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Effects Of Stocking Rate And Corn Gluten Feed Supplementation On Performance Of Two-Year Cows Grazing Stockpiled Forage During Winter, James R. Russell, Ronda Driskill, Daniel G. Morrical, Daryl R. Strohbehn, Stephen K. Barnhart, John D. Lawrence Jan 2006

Effects Of Stocking Rate And Corn Gluten Feed Supplementation On Performance Of Two-Year Cows Grazing Stockpiled Forage During Winter, James R. Russell, Ronda Driskill, Daniel G. Morrical, Daryl R. Strohbehn, Stephen K. Barnhart, John D. Lawrence

Animal Industry Report

For two years, four 6.25 and 8.75-acre pastures containing endophyte-free tall fescue-red clover pastures were stocked with pregnant two-year old cows at rates of .34 (low) or .48 (high) cows/acre to strip-graze from October to March. Eight similar cows were allotted to two dry lots and fed tall fescue-red clover hay. Corn gluten feed was supplemented to cows in two pastures at each stocking rate and in the dry lots to maintain a condition score of 5 on a 9-point scale. Cows in the remaining pastures were supplemented with corn gluten feed when snow and ice limited ...


Beef Cattle Feeding In A Deep Bedded Hoop Barn: A Preliminary Study, W. Darrell Busby, Shawn C. Shouse, Mark S. Honeyman, Daniel D. Loy, Jay D. Harmon, Dallas L. Maxwell Jan 2006

Beef Cattle Feeding In A Deep Bedded Hoop Barn: A Preliminary Study, W. Darrell Busby, Shawn C. Shouse, Mark S. Honeyman, Daniel D. Loy, Jay D. Harmon, Dallas L. Maxwell

Animal Industry Report

A deep bedded hoop confinement building was constructed at the ISU Armstrong Research Farm in Southwest Iowa in 2004. The building consists of three pens. Shortly after the completion of construction a preliminary study was initiated to compare performance, carcass characteristics, and bedding and labor use to that of a conventional semi-confinement system. The cattle used in this study were steer and heifer calves from the ISU McNay Research Farm. Performance and carcass measurements appeared similar comparing the two systems. However, the hoop building cattle used more bedding and appeared to have lower mud scores. Labor use may have favored ...


Digestibility Of Diets With Corn Grain And Urea Replaced With Corn Distillers Grains Or Solubles, David Pingel, Allen H. Trenkle Jan 2006

Digestibility Of Diets With Corn Grain And Urea Replaced With Corn Distillers Grains Or Solubles, David Pingel, Allen H. Trenkle

Animal Industry Report

Ten steers were used in a digestion experiment to evaluate replacing dry rolled corn and urea with 4% and 8% condensed distiller solubles (CDS), or 10% and 20% wet corn distillers grain with solubles (DGS). The steers were placed in digestion crates for total collection of feces during a 5 d period following 14 d of diet adaptation. Intake (kg/d) of DM, starch, NDF, ADF, CP, and fat were: 7.99, 8.71, 8.62 & 8.41, 7.84; 4.92, 4.87, 4.93, & 4.81, 3.95; 1.19, 1.25, 1.19, & 1.42, 1.42; 0.43, 0.48, 0.45, & 0.56, 0.55; 0.96, 1.08, 1.03 ...


Organic Beef Cattle Grazing Demonstration, Mark S. Honeyman, Russ Bredahl, Dallas L. Maxwell Jan 2006

Organic Beef Cattle Grazing Demonstration, Mark S. Honeyman, Russ Bredahl, Dallas L. Maxwell

Animal Industry Report

There is growing interest in grass-fed organic beef. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of conventional feedlot-based cattle finishing with organically acceptable cattle finishing.


