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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Drosophila Rnase Z Processes Mitochondrial And Nuclear Pre-Trna 3′ Ends In Vivo, Edward B. Dubrovsky, Veronica A. Dubrovskaya, Louis Levinger, Steffen Schiffer, Anita Marchfelder Nov 2004

Drosophila Rnase Z Processes Mitochondrial And Nuclear Pre-Trna 3′ Ends In Vivo, Edward B. Dubrovsky, Veronica A. Dubrovskaya, Louis Levinger, Steffen Schiffer, Anita Marchfelder

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Although correct tRNA 3′ ends are crucial for protein biosynthesis, generation of mature tRNA 3′ ends in eukaryotes is poorly understood and has so far only been investigated in vitro. We report here for the first time that eukaryotic tRNA 3′ end maturation is catalysed by the endonuclease RNase Z in vivo. Silencing of the JhI‐1 gene (RNase Z homolog) in vivo with RNAi in Drosophila S2 cultured cells causes accumulation of nuclear and mitochondrial pre‐tRNAs, suggesting that JhI‐1 encodes both forms of the tRNA 3′ endonuclease RNase Z, and establishing its biological role in endonucleolytic tRNA ...


Phylogenetic Analysis Of The Formin Homology 2 Domain, Henry N. Higgs, Kevin J. Peterson Oct 2004

Phylogenetic Analysis Of The Formin Homology 2 Domain, Henry N. Higgs, Kevin J. Peterson

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Formin proteins are key regulators of eukaryotic actin filament assembly and elongation, and many species possess multiple formin isoforms. A nomenclature system based on fundamental features would be desirable, to aid the rapid identification and characterization of novel formins. In this article, we attempt to systematize the formin family by performing phylogenetic analyses of the formin homology 2 (FH2) domain, an independently folding region common to all formins, which alone can influence actin dynamics. Through database searches, we identify 101 FH2 domains from 26 eukaryotic species, including 15 in mice. Sequence alignments reveal a highly conserved yeast-specific insert in the ...


The Caenorhabditis Elegans F-Box Protein Sel-10 Promotes Female Development And May Target Fem-1 And Fem-3 For Degradation By The Proteasome, Sibylle Jager, Hillel T. Schwartz, H. Robert Horvitz, Barbara Conradt Aug 2004

The Caenorhabditis Elegans F-Box Protein Sel-10 Promotes Female Development And May Target Fem-1 And Fem-3 For Degradation By The Proteasome, Sibylle Jager, Hillel T. Schwartz, H. Robert Horvitz, Barbara Conradt

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The Caenorhabditis elegans F-box protein SEL-10 and its human homolog have been proposed to regulate LIN-12 Notch signaling by targeting for ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation LIN-12 Notch proteins and SEL-12 PS1 presenilins, the latter of which have been implicated in Alzheimer's disease. We found that sel-10 is the same gene as egl-41, which previously had been defined by gain-of-function mutations that semidominantly cause masculinization of the hermaphrodite soma. Our results demonstrate that mutations causing loss-of-function of sel-10 also have masculinizing activity, indicating that sel-10 functions to promote female development. Genetically, sel-10 acts upstream of the genes fem-1, fem-2, and fem-3 ...


The Kini Kinesin Kif2a Is Required For Bipolar Spindle Assembly Through A Functional Relationship With Mcak, Neil J. Ganem, Duane A. Compton Aug 2004

The Kini Kinesin Kif2a Is Required For Bipolar Spindle Assembly Through A Functional Relationship With Mcak, Neil J. Ganem, Duane A. Compton

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Although the microtubule-depolymerizing KinI motor Kif2a is abundantly expressed in neuronal cells, we now show it localizes to centrosomes and spindle poles during mitosis in cultured cells. RNAi-induced knockdown of Kif2a expression inhibited cell cycle progression because cells assembled monopolar spindles. Bipolar spindle assembly was restored in cells lacking Kif2a by treatments that altered microtubule assembly (nocodazole), eliminated kinetochore–microtubule attachment (loss of Nuf2), or stabilized microtubule plus ends at kinetochores (loss of MCAK). Thus, two KinI motors, MCAK and Kif2a, play distinct roles in mitosis, and MCAK activity at kinetochores must be balanced by Kif2a activity at poles for ...


