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2006

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Front Matter, Vol. 66 No. 4 Dec 2006

Front Matter, Vol. 66 No. 4

Western North American Naturalist

No abstract provided.


End Matter, Vol. 66 No. 4 Dec 2006

End Matter, Vol. 66 No. 4

Western North American Naturalist

No abstract provided.


The Role Of Natural And Sexual Selection In The Origin And Maintenance Of Divergence Within And Between The Mexican Sailfin Mollies, Poecilia Velifera And P. Petenensis, Shala Hankison Dec 2006

The Role Of Natural And Sexual Selection In The Origin And Maintenance Of Divergence Within And Between The Mexican Sailfin Mollies, Poecilia Velifera And P. Petenensis, Shala Hankison

All Dissertations

Understanding speciation remains a holy grail of evolutionary biology. One useful approach is studying the evolutionary mechanisms important in population divergence to infer the mechanisms important in speciation. This method is especially useful when closely related species can be compared to determine whether intraspecific differences parallel interspecific differences. I studied population divergence in two species of Mexican sailfin mollies, Poecilia velifera and P. petenensis. These closely related species are particularly useful for this type of study, as they live in habitats that may differ in the importance of natural selection. In addition, these species may differ in the importance and ...


Genetic Resolution Of The Enigmatic Lesser Antillean Distribution Of The Frog Leptodactylus Validus (Anura, Leptodactylidae), Keneth Yanek, W. R. Heyer, Rafael O. De Sá Dec 2006

Genetic Resolution Of The Enigmatic Lesser Antillean Distribution Of The Frog Leptodactylus Validus (Anura, Leptodactylidae), Keneth Yanek, W. R. Heyer, Rafael O. De Sá

Biology Faculty Publications

Leptodactylus validus has an unusual distribution, inhabiting Trinidad, Tobago, and the Lesser Antilles, but not the mainland of South America. This distribution is inconsistent with other distribution patterns observed for these islands. Although slight variation in adult morphology has been observed among the different island populations of L. validus, call data suggest the presence of a single species. Calls of L. pallidirostris from Venezuela and Brazil suggested that this taxon might be conspecific with L. validus. Sequence data from the 12S and 16S mt rDNA genes indicate that L. validus represents a single species throughout its distribution and is conspecific ...


Karyotypes Of Eight Species Of Leptodactylus (Anura, Leptodactylidae) With A Description Of A New Karyotype For The Genus, Renata Cecília Amaro-Ghilardi, Gabriel Skuk, Rafael O. De Sá, Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues, Yatiyo Yonenaga-Yassuda Dec 2006

Karyotypes Of Eight Species Of Leptodactylus (Anura, Leptodactylidae) With A Description Of A New Karyotype For The Genus, Renata Cecília Amaro-Ghilardi, Gabriel Skuk, Rafael O. De Sá, Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues, Yatiyo Yonenaga-Yassuda

Biology Faculty Publications

Karyotypes of eight species of Leptodactylus (Anura, Leptodactylidae) with a description of a new karyotype for the genus. Eight species of the Neotropical genus Leptodactylus were karyologically studied: seven of them (L. gracilis, L. mystacinus, L. petersii, L. pustulatus, L. macrosternum, L. ocellatus, L. labyrinthicus) presented 2n=22 and L. silvanimbus showed a distinctive karyotype with 2n=24. Nucleolar organizer regions (Ag-NORs) were detected in two different pairs of chromosomes: pair 4 at the proximal region of the long arm of one individual of L. mystacinus from São Paulo state and of L. petersii; and pair 8 of all other ...