Finishing Beef Cattle On Grass Supplemented With Self-Fed By-Products, Mark S. Honeyman, James R. Russell, Daniel G. Morrical, Dallas L. Maxwell, W. Darrell Busby, Joe Sellers Jan 2006

Finishing Beef Cattle On Grass Supplemented With Self-Fed By-Products, Mark S. Honeyman, James R. Russell, Daniel G. Morrical, Dallas L. Maxwell, W. Darrell Busby, Joe Sellers

Animal Industry Report

The objective of this study was to feed beef cattle to market weight (or as near as possible) by grazing coolseason grass supplemented with self-fed by-product pellets. The study took place at two locations in southwest Iowa. Yearling cattle were used at the Armstrong Farm and fall born calves were used at the Neely-Kinyon Farm. At each location, the cattle were allotted by weight to treatments of: 1) grazing with immediate access to by-product pellets in a self-feeder (early) and 2) grazing with later access (midJune) to the same pellets (late). The trial started April 21, 2005. The by-product pellets ...


Effect Of Disposition On Feedlot Gain And Quality Grade, W. Darrell Busby, Daryl R. Strohbehn, Perry Beedle, Mike King Jan 2006

Effect Of Disposition On Feedlot Gain And Quality Grade, W. Darrell Busby, Daryl R. Strohbehn, Perry Beedle, Mike King

Animal Industry Report

A total of 13,315 beef calves fed at eight Iowa feedyards were used to evaluate the effect of disposition during the feedlot period on feedlot gain and carcass quality. The calves, representing 12 states, were consigned to the Iowa Tri-County Steer Carcass Futurity and were weighed upon arrival, after 35 days, at reimplant, and prior to harvest. A disposition score (Beef Improvement Federation Six Point Scoring System – 1 = very docile and 6 = very aggressive) was assigned at on test weighing, re-implant time, and pre-harvest, and these disposition scores were averaged to calculate a mean disposition score. The mean disposition ...


The Accuracy Of Real-Time Ultrasound Measurements For Body Composition Traits With Carcass Traits In Feedlot Heifers, Flavio Ribeiro, Richard G. Tait Jr., Gene H. Rouse, Doyle E. Wilson, W. Darrell Busby Jan 2006

The Accuracy Of Real-Time Ultrasound Measurements For Body Composition Traits With Carcass Traits In Feedlot Heifers, Flavio Ribeiro, Richard G. Tait Jr., Gene H. Rouse, Doyle E. Wilson, W. Darrell Busby

Animal Industry Report

This study compared ultrasound measurements of body composition to carcass measurements of 145 heifers harvested in five groups. Results show that this technology can accurately measure URIBFT, UREA, and UMARB prior to slaughter. URIBFT was the trait that had the highest correlations and acceptable standard error of predictions (SEPs) and bias. The other two traits, UREA and UMARB, had lower correlation values but acceptable SEPs and bias. Real-time ultrasound is an accurate tool to measure body composition and can be used very effectively as a selection or sorting tool in the feedlot.


Evaluation Of Rumen Boluses As An Electronic Identification System For Cattle In An Automated Data Collection System , Allen H. Trenkle Jan 2006

Evaluation Of Rumen Boluses As An Electronic Identification System For Cattle In An Automated Data Collection System , Allen H. Trenkle

Animal Industry Report

The rumen bolus electronic animal identification system was evaluated in 120 feedlot steers during a 130 day observation period. Boluses were placed in the reticulum using a balling gun. A panel antenna was located inside (left side) of a hydrolytic restraining chute placed on load cells and connected to a Tru-Test scale indicator to display and store the electronic identification number and weight of the animal. Once displayed on the indicator the identification number and weight were stored in a file in the indicator which was later downloaded as an Excel file. Using Data/Sort in Excel the new data ...


A Comparison Of Regular Fed Vs. Long Fed Angus-Sired Heifers For Growth And Body Composition Traits, Flavio Ribeiro, Richard G. Tait Jr., Gene H. Rouse, Doyle E. Wilson, Abebe T. Hassen, Dennis R. Maxwell, Rodney K. Berryman Jan 2006

A Comparison Of Regular Fed Vs. Long Fed Angus-Sired Heifers For Growth And Body Composition Traits, Flavio Ribeiro, Richard G. Tait Jr., Gene H. Rouse, Doyle E. Wilson, Abebe T. Hassen, Dennis R. Maxwell, Rodney K. Berryman

Animal Industry Report

This study evaluated 96 Angus-sired heifers that were managed to a regular feedlot endpoint (approx. 0.45 in. fat cover) for harvest or a nonregular (longer) time on feed (approx. 0.70 in. fat cover). Heifers were scanned either 3 or 4 times from approximately 10 months of age through just prior to harvest. This study indicates that when heifers are fed for a longer period, they are able to bring more revenue from increases in quality and hot carcass weight. However, value/cwt was higher for the regular fed heifers when compared to long fed heifers. This is primarily ...


