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2006

Genetics and Genomics

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Activated Checkpoint Kinase 2 Provides A Survival Signal For Tumor Cells, Jagadish C. Ghosh, Takehiko Dohi, Christopher M. Raskett, Timothy F. Kowalik, Dario C. Altieri Dec 2006

Activated Checkpoint Kinase 2 Provides A Survival Signal For Tumor Cells, Jagadish C. Ghosh, Takehiko Dohi, Christopher M. Raskett, Timothy F. Kowalik, Dario C. Altieri

Open Access Articles

Tumor cells often become resistant to DNA damage-based therapy; however, the underlying mechanisms are not yet understood. Here, we show that tumor cells exposed to DNA damage counteract cell death by releasing the antiapoptotic protein, survivin, from mitochondria. This is independent of p53, and requires activated checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2), a putative tumor suppressor. Molecular or genetic targeting of Chk2 prevents the release of survivin from mitochondria, enhances DNA damage-induced tumor cell apoptosis, and inhibits the growth of resistant in vivo tumors. Therefore, activated Chk2 circumvents its own tumor-suppressive functions by promoting tumor cell survival. Inhibiting Chk2 in combination with ...


Caenorhabditis Briggsae Methods, Scott Everet Baird, Helen M. Chamberlin Dec 2006

Caenorhabditis Briggsae Methods, Scott Everet Baird, Helen M. Chamberlin

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Caenorhabditis briggsae is being developed in parallel to C. elegans as a model system, primarily for the study of evolution. Like C. elegans, C. briggsae is a protandrous hermaphrodite and like C. elegans, its genome has been sequenced. From this point, these two model systems diverge. The development, behavior, and physiology of C. elegans have been characterized through tens of thousands of genetic and molecular studies. Genetic and molecular characterizations of C. briggsae are relatively few. Experimental resources in C. elegans include a high density recombination map that is well integrated with the genome sequence. The C. briggsae recombination map ...


Structure Of The Yeast Histone H3-Asf1 Interaction: Implications For Chaperone Mechanism, Species-Specific Interactions, And Epigenetics, Andrew J. Antczak, Toshiaki Tsubota, Paul D. Kaufman, James M. Berger Dec 2006

Structure Of The Yeast Histone H3-Asf1 Interaction: Implications For Chaperone Mechanism, Species-Specific Interactions, And Epigenetics, Andrew J. Antczak, Toshiaki Tsubota, Paul D. Kaufman, James M. Berger

Program in Gene Function and Expression Publications and Presentations

BACKGROUND: The histone H3/H4 chaperone Asf1 (anti-silencing function 1) is required for the establishment and maintenance of proper chromatin structure, as well as for genome stability in eukaryotes. Asf1 participates in both DNA replication-coupled (RC) and replication-independent (RI) histone deposition reactions in vitro and interacts with complexes responsible for both pathways in vivo. Asf1 is known to directly bind histone H3, however, high-resolution structural information about the geometry of this interaction was previously unknown. RESULTS: Here we report the structure of a histone/histone chaperone interaction. We have solved the 2.2 A crystal structure of the conserved N-terminal ...


Cbfbeta Reduces Cbfbeta-Smmhc-Associated Acute Myeloid Leukemia In Mice, Susan Ann Heilman, Ya-Huei Kuo, Chantal S. Goudswaard, Peter J. Valk, Lucio H. Castilla Dec 2006

Cbfbeta Reduces Cbfbeta-Smmhc-Associated Acute Myeloid Leukemia In Mice, Susan Ann Heilman, Ya-Huei Kuo, Chantal S. Goudswaard, Peter J. Valk, Lucio H. Castilla

Open Access Articles

The gene encoding for core-binding factor beta (CBFbeta) is altered in acute myeloid leukemia samples with an inversion in chromosome 16, expressing the fusion protein CBFbeta-SMMHC. Previous studies have shown that this oncoprotein interferes with hematopoietic differentiation and proliferation and participates in leukemia development. In this study, we provide evidence that Cbfbeta modulates the oncogenic function of this fusion protein. We show that Cbfbeta plays an important role in proliferation of hematopoietic progenitors expressing Cbfbeta-SMMHC in vitro. In addition, Cbfbeta-SMMHC-mediated leukemia development is accelerated in the absence of Cbfbeta. These results indicate that the balance between Cbfbeta and Cbfbeta-SMMHC directly ...