Lincoln Fall Field Days Dec 2006

Lincoln Fall Field Days

Nebraska Bird Review

The 2006 NOU Fall Field Days were held in and around Lincoln on Sept. 15-17. Our evening meals and programs took place at the Howard Johnson's Motel on Cornhusker Highway,

Our Friday evening speaker was Dr. Paul Johnsgard, who spoke about the Birding Trails website being developed by a committee of the All Bird Consortium, On Saturday afternoon, NOU Librarian Mary Lou Pritchard gave a tour of the current exhibit of her late husband Bud Pritchard's artwork at the Nebraska State Museum in Morrill Hall. Saturday evening Dan Kim spoke on the Whooping Crane Trust activities along the ...


Masthead From Nebraska Bird Review December 2006 Dec 2006

Masthead From Nebraska Bird Review December 2006

Nebraska Bird Review

The Nebraska Bird Review is published quarterly by the Nebraska Ornithologists' Union, Inc., as its official journal, and is sent to members not in arrears of dues. Annual subscription rates (on a calendar-year basis only): $15 in the United States, $18 in Canada and $30 in all other countries, payable in advance. Single copies are $4 each, postpaid, in the United States, $5 in Canada, and $8 elsewhere. Send orders for back issues to Mary Lou Pritchard, NOU Librarian, c/o University of Nebraska State Museum, W-436 Nebraska Hall, Lincoln, NE 685880514.

Memberships in the NOU (on a calendar-year basis ...


Index To Volume 74 Dec 2006

Index To Volume 74

Nebraska Bird Review

Index to Volume 74 (11 pages)

Abraham, K. 105

Accipiter sp 28-29, 65

Allmand, Matt 40

American Ornithologists' Union 38, 105, 132-133

Amiotte, Sue 4I, 112

Anhinga 71

Ankney, C. D. 105

Armknecht, Henry 25, 40

Aubushon,
Dottie 25
Kathy 25

Audubon. lohn lames 132-133, 136

Austin, J. E. 97

Avocet, American 48,84, 11 7, 142

....

Yellowlegs,
Greater 48, 85, 117
Lesser 48, 66, 85, 117, 129

Yellowthroat, Common 57,68,92, 125, 131, 142

Vi, Chunhui 25

Young, Betty 25

Zahurones, Penny 25

Ziewitz. J. W. 98


The Nebraska Bird Review Whole Issue December 2006 Dec 2006

The Nebraska Bird Review Whole Issue December 2006

Nebraska Bird Review

Table of Contents

Fall Field Report, Aug.–Nov. 2006 by W. Ross Silcock....................... 110

Fall Field Days at Lincoln, Sept. 15–17, 2006....................... 128

The Art and Artistic Legacy of Louis Agassiz Fuertes by Paul A. Johnsgard ....................... 132

The 2006 Nebraska Nest Report by Wayne J. Mollhoff ....................... 142

Index to Volume 74....................... 148

Subscription and Organization Information....................... 159


Fall Field Report, August-November 2006, W. Ross Silcock Dec 2006

Fall Field Report, August-November 2006, W. Ross Silcock

Nebraska Bird Review

First, I want to say how much I appreciate observers' responses to my requests for additional details on various sightings, not just rarities, but early and late dates. It's important to have these details for the archives to help future readers and researchers feel more comfortable with records from our era.

Patterns that were apparent included a generally quiet fall for waterfowl (they were all at Lake McConaughy), but excellent numbers of the rarer two scoters (but NO White-winged!) and a surprising 16 Red-necked Grebes. On the other hand, numbers of staging Western Grebes were down significantly, apparently due ...


The 2006 Nebraska Nest Report, Wayne Mollhoff Dec 2006

The 2006 Nebraska Nest Report, Wayne Mollhoff

Nebraska Bird Review

The drought that began in 1999 continued over most of Nebraska this year, with 7 of the past 8 years receiving lower than normal rainfall. More normal rains fell in April and early May, especially in the central and east, before stopping for most of the summer. Most of the Panhandle and southwest were declared drought disaster areas by early summer, setting the stage in late July for the worst fire season in memory in the Pine Ridge area of the northern Panhandle (Fowler, 2007). Ultimately, 83 of 93 counties were declared part of the drought disaster area. Low water ...