Management Of Optaflexx In Feedlots That Sort Cattle Prior To Market, W. Darrell Busby, Daniel D. Loy, Dallas L. Maxwell Jan 2006

Management Of Optaflexx In Feedlots That Sort Cattle Prior To Market, W. Darrell Busby, Daniel D. Loy, Dallas L. Maxwell

Animal Industry Report

One hundred and thirty five steers from were used in a study to compare strategies for managing Optaflexx in feedlots that sort cattle just prior to market. The pens were assigned to one of two Optaflexx management treatments. Two pens were each assigned to each treatment. The Optaflexx management treatments were: 1) Topped Out (TO), where half the cattle in each pen were sorted without being fed Optaflexx. The remaining cattle were fed Optaflexx for 28 days, or 2) Sorted Early (SE), where market timing decisions were made more than 28 days prior to the first marketing so that Optaflexx ...


Effects Of Dietary Macronutrients On Appetite-Related Hormones In Blood On Body Composition Of Lean And Obese Rats , Michelle Bohan, Lloyd L. Anderson, Allen H. Trenkle, Donald C. Beitz Jan 2006

Effects Of Dietary Macronutrients On Appetite-Related Hormones In Blood On Body Composition Of Lean And Obese Rats , Michelle Bohan, Lloyd L. Anderson, Allen H. Trenkle, Donald C. Beitz

Animal Industry Report

Investigating the role of appetite-related hormones on energy balance and body composition when varying diets are consumed could provide insight into the etiology of obesity. Fifty-three adult male Sprague Dawley and 30 adult male Zucker Fatty rats were assigned randomly to one of five diets: Control, 75% control, American Heart Association (AHA), Atkins, or high fat (HF). Diets were fed for five weeks. Weekly plasma samples were collected and analyzed for ghrelin, leptin, insulin, and adiponectin. Terminal plasma samples were analyzed for ghrelin, leptin, insulin, glucagon, oxyntomodulin, adiponectin, and blood metabolites. Our results indicate that macronutrient composition of the diet ...


Soy Lecithin But Not Egg Lecithin Decreased The Plasma Cholesterol Concentration In Golden Syrian Hamsters , Shu Zhang, Tong Wang, Donald C. Beitz Jan 2006

Soy Lecithin But Not Egg Lecithin Decreased The Plasma Cholesterol Concentration In Golden Syrian Hamsters , Shu Zhang, Tong Wang, Donald C. Beitz

Animal Industry Report

Egg lecithin differs from soy lecithin in its phospholipid profile and fatty acid composition. The current study was designed to test whether egg lecithin or soy lecithin decreased the plasma cholesterol concentration in hamsters that are used as a model for humans. Male golden Syrian hamsters were assigned randomly to eight dietary treatments lasting 4 weeks (n=10 per treatment) that contained 0.12% (wt/wt) of cholesterol and varied amount of supplemental lipids. The diet groups were: control with no supplemental lipid, 0.05%, 0.5%, and 5% (wt/wt) of egg lecithin or soy lecithin, respectively, and 5 ...


Acute Effects Of Subcutaneous Injection Of Glucagon And/Or Oral Administration Of Glycerol On Blood Metabolites And Hormones Of Holstein Dairy Cows Affected With Fatty Liver Disease , Mohamed Osman, Nimer Mehyar, Gerd Bobe, Johann F. Coetzee, Donald C. Beitz Jan 2006

Acute Effects Of Subcutaneous Injection Of Glucagon And/Or Oral Administration Of Glycerol On Blood Metabolites And Hormones Of Holstein Dairy Cows Affected With Fatty Liver Disease , Mohamed Osman, Nimer Mehyar, Gerd Bobe, Johann F. Coetzee, Donald C. Beitz

Animal Industry Report

To study the effects of the subcutaneous injection of glucagon and/or oral administration of glycerol on blood metabolites and hormones of Holstein dairy cows induced with fatty liver disease, twenty multiparous cows were fed a dry cow ration supplemented with 12 kg of cracked corn during the dry period to increase the likelihood of fatty liver disease development. Cows with a body condition score (BCS) of ≥ 3.5 points (0-5 scale) were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups--saline, glucagon, glucagon plus glycerol, and glycerol. Following treatment, serial blood samples were collected to determine the effect of glucagon ...


