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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Accumulation And Bioavailability Of Dietary Carotenoids In Vegetable Crops, Dean Kopsell, David Kopsell Sep 2006

Accumulation And Bioavailability Of Dietary Carotenoids In Vegetable Crops, Dean Kopsell, David Kopsell

Dean A. Kopsell

Carotenoids are lipid-soluble pigments found in many vegetable crops that are reported to have the health benefits of cancer and eye disease reduction when consumed in the diet. Research shows that environmental and genetic factors can significantly influence carotenoid concentrations in vegetable crops, and that changing cultural management strategies could be advantageous, resulting in increased vegetable carotenoid concentrations. Improvements in vegetable carotenoid levels have been achieved using traditional breeding methods and molecular transformations to stimulate biosynthetic pathways. Postharvest and processing activities can alter carotenoid chemistry, and ultimately affect bioavailability. Bioavailability data emphasize the importance of carotenoid enhancement in vegetable crops ...


The Elimination Of Madagascar’S Vanilla Marketing Board, Ten Years On, Laure C. Dutoit, Olivier Cadot, Jaime De Melo Aug 2006

The Elimination Of Madagascar’S Vanilla Marketing Board, Ten Years On, Laure C. Dutoit, Olivier Cadot, Jaime De Melo

Olivier Cadot

This paper explores how the elimination of Madagascar’s Vanilla Marketing Board (VMB) in 1993 affected prices paid to farmers, incentives, and regional indicators of poverty and inequality. After steadily losing market share, Madagascar has been able to regain some of the lost ground since the mid-1990s. Margins between FOB and farmgate prices have narrowed down and analysis of changes in poverty and inequality suggests some positive impact in regions where vanilla is grown, though it is difficult to control for other intervening factors. A counterfactual analysis based on a model of Cournot competition between vanilla traders suggests that whatever ...


Irradiance Levels Affect Growth Parameters And Carotenoid Pigments In Kale And Spinach Grown In A Controlled Environment, Dean Kopsell, Mark Lefsrud, David Kopsell, Joanne Curran-Celentano Jul 2006

Irradiance Levels Affect Growth Parameters And Carotenoid Pigments In Kale And Spinach Grown In A Controlled Environment, Dean Kopsell, Mark Lefsrud, David Kopsell, Joanne Curran-Celentano

Dean A. Kopsell

Carotenoids play critical roles in both light harvesting and energy dissipation for the protection of photosynthetic structures. However, limited research is available on the impact of irradiance on the production of secondary plant compounds, such as carotenoid pigments. Kale (Brassica oleracea L.) and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) are two leafy vegetables high in lutein and β-carotene carotenoids. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of different irradiance levels on tissue biomass, elemental nutrient concentrations, and lutein β-carotene and chlorophyll (chl) pigment accumulation in the leaves of kale and spinach. ‘Winterbor’ kale and ‘Melody’ spinach were grown in ...


Carbon Sequestration In Dryland Soils And Plant Residue As Influenced By Tillage And Crop Rotation, Andrew W. Lenssen, Upendra M. Sainju, Thecan Caesar-Thonthat, Jed Waddell Jul 2006

Carbon Sequestration In Dryland Soils And Plant Residue As Influenced By Tillage And Crop Rotation, Andrew W. Lenssen, Upendra M. Sainju, Thecan Caesar-Thonthat, Jed Waddell

Andrew W. Lenssen

Long-term use of conventional tillage and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)–fallow systems in the northern Great Plains have resulted in low soil organic carbon (SOC) levels. We examined the effects of two tillage practices [conventional till (CT) and no-till (NT)], five crop rotations [continuous spring wheat (CW), spring wheat–fallow (W–F), spring wheat–lentil (Lens culinaris Medic.) (W–L), spring wheat–spring wheat–fallow (W–W–F), and spring wheat–pea (Pisum sativum L.)–fallow (W–P–F)], and Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) planting on plant C input, SOC, and particulate organic carbon (POC). A field experiment was conducted ...


Cropping Sequence And Tillage System Influences Annual Crop Production And Water Use In Semiarid Montana, Usa, Andrew W. Lenssen, G. D. Johnson, G. R. Carlson May 2006

Cropping Sequence And Tillage System Influences Annual Crop Production And Water Use In Semiarid Montana, Usa, Andrew W. Lenssen, G. D. Johnson, G. R. Carlson

Andrew W. Lenssen

Available water is typically the biggest constraint to spring wheat production in the northern Great Plains of the USA. The most common rotation for spring wheat is with summer fallow, which is used to accrue additional soil moisture. Tillage during fallow periods controls weeds, which otherwise would use substantial amounts of water, decreasing the efficiency of fallow. Chemical fallow and zero tillage systems improve soil water conservation, allowing for increased cropping intensity. We conducted a field trial from 1998 through 2003 comparing productivity and water use of crops in nine rotations under two tillage systems, conventional and no-till. All rotations ...