The Art And Artistic Legacy Of Louis Agassiz Fuertes, Paul A. Johnsgard Dec 2006

The Art And Artistic Legacy Of Louis Agassiz Fuertes, Paul A. Johnsgard

Nebraska Bird Review

Perhaps some Nebraska birders will not immediately recognize the name Louis Agassiz Fuertes, as he died almost 80 years ago. Yet he influenced the art of bird painting as much as did John James Audubon, and provided wonderful artwork for many major state bird reference books. He also personally tutored George Miksch Sutton, the Nebraska-born artist and biologist who provided the NOU with its Burrowing Owl logo, and who contributed greatly to American ornithology, especially that of the southern Great Plains.

It is interesting that, like John James Audubon, Roger Tory Peterson, and George Miksch Sutton, we would never think ...


Hummingbirds Fuel Hovering Flight With Newly Ingested Sugar, K. C. Welch, B. H. Bakken, Carlos Martinez Del Rio, R. K. Suarez Nov 2006

Hummingbirds Fuel Hovering Flight With Newly Ingested Sugar, K. C. Welch, B. H. Bakken, Carlos Martinez Del Rio, R. K. Suarez

Zoology Faculty Publications

We sought to characterize the ability of hummingbirds to fuel their energetically expensive hovering flight using dietary sugar by a combination of respirometry and stable carbon isotope techniques. Broadtailed hummingbirds (Selasphorus platycercus) were maintained on a diet containing beet sugar with an isotopic composition characteristic of C3 plants. Hummingbirds were fasted and then offered a solution containing cane sugar with an isotopic composition characteristic of C4 plants. By monitoring the rates of CO2 production and O-2 consumption, as well as the stable carbon isotope composition of expired CO2, we were able to estimate the relative contributions of carbohydrate and fat ...


Sage-Grouse And Indirect Interactions: Potential Implications Of Coyote Control On Sage-Grouse Populations, E. T. Mezquida, S. J. Slater, Craig Benkman Nov 2006

Sage-Grouse And Indirect Interactions: Potential Implications Of Coyote Control On Sage-Grouse Populations, E. T. Mezquida, S. J. Slater, Craig Benkman

Zoology Faculty Publications

Coyotes (Canis latrans) are lethally controlled throughout the range of Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and it has been suggested that such control may benefit sage-grouse. However, the perceived benefits of control are based on the direct effects of coyotes on sage-grouse and largely ignore potential indirect interactions. Here, we summarize some of the evidence for direct effects in a simplified food web including coyotes and sage-grouse. There is very little evidence to suggest that coyotes have much of a direct negative effect on sage-grouse, but there is considerable evidence supporting direct interactions that would lead to positive indirect effects between ...


A New Species Of Emballonura (Chiroptera: Emballonuridae) From The Dry Regions Of Madagascar, Steven M. Goodman, Scott G. Cardiff, Julie Ranivo, Amy L. Russell, Anne D. Yoder Oct 2006

A New Species Of Emballonura (Chiroptera: Emballonuridae) From The Dry Regions Of Madagascar, Steven M. Goodman, Scott G. Cardiff, Julie Ranivo, Amy L. Russell, Anne D. Yoder

Amy L. Russell

We describe a new species of bat in the genus Emballonura (Chiroptera: Emballonuridae), E. tiavato, from the dry forest regions of Madagascar. This species is distinguished from the only other member of this genus found on the island, E. atrata, and extralimital species based on a variety of external and cranial characteristics. Details of the distribution, phylogeny, and natural history of the two species of Malagasy Emballonura are presented.


