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Articles 1 - 11 of 11

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Limited Functional Redundancy And Oscillation Of Cyclins In Multinucleated Ashbya Gossypii Fungal Cells, A. Katrin Hungerbuehler, Peter Philippsen, Amy S. Gladfelter Nov 2006

Limited Functional Redundancy And Oscillation Of Cyclins In Multinucleated Ashbya Gossypii Fungal Cells, A. Katrin Hungerbuehler, Peter Philippsen, Amy S. Gladfelter

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Cyclin protein behavior has not been systematically investigated in multinucleated cells with asynchronous mitoses. Cyclins are canonical oscillating cell cycle proteins, but it is unclear how fluctuating protein gradients can be established in multinucleated cells where nuclei in different stages of the division cycle share the cytoplasm. Previous work in A. gossypii, a filamentous fungus in which nuclei divide asynchronously in a common cytoplasm, demonstrated that one G1 and one B-type cyclin do not fluctuate in abundance across the division cycle. We have undertaken a comprehensive analysis of all G1 and B-type cyclins in A. gossypii to determine whether any ...


The Allantois And Chorion, When Isolated Before Circulation Or Chorio-Allantoic Fusion, Have Hematopoietic Potential, Brandon M. Zeigler, Daisuke Sugiyama, Michael Chen, Yalin Guo, K. M. Downs, N. A. Speck Nov 2006

The Allantois And Chorion, When Isolated Before Circulation Or Chorio-Allantoic Fusion, Have Hematopoietic Potential, Brandon M. Zeigler, Daisuke Sugiyama, Michael Chen, Yalin Guo, K. M. Downs, N. A. Speck

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The chorio-allantoic placenta forms through the fusion of the allantois (progenitor tissue of the umbilical cord), with the chorionic plate. The murine placenta contains high levels of hematopoietic stem cells, and is therefore a stem cell niche. However, it is not known whether the placenta is a site of hematopoietic cell emergence, or whether hematopoietic cells originate from other sites in the conceptus and then colonize the placenta. Here, we show that the allantois and chorion, isolated prior to the establishment of circulation, have the potential to give rise to myeloid and definitive erythroid cells following explant culture. We further ...


Circadian Rhythmicity By Autocatalysis, Arun Mehra, Christian I. Hong, Mi Shi, Jennifer J. Loros, Jay C. Dunlap, Peter Ruoff Jul 2006

Circadian Rhythmicity By Autocatalysis, Arun Mehra, Christian I. Hong, Mi Shi, Jennifer J. Loros, Jay C. Dunlap, Peter Ruoff

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The temperature compensated in vitro oscillation of cyanobacterial KaiC phosphorylation, the first example of a thermodynamically closed system showing circadian rhythmicity, only involves the three Kai proteins (KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC) and ATP. In this paper, we describe a model in which the KaiA- and KaiB-assisted autocatalytic phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of KaiC are the source for circadian rhythmicity. This model, based upon autocatalysis instead of transcription-translation negative feedback, shows temperature-compensated circadian limit-cycle oscillations with KaiC phosphorylation profiles and has period lengths and rate constant values that are consistent with experimental observations.


A Subset Of Arabidopsis Ap2 Transcription Factors Mediates Cytokinin Responses In Concert With A Two-Component Pathway, Aaron M. Rashotte, Michael G. Mason, Claire E. Hutchison, Fernando J. Ferreira, G. Eric Schaller, Joseph J. Kieber Jul 2006

A Subset Of Arabidopsis Ap2 Transcription Factors Mediates Cytokinin Responses In Concert With A Two-Component Pathway, Aaron M. Rashotte, Michael G. Mason, Claire E. Hutchison, Fernando J. Ferreira, G. Eric Schaller, Joseph J. Kieber

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The plant hormone cytokinin regulates numerous growth and developmental processes. A signal transduction pathway for cytokinin has been elucidated that is similar to bacterial two-component phosphorelays. In Arabidopsis, this pathway is comprised of receptors that are similar to sensor histidine kinases, histidine-containing phosphotransfer proteins, and response regulators (ARRs). There are two classes of response regulators, the type-A ARRs, which act as negative regulators of cytokinin responses, and the type-B ARRs, which are transcription factors that play a positive role in mediating cytokinin-regulated gene expression. Here we show that several closely related members of the Arabidopsis AP2 gene family of unknown ...


Saccharomyces Cerevisiae-Based Molecular Tool Kit For Manipulation Of Genes From Gram-Negative Bacteria, Robert M. Q. Shanks, Nicky C. Caiazza, Shannon M. Hinsa, Christine M. Toutain, George A. O'Toole Jul 2006

Saccharomyces Cerevisiae-Based Molecular Tool Kit For Manipulation Of Genes From Gram-Negative Bacteria, Robert M. Q. Shanks, Nicky C. Caiazza, Shannon M. Hinsa, Christine M. Toutain, George A. O'Toole

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

A tool kit of vectors was designed to manipulate and express genes from a wide range of gram-negative species by using in vivo recombination. Saccharomyces cerevisiae can use its native recombination proteins to combine several amplicons in a single transformation step with high efficiency. We show that this technology is particularly useful for vector design. Shuttle, suicide, and expression vectors useful in a diverse group of bacteria are described and utilized. This report describes the use of these vectors to mutate clpX and clpP of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa and to explore their roles in biofilm formation and surface ...


