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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Isolation And Characterization Of Polymorphic Microsatellite Loci In The Boll Weevil, Anthonomus Grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Kyung Seok Kim, Thomas W. Sappington Dec 2004

Isolation And Characterization Of Polymorphic Microsatellite Loci In The Boll Weevil, Anthonomus Grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Kyung Seok Kim, Thomas W. Sappington

Entomology Publications

The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis Boheman) is a major insect pest of cotton in North America. Dispersal activity poses a threat to ongoing eradication efforts in the US, but little is known about the frequency of long-distance migration. Nuclear molecular markers are needed to assess gene flow in relation to geographical distance. A biotin-enrichment strategy was employed to develop microsatellite markers for the boll weevil. Of 23 loci isolated, 14 were polymorphic with three to 10 alleles per locus. Twelve of the polymorphic loci showed Mendelian inheritance and are likely to be useful in population genetics studies.


Potential For Escape Of Live Boll Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Into Cottonseed, Motes, And Cleaned Lint At The Cotton Gin, Thomas W. Sappington, Alan D. Brashears, Megha N. Parajulee, Stanley C. Carroll, Mark D. Arnold, Roy V. Baker Dec 2004

Potential For Escape Of Live Boll Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Into Cottonseed, Motes, And Cleaned Lint At The Cotton Gin, Thomas W. Sappington, Alan D. Brashears, Megha N. Parajulee, Stanley C. Carroll, Mark D. Arnold, Roy V. Baker

Entomology Publications

Reintroductions of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, into areas of the United States where it has been eradicated or suppressed are very expensive to mitigate. There is concern that a cotton gin in an eradication zone may serve as a site of boll weevil reintroductions when processing cotton harvested in a neighboring infested zone. Similarly, there is a question whether weevil-free areas can safely import gin products, such as cottonseed and baled lint, from infested areas without risking an introduction. Many countries require fumigation of imported U.S. cotton bales to protect against boll weevil introductions, costing the ...


Boll Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Survival Through Cotton Gin Trash Fans, Thomas W. Sappington, Alan D. Brashears, Megha N. Parajulee, Stanley C. Carroll, Mark D. Arnold, Roy V. Baker Oct 2004

Boll Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Survival Through Cotton Gin Trash Fans, Thomas W. Sappington, Alan D. Brashears, Megha N. Parajulee, Stanley C. Carroll, Mark D. Arnold, Roy V. Baker

Entomology Publications

There is concern that cotton gins may serve as loci for reintroduction of boll weevils,Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, to eradicated or suppressed zones when processing weevil-infested cotton from neighboring zones. Previous work has shown that virtually all weevils entering the gin in the seed cotton will be removed before they reach the gin stand. Those not killed by the seed cotton cleaning machinery will be shunted alive into the trash fraction, which passes through a centrifugal trash fan before exiting the gin. The objective of this study was to determine survival potential of boll weevils passed through a trash ...


Effects Of Insecticides And Defoliants Applied Alone And In Combination For Control Of Overwintering Boll Weevil (Anthonomus Grandis; Coleoptera: Curculionidae)—Laboratory And Field Studies, Shoil M. Greenberg, Thomas W. Sappington, Gary W. Elzen, John W. Norman, Alton N. Sparks Sep 2004

Effects Of Insecticides And Defoliants Applied Alone And In Combination For Control Of Overwintering Boll Weevil (Anthonomus Grandis; Coleoptera: Curculionidae)—Laboratory And Field Studies, Shoil M. Greenberg, Thomas W. Sappington, Gary W. Elzen, John W. Norman, Alton N. Sparks

Entomology Publications

In laboratory, greenhouse and field tests, we determined the effects of combining full rates of the defoliants tribufos and thidiazuron and the herbicide thifensulfuron-methyl with half rates of the insecticides lambda-cyhalothrin or azinphos-methyl, and the combination of tribufos and thidiazuron, both in half rates, on mortality of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman and on the quality of defoliation. Tribufos, 0.47 kg ha−1 and tribufos, 0.235 kg ha−1 + thidiazuron, 0.125 kg ha−1 exhibited a slightly toxic effect to boll weevil, while tribufos, 0.47 kg ha−1+ lambda − cyhalothrin, 0.019 kg ha ...


