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Living In A Land Of Fire, R. J. Whelan, P. Kanowski, M. Gill, A. Andersen Dec 2006

Living In A Land Of Fire, R. J. Whelan, P. Kanowski, M. Gill, A. Andersen

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Fires are an inherent part of the Australian environment. They cannot be prevented, but the risks they pose — to life, health, property and infrastructure, production systems, and to environment values — can be minimised through systematic evaluation and strategic planning and management. Fires have a fundamental and irreplaceable role in sustaining many of Australia’s natural ecosystems and ecological processes, and they are a valuable tool for achieving many land management objectives. However, if they are too frequent or too infrequent, too severe or too mild, or mistimed, they can erode ecosystem ‘health’ and biodiversity and compromise other land management goals ...


Uv-B Screening Potential Is Higher In Two Cosmopolitan Moss Species Than In A Co-Occurring Antarctic Endemic Moss – Implications Of Continuing Ozone Depletion, J. L. Dunn, Sharon A. Robinson Dec 2006

Uv-B Screening Potential Is Higher In Two Cosmopolitan Moss Species Than In A Co-Occurring Antarctic Endemic Moss – Implications Of Continuing Ozone Depletion, J. L. Dunn, Sharon A. Robinson

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Concentrations of UV-B absorbing pigments and anthocyanins were measured in three moss species, over a summer growing season in Antarctica. Pigment concentrations were compared with a range of climatic variables to determine if there was evidence that pigments were induced by UV-B radiation, or other environmental parameters, and secondly if there were differences between species in their pigment responses. Significant seasonal differences in the potential UV-B screening pigments were found, with the two cosmopolitan species Bryum pseudotriquetrum and Ceratodon purpureus appearing better protected from the potentially damaging effects of ozone depletion than the Antarctic endemic Schistidium antarctici. Bryum pseudotriquetrum accumulated ...


Review Of Structure And Basement Control Of The Lapstone Structural Complex, Sydney Basin, Eastern New South Wales, C. L. Fergusson Nov 2006

Review Of Structure And Basement Control Of The Lapstone Structural Complex, Sydney Basin, Eastern New South Wales, C. L. Fergusson

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

In the western Sydney Basin, the Lapstone Structural Complex is a major north-trending association of monoclines and faults that forms the frontal ridge of the Blue Mountains Plateau. At Kurrajong Heights, the Lapstone Structural Complex is dominated by an east-facing monocline with a gently dipping central limb containing several different homoclinal segments. At the Hawkesbury Lookout section, strata are steeply dipping to near vertical along the main east-facing monocline. The Lapstone Structural Complex has been related to either steep east-dipping extensional faulting or to moderate to steep west-dipping contraction faults. Strike-slip displacement may also have played a role in its ...


Can Health Claims For Foods Help Consumers Choose Better Diets?, P. G. Williams Oct 2006

Can Health Claims For Foods Help Consumers Choose Better Diets?, P. G. Williams

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Consumers are becoming health-conscious and most agree that eating healthily is a better way to manage illness than using medication. This has led to the increased acceptance and consumption of functional foods with health-promoting capabilities, demonstrated by impressive growth in sales world wide. Functional foods certainly have the potential to assist in disease management or reduction of risk and their use is being increasingly recommended in both medical and dietetic practice. There is an observed ‘push’ from food companies seeking out new markets and profit opportunities, with a concurrent market ‘pull’ from an educated, health-conscious consumer with a higher disposable ...


Synthesis Of Some Cyclic Indolic Peptoids As Potential Antibacterials, Vicki S. Au, John B. Bremner, Jonathan Coates, Paul A. Keller, Stephen G. Pyne Oct 2006

Synthesis Of Some Cyclic Indolic Peptoids As Potential Antibacterials, Vicki S. Au, John B. Bremner, Jonathan Coates, Paul A. Keller, Stephen G. Pyne

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

The synthesis of cyclic peptoids containing an indole hydrophobic scaffold has been realised through the ring-closing metathesis of diallylated precursors. The precursors and their cyclic counterparts possessed poor antibacterial activity in contrast to previously reported cyclic peptoids containing hydrophobic scaffolds.