Bounded Search For De Novo Identification Of Degenerate Cis-Regulatory Elements, Jonathan M. Carlson, Arijit Chakravarty, Radhika S. Khetani, Robert H. Gross May 2006

Bounded Search For De Novo Identification Of Degenerate Cis-Regulatory Elements, Jonathan M. Carlson, Arijit Chakravarty, Radhika S. Khetani, Robert H. Gross

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The identification of statistically overrepresented sequences in the upstream regions of coregulated genes should theoretically permit the identification of potential cis-regulatory elements. However, in practice many cis-regulatory elements are highly degenerate, precluding the use of an exhaustive word-counting strategy for their identification. While numerous methods exist for inferring base distributions using a position weight matrix, recent studies suggest that the independence assumptions inherent in the model, as well as the inability to reach a global optimum, limit this approach.


A Role For Cetp Taqib Polymorphism In Determining Susceptibility To Atrial Fibrillation: A Nested Case Control Study, Folkert W. Asselbergs, Jason H. Moore, Maarten P. Van Den Berg, Eric B. Rimm Apr 2006

A Role For Cetp Taqib Polymorphism In Determining Susceptibility To Atrial Fibrillation: A Nested Case Control Study, Folkert W. Asselbergs, Jason H. Moore, Maarten P. Van Den Berg, Eric B. Rimm

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Studies investigating the genetic and environmental characteristics of atrial fibrillation (AF) may provide new insights in the complex development of AF. We aimed to investigate the association between several environmental factors and loci of candidate genes, which might be related to the presence of AF. A nested case-control study within the PREVEND cohort was conducted. Standard 12 lead electrocardiograms were recorded and AF was defined according to Minnesota codes. For every case, an age and gender matched control was selected from the same population (n = 194). In addition to logistic regression analyses, the multifactor-dimensionality reduction (MDR) method and interaction entropy ...


Dissecting Trait Heterogeneity: A Comparison Of Three Clustering Methods Applied To Genotypic Data, Tricia A. Thornton-Wells, Jason H. Moore, Jonathan L. Haines Apr 2006

Dissecting Trait Heterogeneity: A Comparison Of Three Clustering Methods Applied To Genotypic Data, Tricia A. Thornton-Wells, Jason H. Moore, Jonathan L. Haines

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Background: Trait heterogeneity, which exists when a trait has been defined with insufficient specificity such that it is actually two or more distinct traits, has been implicated as a confounding factor in traditional statistical genetics of complex hu man disease. In the absence of de tailed phenotypic data collected consistently in combination with genetic data, unsupervised computational methodologies offer the potential for discovering underlying trait heteroge neity. The performance of three such methods – Bayesian Classification, Hyperg raph-Based Clustering, and Fuzzy k -Modes Clustering – appropriate for categorical data were comp ared. Also tested was the ability of these methods to detect ...


Conservation Of The Pho Regulon In Pseudomonas Fluorescens Pf0-1, Russell D. Monds, Peter D. Newell, Julia A. Schwartzman, George A. O'Toole Mar 2006

Conservation Of The Pho Regulon In Pseudomonas Fluorescens Pf0-1, Russell D. Monds, Peter D. Newell, Julia A. Schwartzman, George A. O'Toole

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The Pho regulon integrates the sensing of environmental inorganic phosphate (Pi) availability with coregulation of gene expression, mediating an adaptive response to Pi limitation. Many aspects of the Pho regulon have been addressed in studies of Escherichia coli; however, it is unclear how transferable this knowledge is to other bacterial systems. Here, we report work to discern the conservation of the Pho regulon in Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1. We demonstrate by mutational studies that PhoB/PhoR and the Pst system have conserved functions in the regulation of Pi-induced phosphatase activities, as well as expression of other Pi-regulated genes. A genetic screen ...


Linking Direct And Indirect Data On Dispersal: Isolation By Slope In A Headwater Stream Salamander, Winsor H. Lowe, Gene E. Likens, Mark A. Mcpeek, Don C. Buso Feb 2006

Linking Direct And Indirect Data On Dispersal: Isolation By Slope In A Headwater Stream Salamander, Winsor H. Lowe, Gene E. Likens, Mark A. Mcpeek, Don C. Buso

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

There is growing recognition of the need to incorporate information on movement behavior in landscape-scale studies of dispersal. One way to do this is by using indirect indices of dispersal (e.g., genetic differentiation) to test predictions derived from direct data on movement behavior. Mark–recapture studies documented upstream-biased movement in the salamander Gyrinophilus porphyriticus (Plethodontidae). Based on this information, we hypothesized that gene flow in G. porphyriticus is affected by the slope of the stream. Specifically, because the energy required for upstream dispersal is positively related to slope, we predicted gene flow to be negatively related to change in ...


Gpnn: Power Studies And Applications Of A Neural Network Method For Detecting Gene-Gene Interactions In Studies Of Human Disease, Alison A. Motsinger, Stephen L. Lee, George Mellick, Marylyn D. Ritchie Jan 2006

Gpnn: Power Studies And Applications Of A Neural Network Method For Detecting Gene-Gene Interactions In Studies Of Human Disease, Alison A. Motsinger, Stephen L. Lee, George Mellick, Marylyn D. Ritchie

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The identification and characterization of genes that influence the risk of common, complex multifactorial disease primarily through interactions with other genes and environmental factors remains a statistical and computational challenge in genetic epidemiology. We have previously introduced a genetic programming optimized neural network (GPNN) as a method for optimizing the architecture of a neural network to improve the identification of gene combinations associated with disease risk. The goal of this study was to evaluate the power of GPNN for identifying high-order gene-gene interactions. We were also interested in applying GPNN to a real data analysis in Parkinson's disease.