Do Nectar- And Fruit-Eating Birds Have Lower Nitrogen Requirements Than Omnivores? An Allometric Test, E. Tsahar, Z. Ara, I. Izhaki, Carlos Martinez Del Rio Oct 2006

Do Nectar- And Fruit-Eating Birds Have Lower Nitrogen Requirements Than Omnivores? An Allometric Test, E. Tsahar, Z. Ara, I. Izhaki, Carlos Martinez Del Rio

Zoology Faculty Publications

We used an allometric approach to compare the minimum nitrogen requirements (MNR) and the total endogenous nitrogen loss (TENL) of nectar- and fruit-eating birds with those of omnivorous birds. These two parameters were 4x higher in omnivores than in nectarivores and frugivores. In nectarivorous-frugivorous birds, MNR was 152.8 mg N kg(-0.76) day(-1); in omnivorous birds, it was 575.4 mg N kg(-0.76) day(-1). Similarly, TENL was 54.1 mg N kg(-0.69) day(-1) in nectarivores-frugivores, and 215.3 mg N kg(-0.69) day(-1) in omnivores. The residuals of the ...


The Locomotor Kinematics Of Asian And African Elephants: Changes With Speed And Size, John R. Hutchinson, Delf Schwerda, Daniel J. Famini, Robert H.I. Dale, Martin S. Fischer, Rodger Kram Oct 2006

The Locomotor Kinematics Of Asian And African Elephants: Changes With Speed And Size, John R. Hutchinson, Delf Schwerda, Daniel J. Famini, Robert H.I. Dale, Martin S. Fischer, Rodger Kram

Scholarship and Professional Work - LAS

For centuries, elephant locomotion has been a contentious and confusing challenge for locomotion scientists to understand, not only because of technical difficulties but also because elephant locomotion is in some ways atypical of more familiar quadrupedal gaits. We analyzed the locomotor kinematics of over 2400 strides from 14 African and 48 Asian elephant individuals (body mass 116-4632 kg) freely moving over ground at a 17-fold range of speeds, from slow walking at 0.40 m s-1 to the fastest reliably recorded speed for elephants, 6.8 m s-1. These data reveal that African and Asian elephants have some ...


Rana Ocellata Linnaeus, 1758 (Currently Leptodactylus Ocellatus; Amphibia, Anura): Proposed Conservation Of Usage Of The Specific Name By The Designation Of A Neotype, W. Ronald Heyer, Ulisses Caramaschi, Rafael O. De Sá Sep 2006

Rana Ocellata Linnaeus, 1758 (Currently Leptodactylus Ocellatus; Amphibia, Anura): Proposed Conservation Of Usage Of The Specific Name By The Designation Of A Neotype, W. Ronald Heyer, Ulisses Caramaschi, Rafael O. De Sá

Biology Faculty Publications

The purpose of this application, under Article 75.6 of the Code, is to conserve the usage of the specific name of Rana ocellata Linnaeus, 1758 for a species of leptodactylid frog from South America by the designation of a neotype. Prevailing usage of the name is threatened by the identity of the type specimen which is a different species than that which is currently known as Leptodactylus ocellatus. It is proposed that all name-bearing types be set aside and a neotype designated in accord with prevailing usage.


Periodic Cooling Of Bird Eggs Reduces Embryonic Growth Efficiency, Christopher R. Olson, Carol M. Vleck, David Vleck Sep 2006

Periodic Cooling Of Bird Eggs Reduces Embryonic Growth Efficiency, Christopher R. Olson, Carol M. Vleck, David Vleck

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

For many bird embryos, periodic cooling occurs when the incubating adult leaves the nest to forage, but the effects of periodic cooling on embryo growth, yolk use, and metabolism are poorly known. To address this question, we conducted incubation experiments on eggs of zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) that were frequently cooled and then rewarmed or were allowed to develop at a constant temperature. After 12 d of incubation, embryo mass and yolk reserves were less in eggs that experienced periodic cooling than in controls incubated constantly at 37.5C. Embryos that regularly cooled to 20C had higher mass-specific metabolic rates ...