Consumption Of Resistant Starch Decreases Postprandial Lipogenesis In White Adipose Tissue Of The Rat, J. A. Higgins, M. Brown, Leonard H. Storlien Sep 2006

Consumption Of Resistant Starch Decreases Postprandial Lipogenesis In White Adipose Tissue Of The Rat, J. A. Higgins, M. Brown, Leonard H. Storlien

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Chronic consumption of diets high in resistant starch (RS) leads to reduced fat cell size compared to diets high in digestible starch (DS) in rats and increases total and meal fat oxidation in humans. The aim of the present study was to examine the rate of lipogenesis in key lipogenic organs following a high RS or DS meal. Following an overnight fast, male Wistar rats ingested a meal with an RS content of 2% or 30% of total carbohydrate and were then administered an i.p bolus of 50 μCi 3H2O either immediately or 1 hour post-meal. One hour following ...


The Maintenance Of High Affinity Plasminogen Binding By Group A Streptococcal Plasminogen-Binding M-Like Protein Is Mediated By Arginine And Histidine Residues Within The A1 And A2 Repeat Domains., Martina L. Sanderson-Smith, Mark J. Walker, Marie Ranson Sep 2006

The Maintenance Of High Affinity Plasminogen Binding By Group A Streptococcal Plasminogen-Binding M-Like Protein Is Mediated By Arginine And Histidine Residues Within The A1 And A2 Repeat Domains., Martina L. Sanderson-Smith, Mark J. Walker, Marie Ranson

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Subversion of the plasminogen activation system is implicated in the virulence of group A streptococci (GAS). GAS displays receptors for the human zymogen plasminogen on the cell surface, one of which is the plasminogen-binding group A streptococcal M-like protein (PAM). The plasminogen binding domain of PAM is highly variable, and this variation has been linked to host selective immune pressure. Site-directed mutagenesis of full-length PAM protein from an invasive GAS isolate was undertaken to assess the contribution of residues in the a1 and a2 repeat domains to plasminogen binding function. Mutagenesis to alanine of key plasminogen binding lysine residues in ...


Survey Of Health Claims For Australian Foods Made On Internet Sites, H. Dragicevich, P. G. Williams, L. Ridges Sep 2006

Survey Of Health Claims For Australian Foods Made On Internet Sites, H. Dragicevich, P. G. Williams, L. Ridges

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Aim: Australia and New Zealand are currently preparing a new food standard code, which will allow the use of health claims on food products and in associated advertising. The aim of this study was to obtain preliminary information about the current use of health claims on the Internet and the level of compliance of these claims with existing regulations. Methods: From August to October 2005 a survey was conducted of 1068 websites associated with the top 20 food processing companies in Australia, and an additional 683 websites for food products found to carry health claims in previous studies of product ...


Biomarker Validation Of A Long-Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Food Frequency Questionnaire, B. L. Sullivan, P. G. Williams, Barbara J. Meyer Sep 2006

Biomarker Validation Of A Long-Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Food Frequency Questionnaire, B. L. Sullivan, P. G. Williams, Barbara J. Meyer

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) are beneficial for health. To date there is no specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess LC n-3 PUFA intakes. The objective of this study is to validate our newly developed FFQ by comparison with LC n-3 PUFA content of both red blood cells (RBC) and plasma, expressed as a percentage of total fatty acids. Fifty-three healthy male and female subjects were recruited from Wollongong, Australia. Average LC n-3 PUFA intakes (mg/day) were estimated using the new FFQ. RBC and plasma fatty acids were assessed using gas chromatography. Spearman correlation ...