Boll Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Survival Through The Seed Cotton Cleaning Process In The Cotton Gin, Thomas W. Sappington, Alan D. Brashears, Megha N. Parajulee, Stanley C. Carroll, Mark D. Arnold, Roy V. Baker Aug 2004

Boll Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Survival Through The Seed Cotton Cleaning Process In The Cotton Gin, Thomas W. Sappington, Alan D. Brashears, Megha N. Parajulee, Stanley C. Carroll, Mark D. Arnold, Roy V. Baker

Entomology Publications

There is concern that gins located in boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, eradication zones may become points of reintroduction when they process cotton grown in a neighboring infested area. We estimated boll weevil survival through two typical machine sequences used in commercial cotton gins to clean and dry the seed cotton in advance of the gin stand, as well as separately through two incline cylinder cleaners or one or two tower dryers operating at different temperatures. Large numbers of laboratory-reared adult boll weevils were marked with fluorescent powder, fed into the test system, and recovered with the assistance of ...


Potential For Transport Of Boll Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) To The Cotton Gin Within Cotton Modules, Thomas W. Sappington, Alan D. Brashears, Megha N. Parajulee, Stanley C. Carroll, Mark D. Arnold, John W. Norman Jr., Allen E. Knutson Jun 2004

Potential For Transport Of Boll Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) To The Cotton Gin Within Cotton Modules, Thomas W. Sappington, Alan D. Brashears, Megha N. Parajulee, Stanley C. Carroll, Mark D. Arnold, John W. Norman Jr., Allen E. Knutson

Entomology Publications

There is concern that cotton gins located in boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandisBoheman, eradication zones serving customers in adjacent infested zones may serve as a site for boll weevil reintroductions if weevils are transported alive inside cotton modules. We surveyed fields in three distinct areas of Texas and found that weevils can be present in large numbers in cotton fields that have been defoliated and desiccated in preparation for harvest, both as free adults and as immatures inside unopened bolls. Harvested cotton taken from module builders indicated that ≈100–3,700 adult boll weevils were packed inside modules constructed ...


Genetic Structuring Of Boll Weevil Populations In The Us Based On Rapd Markers, K. S. Kim, Thomas W. Sappington Jun 2004

Genetic Structuring Of Boll Weevil Populations In The Us Based On Rapd Markers, K. S. Kim, Thomas W. Sappington

Entomology Publications

Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was performed to infer the magnitude and pattern of genetic differentiation among boll weevil populations from eighteen locations across eight US states and north-east Mexico. Sixty-seven reproducible bands from six random primers were analysed for genetic variation within and between weevil populations. Genetic and geographical distances among all populations were positively correlated, reflecting a pattern of isolation by distance within a larger metapopulation. Gene flow between south-central, western and eastern regions is limited, but migration between locations within regions appears to be relatively frequent up to distances of ∼300–400 km. However, estimates of ...


Effects Of Burial And Soil Condition On Postharvest Mortality Of Boll Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) In Fallen Cotton Fruit, Shoil M. Greenberg, A. T. Showler, Thomas W. Sappington, J. M. Bradford Apr 2004

Effects Of Burial And Soil Condition On Postharvest Mortality Of Boll Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) In Fallen Cotton Fruit, Shoil M. Greenberg, A. T. Showler, Thomas W. Sappington, J. M. Bradford

Entomology Publications

Effects of soil condition and burial on boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, mortality in fallen cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., fruit were assessed in this study. During hot weather immediately after summer harvest operations in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas, burial of infested fruit in conventionally tilled field plots permitted significantly greater survival of weevils than in no-tillage plots. Burial of infested squares protected developing weevils from heat and desiccation that cause high mortality on the soil surface during and after harvest in midsummer and late summer. A laboratory assay showed that burial of infested squares resulted in ...


