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Articles 1 - 9 of 9

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Dispersal Of Newly Eclosed European Corn Borer Adults (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) From Corn Into Small-Grain Aggregation Plots, Brendon James Reardon, Douglas V. Sumerford, Thomas W. Sappington Oct 2006

Dispersal Of Newly Eclosed European Corn Borer Adults (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) From Corn Into Small-Grain Aggregation Plots, Brendon James Reardon, Douglas V. Sumerford, Thomas W. Sappington

Entomology Publications

Genetically modified, insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn, Zea mays L., hybrids are used throughout the Corn Belt for European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), control. To slow development of Bt corn resistance, the Environmental Protection Agency requires growers to plant a refuge. Determining the appropriate distance between a refuge and Bt corn, and development of mitigation–remediation strategies such as mass releases of susceptible moths, requires an understanding of adult dispersal and mating behavior. However, much remains unknown about these behaviors. Because mating often occurs in grass near cornfields where adult O. nubilalis aggregate, we planted small-grain plots ...


New Polymorphic Microsatellites In Glossina Pallidipes (Diptera: Glossinidae) And Their Cross-Amplification In Other Tsetse Fly Taxa, J. O. Ouma, J. G. Marquez, E. S. Krafsur Oct 2006

New Polymorphic Microsatellites In Glossina Pallidipes (Diptera: Glossinidae) And Their Cross-Amplification In Other Tsetse Fly Taxa, J. O. Ouma, J. G. Marquez, E. S. Krafsur

Entomology Publications

We report the development and characterization of three new microsatellite markers in the tsetse fly, Glossina pallidipes (Diptera: Glossinidae). Fifty-eight alleles were scored in 192 individuals representing six natural populations. Allelic diversity ranged from 9 to 28 alleles per locus (mean 19.3 ± 5.5). Averaged across loci, observed heterozygosity was 0.581 ± 0.209, and expected heterozygosity was 0.619 ± 0.181. Cross-species amplifications of the G. pallidipesloci in other tsetse fly taxa are reported.


Using Genetic Markers And Population Assignment Techniques To Infer Origin Of Boll Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Unexpectedly Captured Near An Eradication Zone In Mexico, Kyung Seok Kim, Pedro Cano-Rios, Thomas W. Sappington Aug 2006

Using Genetic Markers And Population Assignment Techniques To Infer Origin Of Boll Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Unexpectedly Captured Near An Eradication Zone In Mexico, Kyung Seok Kim, Pedro Cano-Rios, Thomas W. Sappington

Entomology Publications

Several boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, were captured in pheromone traps in 2004 near Tlahualilo, Durango, Mexico, an area where none had been reported for ≈10 yr. It is possible that they were from an endemic population normally too low in numbers to be detected but that increased in response to more favorable rainfall conditions in 2004. Alternatively, they may represent an influx of migrants or the immediate descendents of migrants. To identify the most likely origin of the boll weevils captured in this area, we characterized microsatellite variation of the Tlahualilo weevils and compared it with the variation from ...


Glossina Swynnertoni (Diptera: Glossinidae): Effective Population Size And Breeding Structure Estimated By Mitochondrial Diversity, J. G. Marquez, I. I. Malele, J. O. Ouma, E. S. Krafsur Aug 2006

Glossina Swynnertoni (Diptera: Glossinidae): Effective Population Size And Breeding Structure Estimated By Mitochondrial Diversity, J. G. Marquez, I. I. Malele, J. O. Ouma, E. S. Krafsur

Entomology Publications

Nucleotide diversity was examined at mitochondrial COI and r16S2 loci in eight Glossina swynnertoni Austen collections from northern Tanzania and from a culture maintained by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Eighteen composite haplotypes were observed among 149 flies, two of which were common to all samples and 10 were private. Mean haplotype diversity was 0.59 and nucleotide diversity was 0.0013. There were excess singular haplotypes and mutation-drift disequilibrium suggesting that populations had experienced an earlier bottleneck and subsequent expansion. Factorial correspondence analysis showed that haplotype frequencies varied much more temporally (GST = 0.18) than spatially (GST = 0.04 ...