Identification Of Sarv (Sa2062), A New Transcriptional Regulator, Is Repressed By Sara And Mgra (Sa0641) And Involved In The Regulation Of Autolysis In Staphylococcus Aureus, Adhar C. Manna, Susham S. Ingavale, Marybeth Maloney, Willem Van Wamel, Ambrose L. Cheung Aug 2004

Identification Of Sarv (Sa2062), A New Transcriptional Regulator, Is Repressed By Sara And Mgra (Sa0641) And Involved In The Regulation Of Autolysis In Staphylococcus Aureus, Adhar C. Manna, Susham S. Ingavale, Marybeth Maloney, Willem Van Wamel, Ambrose L. Cheung

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The expression of genes involved in the pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus is known to be controlled by global regulatory loci, including agr, sarA, sae, arlRS, lytSR, and sarA-like genes. Here we described a novel transcriptional regulator called sarV of the SarA protein family. The transcription of sarV is low or undetectable under in vitro conditions but is significantly augmented in sarA and mgrA (norR or rat) (SA0641) mutants. The sarA and mgrA genes act as repressors of sarV expression, as confirmed by transcriptional fusion and Northern analysis data. Purified SarA and MgrA proteins bound specifically to separate regions of the ...


Pf15p Is The Chlamydomonas Homologue Of The Katanin P80 Subunit And Is Required For Assembly Of Flagellar Central Microtubules, Erin E. Dymek, Paul A. Lefebvre, Elizabeth F. Smith Aug 2004

Pf15p Is The Chlamydomonas Homologue Of The Katanin P80 Subunit And Is Required For Assembly Of Flagellar Central Microtubules, Erin E. Dymek, Paul A. Lefebvre, Elizabeth F. Smith

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Numerous studies have indicated that the central apparatus plays a significant role in regulating flagellar motility, yet little is known about how the central pair of microtubules or their associated projections assemble. Several Chlamydomonas mutants are defective in central apparatus assembly. For example, mutant pf15 cells have paralyzed flagella that completely lack the central pair of microtubules. We have cloned the wild-type PF15 gene and confirmed its identity by rescuing the motility and ultrastructural defects in two pf15 alleles, the original pf15a mutant and a mutant generated by insertional mutagenesis. Database searches using the 798-amino-acid polypeptide predicted from the complete ...


Pv1 Is A Key Structural Component For The Formation Of The Stomatal And Fenestral Diaphragms, Radu V. Stan, Eugene Tkachenko, Ingrid R. Niesman May 2004

Pv1 Is A Key Structural Component For The Formation Of The Stomatal And Fenestral Diaphragms, Radu V. Stan, Eugene Tkachenko, Ingrid R. Niesman

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

PV1 is an endothelial-specific integral membrane glycoprotein associated with the stomatal diaphragms of caveolae, transendothelial channels, and vesiculo-vacuolar organelles and the diaphragms of endothelial fenestrae. Multiple PV1 homodimers are found within each stomatal and fenestral diaphragm. We investigated the function of PV1 within these diaphragms and their regulation and found that treatment of endothelial cells in culture with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) led to upregulation of PV1. This correlated with de novo formation of stomatal diaphragms of caveolae and transendothelial channels as well as fenestrae upon PMA treatment. The newly formed diaphragms could be labeled with anti-PV1 antibodies. The upregulation ...


Estimating Metazoan Divergence Times With A Molecular Clock, Kevin J. Peterson, Jessica B. Lyons, Kristin S. Nowak, Carter M. Takacs, Matthew J. Wargo, Mark A. Mcpeek Apr 2004

Estimating Metazoan Divergence Times With A Molecular Clock, Kevin J. Peterson, Jessica B. Lyons, Kristin S. Nowak, Carter M. Takacs, Matthew J. Wargo, Mark A. Mcpeek

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Accurately dating when the first bilaterally symmetrical animals arose is crucial to our understanding of early animal evolution. The earliest unequivocally bilaterian fossils are 555 million years old. In contrast, molecular-clock analyses calibrated by using the fossil record of vertebrates estimate that vertebrates split from dipterans (Drosophila) 900 million years ago (Ma). Nonetheless, comparative genomic analyses suggest that a significant rate difference exists between vertebrates and dipterans, because the percentage difference between the genomes of mosquito and fly is greater than between fish and mouse, even though the vertebrate divergence is almost twice that of the dipteran. Here we show ...


The C. Elegans Heterochronic Gene Lin-46 Affects Developmental Timing At Two Larval Stages And Encodes A Relative Of The Scaffolding Protein Gephyrin, A. S.-R. Pepper, Jill E. Mccane, Kevin Kemper, Dennis Au Yeung, Rosalind C. Lee, Victor Ambros, Eric G. Moss Apr 2004

The C. Elegans Heterochronic Gene Lin-46 Affects Developmental Timing At Two Larval Stages And Encodes A Relative Of The Scaffolding Protein Gephyrin, A. S.-R. Pepper, Jill E. Mccane, Kevin Kemper, Dennis Au Yeung, Rosalind C. Lee, Victor Ambros, Eric G. Moss

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The succession of developmental events in the C. elegans larva is governed by the heterochronic genes. When mutated, these genes cause either precocious or retarded developmental phenotypes, in which stage-specific patterns of cell division and differentiation are either skipped or reiterated, respectively. We identified a new heterochronic gene, lin-46, from mutations that suppress the precocious phenotypes caused by mutations in the heterochronic genes lin-14 and lin-28. lin-46 mutants on their own display retarded phenotypes in which cell division patterns are reiterated and differentiation is prevented in certain cell lineages. Our analysis indicates that lin-46 acts at a step immediately downstream ...