Use Of Hidden Markov Models For Qtl Mapping, Karl W. Broman Dec 2006

Use Of Hidden Markov Models For Qtl Mapping, Karl W. Broman

Johns Hopkins University, Dept. of Biostatistics Working Papers

An important aspect of the QTL mapping problem is the treatment of missing genotype data. If complete genotype data were available, QTL mapping would reduce to the problem of model selection in linear regression. However, in the consideration of loci in the intervals between the available genetic markers, genotype data is inherently missing. Even at the typed genetic markers, genotype data is seldom complete, as a result of failures in the genotyping assays or for the sake of economy (for example, in the case of selective genotyping, where only individuals with extreme phenotypes are genotyped). We discuss the use of ...


A Sex-Linked Allele, Autosomal Modifiers And Temperature-Dependence Appear To Regulate Melanism In Male Mosquitofish (Gambusia Holbrooki), Lisa Horth Dec 2006

A Sex-Linked Allele, Autosomal Modifiers And Temperature-Dependence Appear To Regulate Melanism In Male Mosquitofish (Gambusia Holbrooki), Lisa Horth

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

About 1% of male mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) express melanic (mottled-black) body coloration, which differs dramatically from the wild-type, silvery-gray coloration. Here, I report on the genetic inheritance pattern of melanic coloration, which indicates Y-linkage, and at least one autosomal modifier. Phenotypic expression of melanism is also affected by temperature. Expression is constitutive ( temperature insensitive) in some populations, inducible ( temperature sensitive) in others. Constitutive and inducible expression occur among geographically proximal populations. However, males from any single population demonstrate the same constitutive or inducible expression pattern as one another. The F1 males from inter-population crosses demonstrate temperature-related expression patterns like their ...


Genomeblast: A Web Tool For Small Genome Comparison, Guoqing Lu, Liying Jiang, Resa M. K. Helikar, Thaine W. Rowley, Luwen Zhang, Xianfeng Chen, Etsuko N. Moriyama Dec 2006

Genomeblast: A Web Tool For Small Genome Comparison, Guoqing Lu, Liying Jiang, Resa M. K. Helikar, Thaine W. Rowley, Luwen Zhang, Xianfeng Chen, Etsuko N. Moriyama

Biology Faculty Publications

Background: Comparative genomics has become an essential approach for identifying homologous gene candidates and their functions, and for studying genome evolution. There are many tools available for genome comparisons. Unfortunately, most of them are not applicable for the identification of unique genes and the inference of phylogenetic relationships in a given set of genomes.

Results: GenomeBlast is a Web tool developed for comparative analysis of multiple small genomes. A new parameter called "coverage" was introduced and used along with sequence identity to evaluate global similarity between genes. With GenomeBlast, the following results can be obtained: (1) unique genes in each ...


Analysis Of Bulked And Redundant Accessions Of Brassica Germplasm Using Assignment Tests Of Microsatellite Markers, Von Mark V. Cruz, John D. Nason, Richard Luhman, Laura F. Marek, Randy C. Shoemaker, E. Charles Brummer, Candice A. C. Gardner Dec 2006

Analysis Of Bulked And Redundant Accessions Of Brassica Germplasm Using Assignment Tests Of Microsatellite Markers, Von Mark V. Cruz, John D. Nason, Richard Luhman, Laura F. Marek, Randy C. Shoemaker, E. Charles Brummer, Candice A. C. Gardner

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

This study was conducted to determine if Brassica germplasm bulks created and maintained by the USDA-ARS North Central Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS) were made with genetically indistinguishable component accessions and to examine newly identified putative duplicate accessions to determine if they can be bulked. Using ten microsatellite primer pairs, we genotyped two bulks of B. rapa L. ssp. dichotoma (Roxb.) Hanelt comprising four accessions and three bulks of B. rapa L. ssp. trilocularis (Roxb.) Hanelt comprising fourteen accessions, as well as four pairs of putatively duplicate accessions of B.␣napus L. Assignment tests on ten individual plants per accession were ...


Review Of "Plant Exploration For Longwood Gardens" By T. Aniśko, Nicholas J. Kaplinsky Dec 2006

Review Of "Plant Exploration For Longwood Gardens" By T. Aniśko, Nicholas J. Kaplinsky

Biology Faculty Works

No abstract provided.