Fundamental And Biotechnological Applications Of Neutron Scattering Measurements For Macromolecular Dynamics, M. Tehei, R. Daniel, G. Zaccai Sep 2006

Fundamental And Biotechnological Applications Of Neutron Scattering Measurements For Macromolecular Dynamics, M. Tehei, R. Daniel, G. Zaccai

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

To explore macromolecular dynamics on the picosecond timescale, we used neutron spectroscopy. First, molecular dynamics were analyzed for the hyperthermophile malate dehydrogenase from Methanococcus jannaschii and a mesophilic homologue, the lactate dehydrogenase from Oryctolagus cunniculus muscle. Hyperthermophiles have elaborate molecular mechanisms of adaptation to extremely high temperature. Using a novel elastic neutron scattering approach that provides independent measurements of the global flexibility and of the structural resilience (rigidity), we have demonstrated that macromolecular dynamics represents one of these molecular mechanisms of thermoadaptation. The flexibilities were found to be similar for both enzymes at their optimal activity temperature and the resilience ...


International Assessments Of The Vulnerability Of The Coastal Zone To Climate Change, Including An Australian Perspective, P. A. Abuodha, C. D. Woodroffe Sep 2006

International Assessments Of The Vulnerability Of The Coastal Zone To Climate Change, Including An Australian Perspective, P. A. Abuodha, C. D. Woodroffe

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Australia, and considers global, and in some cases national, assessments of vulnerability to climate change to evaluate the implications for the Australian coast, or to assess the applicability of particular approaches and methods to Australia. Climate change vulnerability assessment aims at assisting policymakers in adequately responding to the challenge of climate change by investigating how projected changes in the Earth's climate may affect natural systems and human activities. Generally studies consider, exposure or susceptibility of natural coastal systems, the effect on socio-economic systems (“impact assessment”), and/or how human actions may reduce adverse effects of climate change on those ...


Health Benefits Of Herbs And Spices: The Past, The Present, The Future - Public Health, P. G. Williams Aug 2006

Health Benefits Of Herbs And Spices: The Past, The Present, The Future - Public Health, P. G. Williams

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Recommendations for intakes fo food in the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating do not yet include suggested intakes of herbs and spices, although several dietary guidelines refer to their benefits. Future consideration should be given to including more explicit recommendations about the place of herbs and spices in a healthy diet


Trigger For Group A Streptococcal M1t1 Invasive Disease, J. N. Cole, Jason D. Mcarthur, F. C. Mckay, Martina L. Sanderson-Smith, Amanda J. Cork, Marie Ranson, M. Rohde, A. Itzek, H. Sun, D. Ginsburg, M. Kotb, V. Nizet, G. S. Chhatwal, Mark J. Walker Aug 2006

Trigger For Group A Streptococcal M1t1 Invasive Disease, J. N. Cole, Jason D. Mcarthur, F. C. Mckay, Martina L. Sanderson-Smith, Amanda J. Cork, Marie Ranson, M. Rohde, A. Itzek, H. Sun, D. Ginsburg, M. Kotb, V. Nizet, G. S. Chhatwal, Mark J. Walker

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

The globally disseminated Streptococcus pyogenes M1T1 clone causes a number of highly invasive human diseases. The transition from local to systemic infection occurs by an unknown mechanism; however invasive M1T1 clinical isolates are known to express significantly less cysteine protease SpeB than M1T1 isolates from local infections. Here, we show that in comparison to the M1T1 strain 5448, the isogenic mutant ∆speB accumulated 75-fold more human plasmin activity on the bacterial surface following incubation in human plasma. Human plasminogen was an absolute requirement for M1T1 strain 5448 virulence following subcutaneous infection of humanized plasminogen transgenic mice. S. pyogenes M1T1 isolates ...


Suburban Life And The Boundaries Of Nature: Resilience And Rupture In Australian Backyard Gardens, Lesley M. Head, Pat Muir Jul 2006

Suburban Life And The Boundaries Of Nature: Resilience And Rupture In Australian Backyard Gardens, Lesley M. Head, Pat Muir

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Despite an academic shift from dualistic to hybrid frameworks of culture/nature relations, separationist paradigms of environmental management have great resilience and vernacular appeal. The conditions under which they are reinforced, maintained or ruptured need more detailed attention because of the urgent environmental challenges of a humanly transformed earth. We draw on research in 265 Australian backyard gardens, focusing on two themes where conceptual and material bounding practices intertwine; spatial boundary-making and native plants. We trace the resilience of separationist approaches in the Australian context to the overlay of indigeneity/ non-indigeneity atop other dualisms, and their rupture to situations of ...