Conference Keynoter Defends Practices Buried In New England’S Agricultural History, Plans For Future, Madeleine K. Charney Apr 2006

Conference Keynoter Defends Practices Buried In New England’S Agricultural History, Plans For Future, Madeleine K. Charney

Madeleine K. Charney

Brian Donahue, environmental historian, debunks the myths of early New England farming practices.


Tillage And Crop Rotation Effects On Dryland Soil And Residue Carbon And Nitrogen, Upendra M. Sainju, Andrew W. Lenssen, Thecan Caesar-Tonthat, Jed Waddell Mar 2006

Tillage And Crop Rotation Effects On Dryland Soil And Residue Carbon And Nitrogen, Upendra M. Sainju, Andrew W. Lenssen, Thecan Caesar-Tonthat, Jed Waddell

Andrew W. Lenssen

Sustainable management practices are needed to enhance soil productivity in degraded dryland soils in the northern Great Plains. We examined the effects of two tillage practices [conventional till (CT) and no-till (NT)], five crop rotations [continuous spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (CW), spring wheat-fallow (W-F), spring wheat-lentil (Lens culinaris Medic.) (W-L), spring wheat-spring wheat-fallow (W-W-F), and spring wheat-pea (Pisum sativum L.)-fallow (W-P-F)], and a Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) on plant biomass returned to the soil, residue C and N, and soil organic C (SOC), soil total N (STN), and particulate organic C and N (POC and PON) at the ...


Incorporating Targeted Grazing Into Farming Systems, Andrew W. Lenssen, Patrick Hatfield, Hayes Goosey, Sue Blodgett Jan 2006

Incorporating Targeted Grazing Into Farming Systems, Andrew W. Lenssen, Patrick Hatfield, Hayes Goosey, Sue Blodgett

Andrew W. Lenssen

When incorporating targeted grazing into farming systems, livestock producers and farm operators need assurance that the benefits from their activities are worth their investments. This chapter will focus on how integrating grazing, particularly with sheep and goats, into farming systems can offer those benefits. The concepts are not new. Cropping systems were once integrated with livestock production: Livestock gained forage value from crop aftermath, crops were grown to sustain livestock, and livestock were used as implements to produce crops. Today, few cropping systems include livestock. Sheep and goats are traditionally produced on rangelands or pasture forages and supplemented during winter ...


Iron Form And Concentration Affect Nutrition Of Container-Grown Pelargonium And Calibrachoa, Dean Kopsell, Ron Wik, Paul Fisher, William Argo Dec 2005

Iron Form And Concentration Affect Nutrition Of Container-Grown Pelargonium And Calibrachoa, Dean Kopsell, Ron Wik, Paul Fisher, William Argo

Dean A. Kopsell

Two experiments were completed to determine whether the form and concentration of iron (Fe) affected Fe toxicity in the Fe-efficient species Pelargonium xhortorum `Ringo Deep Scarlet' L.H. Bail. grown at a horticulturally low substrate pH of 4.1 to 4.9 or Fe deficiency in the Fe-inefficient species Calibrachoa xhybrida `Trailing White' Cerv. grown at a horticulturally high substrate pH of 6.3 to 6.9. Ferric ethylenediaminedi(o-hydroxyphenylacetic) acid (Fe-EDDHA), ferric ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (Fe-EDTA), and ferrous sulfate heptahydrate (FeSO4·7H2O) were applied at 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, or 4.0 mg ·L–1 ...


Spinach Cultigen Variation For Tissue Carotenoid Concentrations Influences Human Serum Carotenoid Levels And Macular Pigment Optical Density Following A 12-Week Dietary Intervention, Dean Kopsell, David Kopsell, Adam Wenzel, Catherine Gerweck, Joanne Curran-Celentano Dec 2005

Spinach Cultigen Variation For Tissue Carotenoid Concentrations Influences Human Serum Carotenoid Levels And Macular Pigment Optical Density Following A 12-Week Dietary Intervention, Dean Kopsell, David Kopsell, Adam Wenzel, Catherine Gerweck, Joanne Curran-Celentano

Dean A. Kopsell

Increasing intakes of carotenoid-rich plant foods can increase serum carotenoid concentrations and macular pigment optical density (MPOD) in most, but not all, individuals. Research objectives for this study were to (1) characterize tissue lutein (L) and β-carotene (BC) concentrations in carotenoid-rich spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) cultigens and (2) determine serum carotenoid and MPOD responses in human subjects consuming spinach cultigens differing in tissue L and BC concentrations. Thirteen spinach cultigens were evaluated for carotenoid accumulations over two consecutive growing seasons. ‘Springer' (8.4 and 6.5 mg/100 g of fresh mass for L and BC, respectively) and ‘Spinner' (12 ...