Wild And Aquaculture Populations Of The Eastern Oyster Compared Using Microsatellites, J Carlsson, Cl Morrison, Ks Reece Dec 2006

Wild And Aquaculture Populations Of The Eastern Oyster Compared Using Microsatellites, J Carlsson, Cl Morrison, Ks Reece

VIMS Articles

Five new microsatellite markers were developed for the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica), and allelic variability was compared between a wild Chesapeake Bay population (James River) and a hatchery strain (DEBY (TM)). All loci amplified readily and demonstrated allelic variability with the number of alleles ranging from 16 to 36 in the wild population and from 11 to 19 in the DEBY (TM) strain. Average observed and expected heterozygosities were estimated at 0.66 and 0.80 in the hatchery sample. The corresponding estimates were 0.91 and 0.75 in the wild sample. Results indicated lower genetic variability in the ...


Semiparametric Regression Of Multi-Dimensional Genetic Pathway Data: Least Squares Kernel Machines And Linear Mixed Models, Dawei Liu, Xihong Lin, Debashis Ghosh Nov 2006

Semiparametric Regression Of Multi-Dimensional Genetic Pathway Data: Least Squares Kernel Machines And Linear Mixed Models, Dawei Liu, Xihong Lin, Debashis Ghosh

Harvard University Biostatistics Working Paper Series

No abstract provided.


Limited Functional Redundancy And Oscillation Of Cyclins In Multinucleated Ashbya Gossypii Fungal Cells, A. Katrin Hungerbuehler, Peter Philippsen, Amy S. Gladfelter Nov 2006

Limited Functional Redundancy And Oscillation Of Cyclins In Multinucleated Ashbya Gossypii Fungal Cells, A. Katrin Hungerbuehler, Peter Philippsen, Amy S. Gladfelter

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Cyclin protein behavior has not been systematically investigated in multinucleated cells with asynchronous mitoses. Cyclins are canonical oscillating cell cycle proteins, but it is unclear how fluctuating protein gradients can be established in multinucleated cells where nuclei in different stages of the division cycle share the cytoplasm. Previous work in A. gossypii, a filamentous fungus in which nuclei divide asynchronously in a common cytoplasm, demonstrated that one G1 and one B-type cyclin do not fluctuate in abundance across the division cycle. We have undertaken a comprehensive analysis of all G1 and B-type cyclins in A. gossypii to determine whether any ...


Trefoil Family Factor 2 Is Expressed In Murine Gastric And Immune Cells And Controls Both Gastrointestinal Inflammation And Systemic Immune Responses, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Lucheng Cao, Frantisek Sandor, Arlin B. Rogers, Mark T. Whary, Prashant R. Nambiar, Anna M. Cerny, Glennice N. Bowen, Jing Yan, Shigeo Takaishi, Alfred L. Chi, George W. Reed, Jeanmarie Houghton, James G. Fox, Timothy C. Wang Nov 2006

Trefoil Family Factor 2 Is Expressed In Murine Gastric And Immune Cells And Controls Both Gastrointestinal Inflammation And Systemic Immune Responses, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Lucheng Cao, Frantisek Sandor, Arlin B. Rogers, Mark T. Whary, Prashant R. Nambiar, Anna M. Cerny, Glennice N. Bowen, Jing Yan, Shigeo Takaishi, Alfred L. Chi, George W. Reed, Jeanmarie Houghton, James G. Fox, Timothy C. Wang

Open Access Articles

Trefoil family factor 2 (TFF2), also known as spasmolytic peptide, is a low-molecular-weight protein that is upregulated in gastric tissues infected with Helicobacter or having other inflammatory conditions, but a precise function is yet to be elucidated. The role of TFF2 in the development of gastritis, colitis, and inflammatory cytokine responses was examined both in vivo and in vitro using wild-type and TFF2 knockout mice. TFF2 knockout and wild-type mice were infected with Helicobacter felis (H. felis) to induce gastritis. Colitis was induced in TFF2 knockout and wild-type mice by administering dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in drinking water. Histopathology, clinical ...


Multiple Testing With An Empirical Alternative Hypothesis, James E. Signorovitch Nov 2006

Multiple Testing With An Empirical Alternative Hypothesis, James E. Signorovitch

Harvard University Biostatistics Working Paper Series

An optimal multiple testing procedure is identified for linear hypotheses under the general linear model, maximizing the expected number of false null hypotheses rejected at any significance level. The optimal procedure depends on the unknown data-generating distribution, but can be consistently estimated. Drawing information together across many hypotheses, the estimated optimal procedure provides an empirical alternative hypothesis by adapting to underlying patterns of departure from the null. Proposed multiple testing procedures based on the empirical alternative are evaluated through simulations and an application to gene expression microarray data. Compared to a standard multiple testing procedure, it is not unusual for ...