A Subgroup Algorithm To Identify Cross-Rotation Peaks Consistent With Non-Crystallographic Symmetry, Ryan H. Lilien, Chris Bailey-Kellogg, Amy C. Anderson, Bruce R. Donald Mar 2004

A Subgroup Algorithm To Identify Cross-Rotation Peaks Consistent With Non-Crystallographic Symmetry, Ryan H. Lilien, Chris Bailey-Kellogg, Amy C. Anderson, Bruce R. Donald

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Molecular replacement (MR) often plays a prominent role in determining initial phase angles for structure determination by X-ray crystallography. In this paper, an efficient quaternion-based algorithm is presented for analyzing peaks from a cross-rotation function in order to identify model orientations consistent with proper non-crystallographic symmetry (NCS) and to generate proper NCS-consistent orientations missing from the list of cross-rotation peaks. The algorithm, CRANS, analyzes the rotation differences between each pair of cross-rotation peaks to identify finite subgroups. Sets of rotation differences satisfying the subgroup axioms correspond to orientations compatible with the correct proper NCS. The CRANS algorithm was first tested ...


The Cohesion Protein Ord Is Required For Homologue Bias During Meiotic Recombination, Hayley A. Webber, Louisa Howard, Sharon E. Bickel Mar 2004

The Cohesion Protein Ord Is Required For Homologue Bias During Meiotic Recombination, Hayley A. Webber, Louisa Howard, Sharon E. Bickel

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

During meiosis, sister chromatid cohesion is required for normal levels of homologous recombination, although how cohesion regulates exchange is not understood. Null mutations in orientation disruptor (ord) ablate arm and centromeric cohesion during Drosophila meiosis and severely reduce homologous crossovers in mutant oocytes. We show that ORD protein localizes along oocyte chromosomes during the stages in which recombination occurs. Although synaptonemal complex (SC) components initially associate with synapsed homologues in ord mutants, their localization is severely disrupted during pachytene progression, and normal tripartite SC is not visible by electron microscopy. In ord germaria, meiotic double strand breaks appear and disappear ...


Analysis Of Microtubule Sliding Patterns In Chlamydomonas Flagellar Axonemes Reveals Dynein Activity On Specific Doublet Microtubules, M. J. Wargo, Mark A. Mcpeek, Elizabeth F. Smith Jan 2004

Analysis Of Microtubule Sliding Patterns In Chlamydomonas Flagellar Axonemes Reveals Dynein Activity On Specific Doublet Microtubules, M. J. Wargo, Mark A. Mcpeek, Elizabeth F. Smith

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Generating the complex waveforms characteristic of beating eukaryotic cilia and flagella requires spatial regulation of dynein-driven microtubule sliding. To generate bending, one prediction is that dynein arms alternate between active and inactive forms on specific subsets of doublet microtubules. Using an in vitro microtubule sliding assay combined with a structural approach, we determined that ATP induces sliding between specific subsets of doublet microtubules, apparently capturing one phase of the beat cycle. These studies were also conducted using high Ca2+ conditions. InChlamydomonas, high Ca2+ induces changes in waveform which are predicted to result from regulating dynein

activity on specific microtubules. Our ...


Bcma Is Essential For The Survival Of Long-Lived Bone Marrow Plasma Cells, Brian P. O'Connor, Vanitha S. Raman, Loren D. Erickson, W. James Cook, Lehn K. Weaver, Cory Ahonen, Ling-Li Lin, George Mantchev, Richard J. Bram, Randolph J. Noelle Jan 2004

Bcma Is Essential For The Survival Of Long-Lived Bone Marrow Plasma Cells, Brian P. O'Connor, Vanitha S. Raman, Loren D. Erickson, W. James Cook, Lehn K. Weaver, Cory Ahonen, Ling-Li Lin, George Mantchev, Richard J. Bram, Randolph J. Noelle

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Long-lived humoral immunity is manifested by the ability of bone marrow plasma cells (PCs) to survive for extended periods of time. Recent studies have underscored the importance of BLyS and APRIL as factors that can support the survival of B lineage lymphocytes. We show that BLyS can sustain PC survival in vitro, and this survival can be further enhanced by inter- leukin 6. Selective up-regulation of Mcl-1 in PCs by BLyS suggests that this 􏰀-apoptotic gene product may play an important role in PC survival. Blockade of BLyS, via transmembrane activator and cyclophilin ligand interactor–immunoglobulin treatment, inhibited PC survival ...