2005

Laboratory Environments And Rodents' Behavioural Needs: A Review, Jonathan P. Balcombe

Jonathan Balcombe, Ph.D.

No abstract provided.