Penalized Likelihood And Bayesian Methods For Sparse Contingency Tables: An Analysis Of Alternative Splicing In Full-Length Cdna Libraries, Corinne Dahinden, Giovanni Parmigiani, Mark C. Emerick, Peter Buhlmann Nov 2006

Penalized Likelihood And Bayesian Methods For Sparse Contingency Tables: An Analysis Of Alternative Splicing In Full-Length Cdna Libraries, Corinne Dahinden, Giovanni Parmigiani, Mark C. Emerick, Peter Buhlmann

Johns Hopkins University, Dept. of Biostatistics Working Papers

We develop methods to perform model selection and parameter estimation in loglinear models for the analysis of sparse contingency tables to study the interaction of two or more factors. Typically, datasets arising from so-called full-length cDNA libraries, in the context of alternatively spliced genes, lead to such sparse contingency tables. Maximum Likelihood estimation of log-linear model coefficients fails to work because of zero cell entries. Therefore new methods are required to estimate the coefficients and to perform model selection. Our suggestions include computationally efficient penalization (Lasso-type) approaches as well as Bayesian methods using MCMC. We compare these procedures in a ...


Complete Dna Sequence, Comparative Genomics, And Prevalence Of An Inchi2 Plasmid Occurring Among Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia Coli Isolates, Timothy J. Johnson, Yvonne Wannemuehler, Jennifer A. Scaccianoce, Sara J. Johnson, Lisa K. Nolan Nov 2006

Complete Dna Sequence, Comparative Genomics, And Prevalence Of An Inchi2 Plasmid Occurring Among Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia Coli Isolates, Timothy J. Johnson, Yvonne Wannemuehler, Jennifer A. Scaccianoce, Sara J. Johnson, Lisa K. Nolan

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

We have sequenced a large plasmid that occurs among avian pathogenicEscherichia coli isolates. This plasmid, pAPEC-O1-R, is a 241,387-bp IncHI2 plasmid which is cotransmissible via bacterial conjugation with a ColBM virulence plasmid, encodes resistance to eight antimicrobial agents, and appears to occur at low rates among extraintestinal E. coli isolates.


Validity, Identification, And Distribution Of The Roundscale Spearfish, Tetrapturus Georgii (Teleostei: Istiophoridae): Morphological And Molecular Evidence, Mahmood S. Shivji, Jennifer E. Magnussen, Lawrence R. Beerkircher, George Hinteregger, Dennis W. Lee, Joseph E. Serafy, Eric D. Prince Nov 2006

Validity, Identification, And Distribution Of The Roundscale Spearfish, Tetrapturus Georgii (Teleostei: Istiophoridae): Morphological And Molecular Evidence, Mahmood S. Shivji, Jennifer E. Magnussen, Lawrence R. Beerkircher, George Hinteregger, Dennis W. Lee, Joseph E. Serafy, Eric D. Prince

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

The roundscale spearfish, Tetrapturus georgii Lowe, 1840, is known only from four specimens from the Mediterranean and eastern North Atlantic. Additional specimens have not been identified since 1961, making the validity and distribution of this species unclear. Analysis of 16 billfish specimens from the western North Atlantic on the basis of scale morphology, anus position, and mitochondrial DNA confirms the validity of this species and extends its distribution. Mid-lateral scales are soft, notably rounded anteriorly, and bear 2–3 points distinct from those of the sympatric longbill spearfish (Tetrapturus pfluegeri Robins and de Sylva, 1963) and white marlin (Tetrapturus albidus ...


The Allantois And Chorion, When Isolated Before Circulation Or Chorio-Allantoic Fusion, Have Hematopoietic Potential, Brandon M. Zeigler, Daisuke Sugiyama, Michael Chen, Yalin Guo, K. M. Downs, N. A. Speck Nov 2006

The Allantois And Chorion, When Isolated Before Circulation Or Chorio-Allantoic Fusion, Have Hematopoietic Potential, Brandon M. Zeigler, Daisuke Sugiyama, Michael Chen, Yalin Guo, K. M. Downs, N. A. Speck

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The chorio-allantoic placenta forms through the fusion of the allantois (progenitor tissue of the umbilical cord), with the chorionic plate. The murine placenta contains high levels of hematopoietic stem cells, and is therefore a stem cell niche. However, it is not known whether the placenta is a site of hematopoietic cell emergence, or whether hematopoietic cells originate from other sites in the conceptus and then colonize the placenta. Here, we show that the allantois and chorion, isolated prior to the establishment of circulation, have the potential to give rise to myeloid and definitive erythroid cells following explant culture. We further ...