Northeast Iowa Community Based Dairy Foundation Pre-Weaned Calf Center: Design And First Year Results, Daniel Meyer Jan 2006

Northeast Iowa Community Based Dairy Foundation Pre-Weaned Calf Center: Design And First Year Results, Daniel Meyer

Animal Industry Report

No abstract provided.


New Storage Design For Sand-Laden Dairy Manure, Daniel Meyer Jan 2006

New Storage Design For Sand-Laden Dairy Manure, Daniel Meyer

Animal Industry Report

No abstract provided.


Towards The Identification Of Indicators For Metabolic Stress In Dairy Cattle , Megan Westall, Tara Mcdaneld, Diane Moody Spurlock Jan 2006

Towards The Identification Of Indicators For Metabolic Stress In Dairy Cattle , Megan Westall, Tara Mcdaneld, Diane Moody Spurlock

Animal Industry Report

Cows representing the average (AFP) and high (HFP) fat plus protein selection lines maintained at the ISU dairy were selected to participate in a study to identify indicators of energy mobilization. Differences between HFP and AFP cows in the expression of genes in adipose tissue, and the production of metabolic hormones are being defined. These differences will reveal physiological mechanisms important to the mobilization and utilization of energy reserves. This work will lead to the identification of indicators of metabolic stress, and aid in the selection of dairy cattle better able to sustain optimal levels of milk production.


Northeast Iowa Dairy Foundation Grazing Center, Dale Thoreson, Larry Tranel Jan 2006

Northeast Iowa Dairy Foundation Grazing Center, Dale Thoreson, Larry Tranel

Animal Industry Report

No abstract provided.


Iowa New Farms Project, Dale Thoreson, Robert Tigner, Kendra Crooks, Sue Mcdonald, Deb Van Arkel, Neil Wubben, Pat Derdzinski Jan 2006

Iowa New Farms Project, Dale Thoreson, Robert Tigner, Kendra Crooks, Sue Mcdonald, Deb Van Arkel, Neil Wubben, Pat Derdzinski

Animal Industry Report

Growing the dairy industry in Iowa has taken many facets. The Iowa New Farms Project started 4 years ago with 3 pilot communities, Butler County, Stacyville, and Brooklyn. The first dairy relocated to Butler County and started operation on November 15, 2005. The 350 cow dairy is owned by a former Dutch dairy farmer who immigrated to the United States on an EB-5 visa. Additional dairy farm families are in the process of developing their business plans for a similar move in 2006.


Iowa’S 2.8% Coalition (Dairy), Chris Mondak Jan 2006

Iowa’S 2.8% Coalition (Dairy), Chris Mondak

Animal Industry Report

If you’ve been keeping an ear to the ground about things going on in the Iowa dairy industry, you’ve probably heard the phrase “2.8% Coalition” a time or two. Just what is this coalition? Why was it formed? Who is involved? What is its purpose?


Western Iowa Dairy Alliance (Wida), Chris Mondak Jan 2006

Western Iowa Dairy Alliance (Wida), Chris Mondak

Animal Industry Report

“Hats Off!” to the group of western Iowa dairy producers, agri-business representatives, community planners, and extension workers who took on the task this summer of attending extra meetings to form a viable Western Iowa Dairy Alliance. Not only did they succeed in forming a Vision and Mission Statement to express the overall interests of the western Iowa dairy community, but they also completed a Strategic Planning process that identified and prioritized important issues for Iowa and the Iowa dairy industry. Here are the important products of their efforts.