Quality Control Of Protein Folding In Extracellular Space, J. J. Yerbury, E. M. Stewart, A. R. Wyatt, M. R. Wilson Jul 2006

Quality Control Of Protein Folding In Extracellular Space, J. J. Yerbury, E. M. Stewart, A. R. Wyatt, M. R. Wilson

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

The pathologies of many serious human diseases are thought to develop from the effects of intra- or extracellular aggregates of non-native proteins. Inside cells, chaperone and protease systems regulate protein folding; however, little is known about any corresponding mechanisms that operate extracellularly. The identification of these mechanisms is important for the development of new disease therapies. This review briefly discusses the consequences of protein misfolding, the intracellular mechanisms that control folding and the potential corresponding extracellular control processes. Finally, a new speculative model is described, which proposes that newly discovered extracellular chaperones bind to exposed regions of hydrophobicity on non-native ...


The Synthesis And Testing Of Arenearylpyrimidylmethanes (Aapm) As Anti-Malarial Agents, N. R. Yepuri, R. Haritakul, R. Griffith, S. P. Leach, Paul A. Keller Jul 2006

The Synthesis And Testing Of Arenearylpyrimidylmethanes (Aapm) As Anti-Malarial Agents, N. R. Yepuri, R. Haritakul, R. Griffith, S. P. Leach, Paul A. Keller

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

The anti-malarial activity of the arenearylpyrimidylmethane (AAPM) class of compounds emerged from database searching of a pharmacophore. A new 2 step synthesis of the AAPM scaffold is reported and subsequent substitution yielded a short synthesis of the lead anti-malarial compound. The presence of atropisomerism in this class of compounds is also reported for the first time.


The Role Of The Hpa Axis In Psychiatric Disorders And Crf Antagonists As Potential Treatments, Paul A. Keller, A. Mccluskey, J. Morgan, S. M. O'Connor Jul 2006

The Role Of The Hpa Axis In Psychiatric Disorders And Crf Antagonists As Potential Treatments, Paul A. Keller, A. Mccluskey, J. Morgan, S. M. O'Connor

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

An overview of the links between the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis and psychiatric disorders is presented. The current treatments are outlined, indicating that they are insufficient to meet the needs of those that suffer from these affective disorders. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the generation of new therapeutics, in particular, against new targets. The association of the corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) and the HPA axis indicates that CRF antagonists should be beneficial as potential therapeutics.


Reactions Of Iminoglycines With C60 Fullerene And Their Unambiguous Characterisation Using Nmr Spectroscopy, Paul A. Keller, Stephen G. Pyne, Bill C. Hawkins Jul 2006

Reactions Of Iminoglycines With C60 Fullerene And Their Unambiguous Characterisation Using Nmr Spectroscopy, Paul A. Keller, Stephen G. Pyne, Bill C. Hawkins

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

This review examines the addition of iminoglycine derivatives to C60, yielding protected fullerenyl pyrroline derivatives. Subsequent reduction with sodium cyanoborohydride produces ring-opening adducts which are protected fullerenyl α-amino acids. Pyrroline bisadducts can be produced using tethers to link two iminoglycine units together, and variations include combining with malonate reactive groups this giving rise to interesting observations as to the regioselectivity of such reactions. All derivatives are fully characterised by NMR spectroscopy, and in the case of bis-adducts, the regioselectivity is determined from 1H/13C and 13C/13C connectivity patterns using HMBC and INADEQUATE experiments, respectively, thus eliminating the need for ...