Lobe And Serrate Are Required For Cell Survival During Early Eye Development In Drosophila, Amit Singh, Xiao Shi, Kwang-Wook Choi Nov 2006

Lobe And Serrate Are Required For Cell Survival During Early Eye Development In Drosophila, Amit Singh, Xiao Shi, Kwang-Wook Choi

Biology Faculty Publications

Organogenesis involves an initial surge of cell proliferation, leading to differentiation. This is followed by cell death in order to remove extra cells. During early development, there is little or no cell death. However, there is a lack of information concerning the genes required for survival during the early cell-proliferation phase. Here, we show that Lobe (L) and the Notch (N) ligand Serrate (Ser), which are both involved in ventral eye growth, are required for cell survival in the early eye disc. We observed that the loss-of-ventral-eye phenotype in L or Ser mutants is due to the induction of cell ...


The Fat Cadherin Acts Through The Hippo Tumor-Suppressor Pathway To Regulate Tissue Size, Maria Willecke, Fisun Hamaratoglu, Madhuri Kango-Singh, Ryan Udan, Chiao-Lin Chen, Chunyao Tao, Xinwei Zhang, Georg Halder Nov 2006

The Fat Cadherin Acts Through The Hippo Tumor-Suppressor Pathway To Regulate Tissue Size, Maria Willecke, Fisun Hamaratoglu, Madhuri Kango-Singh, Ryan Udan, Chiao-Lin Chen, Chunyao Tao, Xinwei Zhang, Georg Halder

Biology Faculty Publications

Background: The Hippo tumor-suppressor pathway has emerged as a key signaling pathway that controls tissue size in Drosophila. Merlin, the Drosophila homolog of the human Neurofibromatosis type-2 (NF2) tumor-suppressor gene, and the related protein Expanded are the most upstream components of the Hippo pathway identified so far. However, components acting upstream of Expanded and Merlin, such as transmembrane receptors, have not yet been identified.

Results: Here, we report that the protocadherin Fat acts as an upstream component in the Hippo pathway. Fat is a known tumor-suppressor gene in Drosophila, and fat mutants have severely overgrown imaginal discs. We found that ...


Genetic Analysis Of White Marlin (Tetrapturus Albidus) Stock Structure, Je Graves, Jr Mcdowell Nov 2006

Genetic Analysis Of White Marlin (Tetrapturus Albidus) Stock Structure, Je Graves, Jr Mcdowell

VIMS Articles

The genetic basis of stock structure of white marlin (Tetrapturus albidus Poey, 1860) was inferred from analyses of five tetranucleotide repeat microsatellite loci (n = 214) and the mitochondrial (mt)DNA control region (n = 99) of white marlin from four geographic regions in the Atlantic Ocean. Considerable genetic variation was present in all collections for all molecular markers. Analysis of replicate collections taken in different years from three regions revealed no significant differences in the distribution of allele frequencies among years within regions. The value of global F-statistics for both multilocus microsatellite data and mtDNA control region sequences approached significance (0 ...


Estimating Genome-Wide Copy Number Using Allele Specific Mixture Models, Wenyi Wang , Benilton Caravalho, Nate Miller, Jonathan Pevsner, Aravinda Chakravarti, Rafael A. Irizarry Oct 2006

Estimating Genome-Wide Copy Number Using Allele Specific Mixture Models, Wenyi Wang , Benilton Caravalho, Nate Miller, Jonathan Pevsner, Aravinda Chakravarti, Rafael A. Irizarry

Johns Hopkins University, Dept. of Biostatistics Working Papers

Genomic changes such as copy number alterations are thought to be one of the major underlying causes of human phenotypic variation among normal and disease subjects [23,11,25,26,5,4,7,18]. These include chromosomal regions with so-called copy number alterations: instead of the expected two copies, a section of the chromosome for a particular individual may have zero copies (homozygous deletion), one copy (hemizygous deletions), or more than two copies (amplifications). The canonical example is Down syndrome which is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21. Identification of such abnormalities in smaller regions has been of ...