Evaluation Of A Novel Winter Teat Dip Compared To Commercially Available Winter Dips To Enhance Teat Integrity During Winter, Jessica Schnitzler, Dawn Stendel, Leo L. Timms Jan 2006

Evaluation Of A Novel Winter Teat Dip Compared To Commercially Available Winter Dips To Enhance Teat Integrity During Winter, Jessica Schnitzler, Dawn Stendel, Leo L. Timms

Animal Industry Report

Winter conditions can lead to rapid dehydration and cracking of teat tissue, thus increasing mastitis risks. The objectives of these three winter trials were to compare application of a new novel commercial winter teat dip (1% iodine, 50% glycerine) to three existing commercially available winter teat dips and best management winter milking practices. Overall results for the 3 trials showed similar teat skin and end conditions (except teat skin in trial 5) for the 1% iodine, 50% glycerine dip as compared to 3 commercial winter teat dips. There were significant improvements in teat skin and end conditions over time for ...


Increasing Dairy Base With Millionaire Model Dairy Farms , Larry Tranel Jan 2006

Increasing Dairy Base With Millionaire Model Dairy Farms , Larry Tranel

Animal Industry Report

Those in the dairy industry need to recognize and promote dairy’s importance to the rest of the economy as each cow generates approximately $13,000 in economic activity in the form of jobs, goods and services created by a cow, along with paying taxes on the profits generated. Few recognize the ability of young producers especially to profit strongly with dairy as a career. For example, families in NE Iowa in 2000 and 2002 garnered approximately $100,000 net return to labor after an equity charge milking 100-140 cows with low/mediocre milk prices. In 2004, with much higher ...


Dairy Free Stall Preference Field Study, Dale Thoreson, Leo L. Timms, Don Lay Jan 2006

Dairy Free Stall Preference Field Study, Dale Thoreson, Leo L. Timms, Don Lay

Animal Industry Report

The current field study was conducted to evaluate six different free stall surface options and their impact on stall usage and comfort, bedding usage, animal cleanliness and health, and economics. Results showed significantly different stall usages with different stall surfaces and a significant stall surface by week or season interaction. Sand stalls showed significantly higher usage in summer, followed by sand stall with sand traps, Pasture and Agromatic mattresses, and Dynamat rubber mats, respectively. Sand with Sand Traps and both Pasture Mats showed significantly higher stall usage during the fall and winter weeks (no differences between them) and Dynamat rubber ...


Effect Of Prepartum Intramammary Treatment With Pirlimycin Hydrochloride On Prevalence Of Early First-Lactation Mastitis, Jessica Schnitzler, Leo L. Timms Jan 2006

Effect Of Prepartum Intramammary Treatment With Pirlimycin Hydrochloride On Prevalence Of Early First-Lactation Mastitis, Jessica Schnitzler, Leo L. Timms

Animal Industry Report

Holstein-Friesian heifers (n = 178) from a central Iowa dairy farm were enrolled in a study to determine whether prepartum intramammary treatment of dairy heifers with pirlimycin hydrochloride would reduce the prevalence of intramammary infection (IMI) and lower the somatic cell count (SCC) during early lactation or improve 305-day mature equivalent milk production. Heifers were assigned to treatment and control groups, and treated heifers received a single 50-mg dose of pirlimycin in each mammary quarter approximately 10 days prior to parturition.

Treated heifers had a higher overall cure rate and cure rate for IMI caused by coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS), but ...


Use Of The California Mastitis Test And An On-Farm Culture System For Strategic Identification And Treatment Of Fresh Cow Subclinical Intramammary Infections And Treatment Of Clinical Mastitis, April Boll, Leo L. Timms Jan 2006

Use Of The California Mastitis Test And An On-Farm Culture System For Strategic Identification And Treatment Of Fresh Cow Subclinical Intramammary Infections And Treatment Of Clinical Mastitis, April Boll, Leo L. Timms

Animal Industry Report

The purpose of this research was to evaluate the use of an on-farm culture system in conjunction with the California Mastitis Test for the strategic treatment of subclinical mastitis in fresh cows and clinical mastitis. CMT showed high NPV indicating it was very effective in determining uninfected quarters. However, PPV were low resulting in many CMT+ quarters being uninfected; thus many uninfected quarters being treated also. Cure rates in both the fresh and clinical animals did not change when treatment was delayed for twenty-four hours while waiting for culture results This would indicate that waiting for culture results before instituting ...