Climate Change Manipulations Show Antarctic Flora Is More Strongly Affected By Elevated Nutrients Than Water, J. Wasley, Sharon A. Robinson, C. E. Lovelock, M. Popp Jul 2006

Climate Change Manipulations Show Antarctic Flora Is More Strongly Affected By Elevated Nutrients Than Water, J. Wasley, Sharon A. Robinson, C. E. Lovelock, M. Popp

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Climate change is expected to affect the high latitudes first and most severely, rendering Antarctica one of the most significant baseline environments for the study of global climate change. The indirect effects of climate warming, including changes to the availability of key environmental resources, such as water and nutrients, are likely to have a greater impact upon continental Antarctic terrestrial ecosystems than the effects of fluctuations in temperature alone. To investigate the likely impacts of a wetter climate on Antarctic terrestrial communities a multi-season, manipulative field experiment was conducted in the floristically important Windmill Islands region of East Antarctica. Four ...


Consumer Reactions To Different Health Claim Formats On Food Labels, L. Singer, P. G. Williams, Leisa Ridges, S. Murray, Anne Mcmahon Jun 2006

Consumer Reactions To Different Health Claim Formats On Food Labels, L. Singer, P. G. Williams, Leisa Ridges, S. Murray, Anne Mcmahon

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Health claims on foods act as health messages and have a role in communicating and educating the consumer about diet-disease related issues. Previous studies have suggested that different formats of health claims communicate differently with the consumer. The aim of our study was to investigate whether splitting of the claim (a brief claim at the front package directing consumers to the back of the package where the full health claim is located) and/or endorsement of the claim (by Food Standards Australia New Zealand), have an impact on the acceptance of the claim by the consumer. Participants were recruited by ...


Composition Of Australian Red Meat 2002. 2. Fatty Acid Profile, V. Droulez, P. G. Williams, G. Levy, T. Stobaus, A. Sinclair Jun 2006

Composition Of Australian Red Meat 2002. 2. Fatty Acid Profile, V. Droulez, P. G. Williams, G. Levy, T. Stobaus, A. Sinclair

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Australian retail samples of nine beef, six lamb, four veal and two mutton cuts were purchased from 10 retail outlets (butchers and supermarkets) in different socio-economic areas of Sydney and Melbourne. The lean and fat components were analysed for contents of total and individual fatty acids. The content of total fatty acids was less than 5g/100g edible meat in the lean component of all cuts analysed. Saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids comprised, on average, 40% and 42% respectively of total fatty acids in the lean component of red meat cuts. The saturated fatty acid content of the lean component ...


Composition Of Australian Red Meat 2002. 1. Gross Composition, P. G. Williams, V. Droulez, G. Levy, T. Stobaus Jun 2006

Composition Of Australian Red Meat 2002. 1. Gross Composition, P. G. Williams, V. Droulez, G. Levy, T. Stobaus

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

This study aimed to update data on the gross composition Australian red meat to reflect changes in butchering practices since the 1980s and 1990s when the current values were derived. Australian retail samples of fifteen beef, eleven lamb, four veal and two mutton cuts were purchased from 10 retail outlets (butchers and supermarkets) in different socio-economic areas of Sydney and Melbourne. For both raw and cooked samples, mean external fat width (mm) was measured and the average percentage of separable internal, external and total fat, lean and waste was determined by dissection of each cut. For raw beef, total separable ...


The Ecology Of Fire – Developments Since 1995 And Outstanding Questions, R. J. Whelan Jun 2006

The Ecology Of Fire – Developments Since 1995 And Outstanding Questions, R. J. Whelan

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Extract - Bushfire is on the agenda more than ever… internationally. The attention of the public and politicians has been captured by extensive media coverage on big fires in the last 5 years: Portugal, France, California, Colorado, South Africa, Indonesia, the Amazon – and 2001-02 and 2002-03 in SE Australia. The various enquiries that have followed these fire events, at least in Australia (e.g. the NSW Joint Select Committee on Bushfires 2002, the Victorian Government’s Inquiry into the 2002-2003 Victorian Bushfires – Esplin et al. 2003, the House of Representatives Select Committee Inquiry into the Recent Australian Bushfires – Nairn 2003, and ...