The Role Of Mapks In B Cell Receptor-Induced Down-Regulation Of Egr-1 In Immature B Lymphoma Cells, Jiyuan Ke, Murali Gururajan, Anupam Kumar, Alan Simmons, Lilia Turcios, Ralph Lakshman Chelvarajan, David M. Cohen, David L. Wiest, John G. Monroe, Subbarao Bondada Oct 2006

The Role Of Mapks In B Cell Receptor-Induced Down-Regulation Of Egr-1 In Immature B Lymphoma Cells, Jiyuan Ke, Murali Gururajan, Anupam Kumar, Alan Simmons, Lilia Turcios, Ralph Lakshman Chelvarajan, David M. Cohen, David L. Wiest, John G. Monroe, Subbarao Bondada

Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics Faculty Publications

Cross-linking of the B cell receptor (BCR) on the immature B lymphoma cell line BKS-2 induces growth inhibition and apoptosis accompanied by rapid down-regulation of the immediate-early gene egr-1. In these lymphoma cells, egr-1 is expressed constitutively and has a prosurvival role, as Egr-1-specific antisense oligonucleotides or expression of a dominant-negative inhibitor of Egr-1 also prevented the growth of BKS-2 cells. Moreover, enhancement of Egr-1 protein with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate or an egr-1 expression vector rescued BKS-2 cells from BCR signal-induced growth inhibition. Nuclear run-on and mRNA stability assays indicated that BCR-derived signals act at the transcriptional level to reduce ...


Analysis And Functional Annotation Of Expressed Sequence Tags From The Fall Armyworm Spodoptera Frugiperda, Youping Deng, Yinghua Dong, Venkata Thodima, Rollie J. Clem, A. Lorena Passareli Oct 2006

Analysis And Functional Annotation Of Expressed Sequence Tags From The Fall Armyworm Spodoptera Frugiperda, Youping Deng, Yinghua Dong, Venkata Thodima, Rollie J. Clem, A. Lorena Passareli

Faculty Publications

Background

Little is known about the genome sequences of lepidopteran insects, although this group of insects has been studied extensively in the fields of endocrinology, development, immunity, and pathogen-host interactions. In addition, cell lines derived from Spodoptera frugiperda and other lepidopteran insects are routinely used for baculovirus foreign gene expression. This study reports the results of an expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing project in cells from the lepidopteran insect S. frugiperda, the fall armyworm.

Results

We have constructed an EST database using two cDNA libraries from the S. frugiperda-derived cell line, SF-21. The database consists of 2,367 ESTs ...


Autophagy Is Activated For Cell Survival After Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Maiko Ogata, Shin-Ichiro Hino, Atsushi Saito, Keisuke Morikawa, Shinichi Kondo, Soshi Kanemoto, Tomohiko Murakami, Manabu Taniguchi, Ichiro Tanii, Kazuya Yoshinaga, Sadao Shiosaka, James A. Hammarback, Fumihiko Urano, Kazunori Imaizumi Oct 2006

Autophagy Is Activated For Cell Survival After Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Maiko Ogata, Shin-Ichiro Hino, Atsushi Saito, Keisuke Morikawa, Shinichi Kondo, Soshi Kanemoto, Tomohiko Murakami, Manabu Taniguchi, Ichiro Tanii, Kazuya Yoshinaga, Sadao Shiosaka, James A. Hammarback, Fumihiko Urano, Kazunori Imaizumi

Program in Gene Function and Expression Publications and Presentations

Eukaryotic cells deal with accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by the unfolded protein response, involving the induction of molecular chaperones, translational attenuation, and ER-associated degradation, to prevent cell death. Here, we found that the autophagy system is activated as a novel signaling pathway in response to ER stress. Treatment of SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells with ER stressors markedly induced the formation of autophagosomes, which were recognized at the ultrastructural level. The formation of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-LC3-labeled structures (GFP-LC3 "dots"), representing autophagosomes, was extensively induced in cells exposed to ER stress with conversion from LC3-I to ...