Coordinated Diabrotica Genetics Research: Accelerating Progress On An Urgent Insect Pest Problem, Thomas W. Sappington, Blair D. Siegfried, Thomas Guillemaud Jul 2006

Coordinated Diabrotica Genetics Research: Accelerating Progress On An Urgent Insect Pest Problem, Thomas W. Sappington, Blair D. Siegfried, Thomas Guillemaud

Entomology Publications

No abstract provided.


Shared Microsatellite Loci In Glossina Morsitans Sensu Lato (Diptera: Glossinidae), E. S. Krafsur, M. A. Endsley May 2006

Shared Microsatellite Loci In Glossina Morsitans Sensu Lato (Diptera: Glossinidae), E. S. Krafsur, M. A. Endsley

Entomology Publications

Estimation of allelic frequencies at three microsatellite loci among 20 populations of Glossina morsitans morsitans Westwood, Glossina morsitans submorsitans Newstead, and Glossina morsitans centralis Machado indicated only two of 99 alleles were shared between three subspecies and 18 between any two subspecies; 81 alleles were unshared. The conserved flanking regions of each locus were completely shared. Genetic differentiation among subspecies, based on allele size, was RST = 0.87, close to the theoretic maximum value. All evidence suggests longstanding and complete reproductive isolation in nature among the sibling species. They should be elevated to specific rank.


Molecular Genetic Variation Of Boll Weevil Populations In North America Estimated With Microsatellites: Implications For Patterns Of Dispersal, Kyung Seok Kim, Thomas W. Sappington May 2006

Molecular Genetic Variation Of Boll Weevil Populations In North America Estimated With Microsatellites: Implications For Patterns Of Dispersal, Kyung Seok Kim, Thomas W. Sappington

Entomology Publications

The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis Boheman) is an insect pest of cotton that underwent a well-documented range expansion across the southeastern U.S. from Mexico beginning about 110 years ago. Eleven microsatellite loci were surveyed to infer the magnitude and pattern of genetic differentiation among boll weevil populations from 18 locations across eight U.S. states and northeast Mexico. Estimates of genetic diversity (allelic diversity and heterozygosity) were greater in Southern than Northern populations, and were greater in the west than the east among Northern populations. Boll weevil populations were genetically structured as a whole across the geographic range sampled ...


Microgeographical Breeding Structure Of The Tsetse Fly, Glossina Pallidipes In South‐Western Kenya, J. O. Ouma, J. G. Marquez, E. S. Krafsur Mar 2006

Microgeographical Breeding Structure Of The Tsetse Fly, Glossina Pallidipes In South‐Western Kenya, J. O. Ouma, J. G. Marquez, E. S. Krafsur

Entomology Publications

The origins of extant G. pallidipes Austen (Diptera: Glossinidae) populations in the ecologically well studied Lambwe and Nguruman valleys in Kenya are controversial because populations have recovered after seemingly effective attempts to achieve high levels of control. We investigated microgeographic breeding structure of the tsetse fly, Glossina pallidipes (Diptera: Glossinidae) by analyzing spatial and temporal variation at eight microsatellite loci to test hypotheses about endemism and immigration. Samples were obtained at seasonal intervals from trap sites separated by 200 m to 14 km and arranged into blocks. G. pallidipes populations nearest to Lambwe and Nguruman also were sampled. Spatial analysis ...


Dispersal Of Boll Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) From Cotton Modules Before Ginning, Thomas W. Sappington, Mark D. Arnold, Alan D. Brashears, Megha N. Parajulee, Stanley C. Carroll, Allen E. Knutson, John W. Norman Jr. Feb 2006

Dispersal Of Boll Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) From Cotton Modules Before Ginning, Thomas W. Sappington, Mark D. Arnold, Alan D. Brashears, Megha N. Parajulee, Stanley C. Carroll, Allen E. Knutson, John W. Norman Jr.

Entomology Publications

We characterized the level of risk of boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, reintroduction to an eradication zone posed by dispersal from cotton modules during and after transport to the gin. Mark–release-recapture experiments in August and September in Texas indicated that most weevils disperse rapidly from the module surface, temperature permitting, unless confined under a module tarp, where most died. Nevertheless, 1–5% of released weevils were recovered alive after 24 h on the side and top surfaces of modules, representing potential dispersants. Mortality of boll weevils caged on the top surface of a module was 95–100% after ...