Kale Carotenoids Are Unaffected By, Whereas Biomass Production, Elemental Concentrations, And Selenium Accumulation Respond To, Changes In Selenium Fertility, Dean Kopsell, Mark Lefsrud, David Kopsell, William Randle Dec 2005

Kale Carotenoids Are Unaffected By, Whereas Biomass Production, Elemental Concentrations, And Selenium Accumulation Respond To, Changes In Selenium Fertility, Dean Kopsell, Mark Lefsrud, David Kopsell, William Randle

Dean A. Kopsell

Selenium (Se) is a micronutrient in mammalian nutrition and is accumulated in kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala), which has high levels of lutein and β-carotene. Selenium, lutein, and β-carotene have important human health benefits and possess strong antioxidant properties. The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of different Se [as sodium selenate (Na2SeO4) and sodium selenite (Na2SeO3)] fertility levels on (1) biomass accumulation, (2) the accumulation patterns of carotenoid pigments, and (3) elemental accumulation in the leaves of kale. Winterbor kale was greenhouse-grown using nutrient solution culture with Se treatment concentrations of 0.0, 0.5 ...


Biomass Production And Pigment Accumulation In Kale Grown Under Increasing Photoperiods, Dean Kopsell, Mark Lefsrud, Robert Augé, A. Both Dec 2005

Biomass Production And Pigment Accumulation In Kale Grown Under Increasing Photoperiods, Dean Kopsell, Mark Lefsrud, Robert Augé, A. Both

Dean A. Kopsell

Consumption of fruit and vegetable crops rich in lutein and ß-carotene carotenoids is associated with reduced risk of cancers and aging eye diseases. Kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala D.C.) ranks highest for lutein concentrations and is an excellent source of dietary carotenoids. Kale plants were grown under varied photoperiods to determine changes in the accumulation of fresh and dry biomass, chlorophyll a and b, and lutein and ß-carotene carotenoids. The plants were cultured in a controlled environment using nutrient solutions under photoperiod treatments of 6, 12, 16, or 24 hours (continuous). Fresh and dry mass production increased linearly ...


Biomass Production And Pigment Accumulation In Kale Grown Under Different Radiation Cycles In A Controlled Environment, Dean Kopsell, Mark Lefsrud Dec 2005

Biomass Production And Pigment Accumulation In Kale Grown Under Different Radiation Cycles In A Controlled Environment, Dean Kopsell, Mark Lefsrud

Dean A. Kopsell

Controlled plant growing systems have consistently used the standard earth day as the radiation cycle for plant growth. However, the radiation cycle can be controlled using automated systems to regulate the exact amount of time plants are exposed to irradiation (and darkness). This experiment investigated the influence of different radiation cycle periods on plant growth and carotenoid accumulation in kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC.). Plants were grown in a controlled environment using nutrient solutions under radiation cycle treatments of 2, 12, 24 and 48 hours, with 50% irradiance and 50% darkness during each cycle. The radiation cycles significantly ...


Response Surface Methodology For Optimizing The Pre-Processing Conditions During Canning Of A Newly Developed And Promising Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata) Variety, Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa, Samuel Yenyi, Esther Sakyi-Dawson Dec 2005

Response Surface Methodology For Optimizing The Pre-Processing Conditions During Canning Of A Newly Developed And Promising Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata) Variety, Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa, Samuel Yenyi, Esther Sakyi-Dawson

Professor Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Cowpea (IT87D195Y) seeds were canned with the objective of investigating the optimal pre-processing conditions that would yield the best quality canned product from the newly developed cowpea variety. Pre-canning procedures such as blanching time, soaking time and sodium hexametaphosphate [(NaPO3)6] salt concentration were used as the independent variables for a Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD). The pre-processing parameters obtained from the CCRD were used for the canning of the cowpeas and the quality characteristics (moisture content, pH of the drained liquid, drained weight, splitting of the seeds, leached solids and seed hardness) of the canned products were studied using ...


Realizing Community Futures: A Practical Guide To Harnessing Natural Resources, Jerome K. Vanclay, Ravi Prabhu, Fergus Sinclair Dec 2005

Realizing Community Futures: A Practical Guide To Harnessing Natural Resources, Jerome K. Vanclay, Ravi Prabhu, Fergus Sinclair

Professor Jerome K Vanclay

No abstract provided.