An ∼140-Kb Deletion Associated With Feline Spinal Muscular Atrophy Implies An Essential Lix1 Function For Motor Neuron Survival, John C. Fyfe, Marilyn Menotti-Raymond, Victor A. David, Lars Brichta, Alejandro A. Schaffer, R. Agarwala, William J. Murphy, William J. Wedemeyer, Brittany L. Gregory, Bethany G. Buzzell, Meghan C. Drummond, Brunhilde Wirth, Stephen J. O'Brien Sep 2006

An ∼140-Kb Deletion Associated With Feline Spinal Muscular Atrophy Implies An Essential Lix1 Function For Motor Neuron Survival, John C. Fyfe, Marilyn Menotti-Raymond, Victor A. David, Lars Brichta, Alejandro A. Schaffer, R. Agarwala, William J. Murphy, William J. Wedemeyer, Brittany L. Gregory, Bethany G. Buzzell, Meghan C. Drummond, Brunhilde Wirth, Stephen J. O'Brien

Biology Faculty Articles

The leading genetic cause of infant mortality is spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders. Previously we described a domestic cat model of autosomal recessive, juvenile-onset SMA similar to human SMA type III. Here we report results of a whole-genome scan for linkage in the feline SMA pedigree using recently developed species-specific and comparative mapping resources. We identified a novel SMA gene candidate, LIX1, in an ~140-kb deletion on feline chromosome A1q in a region of conserved synteny to human chromosome 5q15. Though LIX1 function is unknown, the predicted secondary structure is compatible with a ...


Aerial Searches For Whooping Cranes Along The Platte River, Nebraska, John G. Sidle, Wallace G. Jobman, Craig A. Faanes Sep 2006

Aerial Searches For Whooping Cranes Along The Platte River, Nebraska, John G. Sidle, Wallace G. Jobman, Craig A. Faanes

Nebraska Bird Review

The endangered Whooping Cranes (Grus americana) that migrate between Wood Buffalo National Park, Alberta and Northwest Territories, and the Aransas National Wildlife Refuge Area, Texas, roost at many aquatic stopover locations (Austin and Richert 2001) including the central Platte River, Nebraska (Johnson 1982; Lingle et al. 1984, 1986, 1991; Faanes et al. 1992; Richert 1999). Under the U.S. Endangered Species Act, 90 km of the central Platte have been designated as critical habitat for the Whooping Crane, although suitable Platte River habitat for Whooping Crane and Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis) continues to decline (Sidle et al. 1989, Currier 1997 ...


Correction To Winter Bird Numbers Article Sep 2006

Correction To Winter Bird Numbers Article

Nebraska Bird Review

Correction to Winter Bird Numbers Article

Editor's Note: We regret that there was an error in the text of the Paul Johnsgard article "Recent Changes in Winter Bird Numbers at Lincoln, Nebraska" published in the March 2006 Nebraska Bird Review (Volume 74 Number 1). The last sentence in the first full paragraph on page 18 should read: "(The House Sparrow is declining annually at a rate of 2.5%, and the House Finch is increasing at an annual rate of 1.15%.)"


Masthead From Nebraska Bird Review September 2006 Sep 2006

Masthead From Nebraska Bird Review September 2006

Nebraska Bird Review

The Nebraska Bird Review is published quarterly by the Nebraska Ornithologists' Union, Inc., as its official journal, and is sent to members not in arrears of dues. Annual subscription rates (on a calendar-year basis only): $15 in the United States, $18 in Canada and $30 in all other countries, payable in advance. Single copies are $4 each, postpaid, in the United States, $5 in Canada, and $8 elsewhere. Send orders for back issues to Mary Lou Pritchard, NOU Librarian, c/o University of Nebraska State Museum, W-436 Nebraska Hall, Lincoln, NE 68588-0514.

Memberships in the NOU (on a calendar-year basis ...