Exploration Of Distributional Models For A Novel Intensity-Dependent Normalization , Nicola Lama, Patrizia Boracchi, Elia Mario Biganzoli Oct 2006

Exploration Of Distributional Models For A Novel Intensity-Dependent Normalization , Nicola Lama, Patrizia Boracchi, Elia Mario Biganzoli

COBRA Preprint Series

Currently used gene intensity-dependent normalization methods, based on regression smoothing techniques, usually approach the two problems of location bias detrending and data re-scaling without taking into account the censoring characteristic of certain gene expressions produced by experiment measurement constraints or by previous normalization steps. Moreover, the bias vs variance balance control of normalization procedures is not often discussed but left to the user's experience. Here an approximate maximum likelihood procedure to fit a model smoothing the dependences of log-fold gene expression differences on average gene intensities is presented. Central tendency and scaling factor were modeled by means of B-splines ...


Transposition Of Reversed Ac Element Ends Generates Novel Chimeric Genes In Maize, Jianbo Zhang, Feng Zhang, Thomas Peterson Oct 2006

Transposition Of Reversed Ac Element Ends Generates Novel Chimeric Genes In Maize, Jianbo Zhang, Feng Zhang, Thomas Peterson

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

The maize Activator/Dissociation (Ac/Ds) elements are members of the hAT (hobo, Ac, and Tam3) superfamily of type II (DNA) transposons that transpose through a “cut-and-paste” mechanism. Previously, we reported that a pair of Ac ends in reversed orientation is capable of undergoing alternative transposition reactions that can generate large-scale chromosomal rearrangements, including deletions and inversions. We show here that rearrangements induced by reversed Ac ends transposition can join the coding and regulatory sequences of two linked paralogous genes to generate a series of chimeric genes, some of which are functional. To our knowledge, this is the first report ...


New Polymorphic Microsatellites In Glossina Pallidipes (Diptera: Glossinidae) And Their Cross-Amplification In Other Tsetse Fly Taxa, J. O. Ouma, J. G. Marquez, E. S. Krafsur Oct 2006

New Polymorphic Microsatellites In Glossina Pallidipes (Diptera: Glossinidae) And Their Cross-Amplification In Other Tsetse Fly Taxa, J. O. Ouma, J. G. Marquez, E. S. Krafsur

Entomology Publications

We report the development and characterization of three new microsatellite markers in the tsetse fly, Glossina pallidipes (Diptera: Glossinidae). Fifty-eight alleles were scored in 192 individuals representing six natural populations. Allelic diversity ranged from 9 to 28 alleles per locus (mean 19.3 ± 5.5). Averaged across loci, observed heterozygosity was 0.581 ± 0.209, and expected heterozygosity was 0.619 ± 0.181. Cross-species amplifications of the G. pallidipesloci in other tsetse fly taxa are reported.


Dispersal Of Newly Eclosed European Corn Borer Adults (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) From Corn Into Small-Grain Aggregation Plots, Brendon James Reardon, Douglas V. Sumerford, Thomas W. Sappington Oct 2006

Dispersal Of Newly Eclosed European Corn Borer Adults (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) From Corn Into Small-Grain Aggregation Plots, Brendon James Reardon, Douglas V. Sumerford, Thomas W. Sappington

Entomology Publications

Genetically modified, insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn, Zea mays L., hybrids are used throughout the Corn Belt for European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), control. To slow development of Bt corn resistance, the Environmental Protection Agency requires growers to plant a refuge. Determining the appropriate distance between a refuge and Bt corn, and development of mitigation–remediation strategies such as mass releases of susceptible moths, requires an understanding of adult dispersal and mating behavior. However, much remains unknown about these behaviors. Because mating often occurs in grass near cornfields where adult O. nubilalis aggregate, we planted small-grain plots ...


Mig-5/Dsh Controls Cell Fate Determination And Cell Migration In C. Elegans, Timothy Walston, Chaobo Guo, Rui Proenca, Mingfu Wu, Michael Herman, Jeff Hardin, Edward Hedgecock Oct 2006

Mig-5/Dsh Controls Cell Fate Determination And Cell Migration In C. Elegans, Timothy Walston, Chaobo Guo, Rui Proenca, Mingfu Wu, Michael Herman, Jeff Hardin, Edward Hedgecock

Faculty Publications in the Biological Sciences

Cell fate determination and cell migration are two essential events in the development of an organism. We identify mig-5, a Dishevelled family member, as a gene that regulates several cell fate decisions and cell migrations that are important during C. elegans embryonic and larval development. In offspring from mig-5 mutants, cell migrations are defective during hypodermal morphogenesis, QL neuroblast migration, and the gonad arm migration led by the distal tip cells (DTCs). In addition to abnormal migration, DTC fate is affected, resulting in either an absent or an extra DTC. The cell fates of the anchor cell in hermaphrodites and ...