Predicting Impacts Of Fuel Reduction For Asset Protection On Threatened Species, R. J. Whelan, L. Collins, R. Loemker Jun 2006

Predicting Impacts Of Fuel Reduction For Asset Protection On Threatened Species, R. J. Whelan, L. Collins, R. Loemker

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Fuel reduction in bushland adjacent to urban development is an important component of bushfire management to protect lives and properties. In many urban areas, the objective of property protection by fuel reduction conflicts with biodiversity management objectives. Conserving threatened species in such situations will require information on spatial distributions of these species in the landscape. We used GIS modelling to predict the likely impacts of strategic fire advantage zones (SFAZs) on two threatened species in the Shoalhaven region of NSW: the eastern bristlebird and the glossy black cockatoo. We used current knowledge of the association between these animals and vegetation ...


P159 Is A Proteolytically Processed, Surface Adhesin Of Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae: Defined Domains Of P159 Bind Heparin And Promote Adherence To Eukaryote Cells., T. A. Burnett, K. Dinkla, M. Rohde, G. S. Chhatwal, C. Uphoff, M. Srivasta, S. J. Cordwell, S. Geary, X. Liao, F. C. Minion, Mark J. Walker, S. P. Djordjevic May 2006

P159 Is A Proteolytically Processed, Surface Adhesin Of Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae: Defined Domains Of P159 Bind Heparin And Promote Adherence To Eukaryote Cells., T. A. Burnett, K. Dinkla, M. Rohde, G. S. Chhatwal, C. Uphoff, M. Srivasta, S. J. Cordwell, S. Geary, X. Liao, F. C. Minion, Mark J. Walker, S. P. Djordjevic

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia, colonises the respiratory cilia of affected swine causing significant economic losses to swine production worldwide. Heparin is known to inhibit adherence of M. hyopneumoniae to porcine epithelial cilia. M. hyopneumoniae cells bind heparin but the identity of the heparin-binding proteins is limited. Proteomic analysis of M. hyopneumoniae lysates identified 27 kDa (P27), 110 kDa (P110) and 52 kDa (P52) proteins representing different regions of a 159 kDa (P159) protein derived from mhp494. These cleavage fragments were surface located and present at all growth stages. Following purification of 4 recombinant proteins spanning ...


The Fragmentation Pathways Of Protonated Amiton In The Gas Phase: Towards The Structural Characterisation Of Organophosphorus Chemical Warfare Agents By Electrospray Ionisation Tandem Mass Spectrometry, S. Ellis-Steinborner, A. Ramachandran, Stephen J. Blanksby Apr 2006

The Fragmentation Pathways Of Protonated Amiton In The Gas Phase: Towards The Structural Characterisation Of Organophosphorus Chemical Warfare Agents By Electrospray Ionisation Tandem Mass Spectrometry, S. Ellis-Steinborner, A. Ramachandran, Stephen J. Blanksby

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Amiton (O,O-diethyl-S-[2-(diethylamino)ethyl] phosphorothiolate), otherwise known as VG, is listed in Schedule 2 of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and has a structure closely related to VX (O-ethyl-S-(2-diisopropylamino)ethyl methylphosphonothiolate). Fragmentation of protonated VG in the gas phase was performed using an electrospray ionisation ion trap mass spectrometer (ESI-ITMS) and revealed several characteristic product ions. Quantum chemical calculations provide the most probable structures for these ions as well as the likely unimolecular mechanisms by which they are formed. The decomposition pathways predicted by computation are consistent with deuterium labeling studies. The combination of experimental and theoretical ...