High-Growth Rate Fails To Enhance Adaptive Immune Responses In Neonatal Calves And Decreases Immune Cell Viability, Monica R. Foote, Brian J. Nonnecke, W. Raymond Waters, Donald C. Beitz Jan 2006

High-Growth Rate Fails To Enhance Adaptive Immune Responses In Neonatal Calves And Decreases Immune Cell Viability, Monica R. Foote, Brian J. Nonnecke, W. Raymond Waters, Donald C. Beitz

Animal Industry Report

The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of different feeding rates achieving three targeted growth rates (No Growth, Low Growth, and High Growth) on adaptive immune responses of neonatal calves vaccinated with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) and ovalbumin (OVA) 3 wks after initiation of dietary treatments. The daily growth rates for No-, Low-, and High-growth calves were different throughout the experimental period and averaged 0.11 ± 0.02 kg, 0.58 ± .02, and 1.16 ± 0.04 kg, respectively. Adaptive immune responses generally were not affected by growth rate. Ovalbumin-specific IgG1 and IgG2 concentrations after ...


Case Study Of Prevention And Therapy Strategies For A High Somatic Cell Count Herd , Lorilee Schultz, Leo L. Timms Jan 2006

Case Study Of Prevention And Therapy Strategies For A High Somatic Cell Count Herd , Lorilee Schultz, Leo L. Timms

Animal Industry Report

Objectives of this field investigation were to examine the etiology and mastitis infection dynamics in a 60 cow herd in danger of market loss, prioritize and implement prevention strategies, and evaluate the efficacy of recommended and extended therapy (S. aureus only) with pirlimycin hydrochloride (Pirsue, Pfizer Animal Health) for gram positive intramammary infections (IMI) . Initial percentages (October) of cows (quarters) uninfected or infected with Staph. aureus, Strep. dysgalactiae, alpha hemolytic strep., and Strep. uberis, were 42(65); 33(15%); 20(9); 3(1); and 2(0.4), respectively. Overall streptococci cure rates were 91% and 89% of cows and quarters ...


Addressing An Acute Milk Quality Problem Through A Strategic Targeted Management Team Approach , Chris Mondak, Leo L. Timms Jan 2006

Addressing An Acute Milk Quality Problem Through A Strategic Targeted Management Team Approach , Chris Mondak, Leo L. Timms

Animal Industry Report

Objectives of this field investigation were to assemble a management team to develop, implement, and monitor targeted strategies (both prevention and therapeutic) to address an acute milk quality issue resulting from cows mistakenly being teat dipped for 3 milkings with a formaldehyde foot bath solution (SCC /SPC counts > 2 million ; majority of teat ends with tissue damage). The team assembled included farm owner/manager and personnel, veterinarian, milk plant field personnel, nutritionist, and ISU extension (both field and campus). Initial strategies focused on enhancing tissue healing and trying to minimize new intramammary infections (IMI). After 2 months (successful prevention and ...


Iowa Dairy Farm Survey—2005 (Preliminary Results) , Robert Tigner Jan 2006

Iowa Dairy Farm Survey—2005 (Preliminary Results) , Robert Tigner

Animal Industry Report

Dairy farm operators view beginning dairy farms as an issue that programs and policies must address (all colleges, legal/financial communities, and legislature). Dairy operators are willing to assist beginning dairy farmers. A variety of beginning dairy farmer strategies were deemed necessary by current Iowa dairy operators.

Milk price volatility has been extreme in the last 4 years but policy choices that would require governmental action are not approved by anywhere near a majority of Iowa dairy operators. State Johnes’ control programs did gather a majority approval. Although stray voltage has been an issue much discussed in popular agricultural media ...


Iowa State University Dairy Farm—2005 Review, Leo L. Timms Jan 2006

Iowa State University Dairy Farm—2005 Review, Leo L. Timms

Animal Industry Report

The Iowa State University Dairy Farm continues to be a vital and vibrant asset to all 3 missions of our land grant heritage (learning, discovery, and engagement) as well as the Iowa Dairy Industry and the national and international dairy communities. Learning opportunities have abounded for ISU students in Animal and Dairy Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, as well as local community colleges. Engagement and outreach has touched young (Animal Science Roundup) to adult (BRM training), and local (school tours) to international (visitors from around the world). Research related to improvement of the dairy industry is still a major mission ...