Letter Of Information' Excerpts Sep 2006

Letter Of Information' Excerpts

Nebraska Bird Review

In the early years of the Nebraska Ornithologists' Union, which was founded in 1899, the organization published its Proceedings, yearly through 1902 and less frequently for the following 13 years. Beginning in 1916, the NOU allied itself with the Wilson Ornithological Club, and its annual proceedings were published by that organization for the next nine years. In 1925, distribution of a mimeographed "Letter of Information" began, with NOU Secretary-Treasurer Myron H. Swenk acting as editor. These Letters, which contain announcements, accounts of meetings and field trips, and notes on bird sightings from members, were published through 1932. They bridged the ...


Summer Field Report, June-July 2006, W. Ross Silcock Sep 2006

Summer Field Report, June-July 2006, W. Ross Silcock

Nebraska Bird Review

Under "Old Business", numbers of Black-capped Chickadees are beginning to recover, but several observers mentioned that American Crows and, most recently, Black-billed Magpies are still suffering lowered numbers. On the plus side, Scissor-tailed Flycatchers continue in increasing numbers, including a pair (or at least one of a pair) that returned to the same location where they nested successfully last year and succeeded again this year.

And now ''New Business". Evidence came to hand that both Western and Clark's Grebes may have suffered poor breeding success due to poor water conditions at traditional breeding sites. An intriguing observation on 28 ...


The Nebraska Bird Review Whole Issue September 2006 Sep 2006

The Nebraska Bird Review Whole Issue September 2006

Nebraska Bird Review

Table of Contents

Summer Field Report, June - July 2006 by W. Ross Silcock................... 78

Aerial Searches for Whooping Cranes along the Platte River, Nebraska
by John G. Sidle, Wallace G. Jobman, Craig A. Faanes ................... 95

White-cheeked Geese in Nebraska by W. Ross Silcock................... 99

Correction to Paul Johnsgard's "Recent Changes in Winter Bird
Numbers at Lincoln, Nebraska" (Vol. 74 No. 1) ................... 105

Excerpts from the NOU's "Letters of Information"................... 106

Subscription and Organization Information ................... 107


White-Cheeked Geese In Nebraska, W. Ross Silcock Sep 2006

White-Cheeked Geese In Nebraska, W. Ross Silcock

Nebraska Bird Review

The intent of this paper is to summarize the current state of knowledge regarding "White-cheeked Goose" is used in reference to the various taxa included within the two species Canada Goose (Branta canadensis) and Cackling Goose (B. hutchinsii), as constituted by the American Ornithologist' Union (AOU; 2004). Using culmen measurements, confirmation of both species' and the "expected" subspecies' occurrence in Nebraska was documents, but culmen measurements alone could not confirm the occurrence of any of the "unexpected" subspecies.

TAXONOMY

As many as 10 subspecies of White-cheeked Goose were described by the AOU (1957), five of which (interiorm maxima, parpives, taverneri ...


End Matter, Vol. 66 No. 3 Aug 2006

End Matter, Vol. 66 No. 3

Western North American Naturalist

No abstract provided.


Front Matter, Vol. 66 No. 3 Aug 2006

Front Matter, Vol. 66 No. 3

Western North American Naturalist

No abstract provided.


Physical And Behavioral Development Of Nursing Harbor Seal (Phoca Vitulina) Pups In Maine, John P. Skinner Aug 2006

Physical And Behavioral Development Of Nursing Harbor Seal (Phoca Vitulina) Pups In Maine, John P. Skinner

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Compared to other phocids seals, the maternal investment strategy of the small bodied female harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) is complex. Females are unable to fast for the entire duration of pup rearing and are therefore reliant on resources in the vicinity of the pupping aggregation to continue provisioning their pup by mid-lactation. At the same time, harbor seal pups are highly active during lactation which increases energetic costs to the female but also offers an opportunity for females to influence the behavioral development of her pup. To understand how females maximize their pup's survival it is important to examine ...