Phylloxera Infested Grapevines Have Reduced Chlorophyll And Increased Photoprotective Pigment Content – Can Leaf Pigment Composition Aid Pest Detection?, A. L. Blanchfield, Sharon A. Robinson, L. J. Renzullo, K. S. Powell Apr 2006

Phylloxera Infested Grapevines Have Reduced Chlorophyll And Increased Photoprotective Pigment Content – Can Leaf Pigment Composition Aid Pest Detection?, A. L. Blanchfield, Sharon A. Robinson, L. J. Renzullo, K. S. Powell

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Grape phylloxera is a root-feeding pest of grapevines. In Australia, phylloxera infested vineyards are subjected to quarantine restrictions and early detection remains vital for the timely implementation of post-outbreak quarantine protocols. Current detection methods rely on time-consuming ground surveying which involves detailed examination of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) root systems. Leaf pigment composition is often a sensitive indicator of plant stress. The increasing popularity of remote sensing systems, which exploit those changes in pigments observed with plant stress, offers a real possibility for the development of a phylloxera specific remote detection system. Our objective was to investigate changes in grapevine ...


Some Like It Wet – Biological Characteristics Underpinning Tolerance Of Extreme Water Stress Events In Antarctic Bryophytes., J. Wasley, Sharon A. Robinson, C. E. Lovelock, M. Popp Apr 2006

Some Like It Wet – Biological Characteristics Underpinning Tolerance Of Extreme Water Stress Events In Antarctic Bryophytes., J. Wasley, Sharon A. Robinson, C. E. Lovelock, M. Popp

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Antarctic bryophyte communities presently tolerate physiological extremes in water availability, surviving both desiccation and submergence events. This study investigated the relative ability of three Antarctic moss species to tolerate physiological extremes in water availability and identified physiological, morphological, and biochemical characteristics that assist species performance under such conditions. Tolerance of desiccation and submergence was investigated using chlorophyll fluorescence during a series of field- and laboratory-based water stress events. Turf water retention and degree of natural habitat submergence were determined from gametophyte shoot size and density and ?13C signatures respectively. Finally, compounds likely to assist membrane structure and function during desiccation ...


Nutrient Function, Health And Related Claims On Packaged Australian Food Products - Prevalence And Compliance With Regulations, P. G. Williams, H. Yeatman, Leisa Ridges, A. Houston, J. Rafferty, A. Roesler, M. Sobierajski, B. Spratt Mar 2006

Nutrient Function, Health And Related Claims On Packaged Australian Food Products - Prevalence And Compliance With Regulations, P. G. Williams, H. Yeatman, Leisa Ridges, A. Houston, J. Rafferty, A. Roesler, M. Sobierajski, B. Spratt

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Australia and New Zealand are currently reviewing the regulations governing nutrition function, health and related claims on foods. Health claims currently are not permitted on food labels, with one exception. The aim of this study was to describe the use of such claims on packaged food for sale in Australia (excluding nutrient content claims) prior to any changes to the regulations, and measure compliance with existing regulations. A survey was conducted of the labelling of 7850 products (including multiple pack sizes of individual foods) in 47 different food categories on sale in New South Wales in 2003. A total of ...


Dynamics Of Immobilized And Native Escherichia Coli Dihydrofolate Reductase By Quasielastic Neutron Scattering, M. Tehei, J. Smith, C. Monk, J. Ollivier, M. Oettl, V. Kurkal, J. L. Finney, R. M. Daniel Feb 2006

Dynamics Of Immobilized And Native Escherichia Coli Dihydrofolate Reductase By Quasielastic Neutron Scattering, M. Tehei, J. Smith, C. Monk, J. Ollivier, M. Oettl, V. Kurkal, J. L. Finney, R. M. Daniel

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

The internal dynamics of native and immobilized Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) have been examined using incoherent quasielastic neutron scattering. These results reveal no difference between the high frequency vibration mean-square displacement of the native and the immobilized E. coli DHFR. However, length-scale-dependent, picosecond dynamical changes are found. On longer length scales, the dynamics are comparable for both DHFR samples. On shorter length scales, the dynamics is dominated by local jump motions over potential barriers. The residence time for the protons to stay in a potential well is t=7.95 ps for the native DHFR and t=20.36 ...