Influence Of Different Cotton Fruit Sizes On Boll Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Oviposition And Survival To Adulthood, Shoil M. Greenberg, Thomas W. Sappington, Mamoudou Setamou, R. J. Coleman Apr 2004

Influence Of Different Cotton Fruit Sizes On Boll Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Oviposition And Survival To Adulthood, Shoil M. Greenberg, Thomas W. Sappington, Mamoudou Setamou, R. J. Coleman

Entomology Publications

Understanding the critical host plant factors that determine oviposition behavior and survival of boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, on cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., is important for developing successful pest management strategies. However, published information is both conflicting and limited regarding how different cotton fruit sizes affect boll weevil oviposition choices and subsequent larval survival to adulthood. Consequently, we used a standard based on fruit size diameter to evaluate boll weevil feeding and oviposition punctures, and survival to adulthood on 10 different cotton fruit sizes: squares of diameter 1.5–2.0 (pinhead), 3.0–3.5 (matchhead), 5–6 ...


Influence Of Different Cotton Fruit Sizes On Boll Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Oviposition And Survival To Adulthoods., S. M. Greenberg, T. W. Sappington, M. Sétamou, R. J. Coleman Jan 2004

Influence Of Different Cotton Fruit Sizes On Boll Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Oviposition And Survival To Adulthoods., S. M. Greenberg, T. W. Sappington, M. Sétamou, R. J. Coleman

Publications from USDA-ARS / UNL Faculty

Understanding the critical host plant factors that determine oviposition behavior and survival of boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, on cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., is important for developing successful pest management strategies. However, published information is both conflicting and limited regarding how different cotton fruit sizes affect boll weevil oviposition choices and subsequent larval survival to adulthood. Consequently, we used a standard based on fruit size diameter to evaluate boll weevil feeding and oviposition punctures, and survival to adulthood on 10 different cotton fruit sizes: squares of diameter 1.5-2.0 (pinhead), 3.0-3.5 (matchhead), 5-6, 7-8, or 9-10 ...


Boll Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Survival Through The Seed Cotton Cleaning Process In The Cotton Gin, Thomas W. Sappington, Alan D. Brashears, Megha N. Parajulee, Stanley C. Carroll, Mark D. Arnold, Roy V. Baker Jan 2004

Boll Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Survival Through The Seed Cotton Cleaning Process In The Cotton Gin, Thomas W. Sappington, Alan D. Brashears, Megha N. Parajulee, Stanley C. Carroll, Mark D. Arnold, Roy V. Baker

Publications from USDA-ARS / UNL Faculty

There is concern that gins located in boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, eradication zones may become points of reintroduction when they process cotton grown in a neighboring infested area. We estimated boll weevil survival through two typical machine sequences used in commercial cotton gins to clean and dry the seed cotton in advance of the gin stand, as well as separately through two incline cylinder cleaners or one or two tower dryers operating at different temperatures. Large numbers of laboratory-reared adult boll weevils were marked with fluorescent powder, fed into the test system, and recovered with the assistance of ...


Effects Of Burial And Soil Condition On Postharvest Mortality Of Boll Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) In Fallen Cotton Fruit, S. M. Greenberg, A. T. Showler, T. W. Sappington, J. M. Bradford Jan 2004

Effects Of Burial And Soil Condition On Postharvest Mortality Of Boll Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) In Fallen Cotton Fruit, S. M. Greenberg, A. T. Showler, T. W. Sappington, J. M. Bradford

Publications from USDA-ARS / UNL Faculty

Effects of soil condition and burial on boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, mortality in fallen cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., fruit were assessed in this study. During hot weather immediately after summer harvest operations in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas, burial of infested fruit in conventionally tilled field plots permitted significantly greater survival of weevils than in no-tillage plots. Burial of infested squares protected developing weevils from heat and desiccation that cause high mortality on the soil surface during and after harvest in midsummer and late summer. A laboratory assay showed that burial of infested squares resulted in ...


Potential For Transport Of Boll Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) To The Cotton Gin Within Cotton Modules, Thomas W. Sappington, Alan D. Brashears, Megha N. Parajulee, Stanley C. Carroll, Mark D. Arnold, John W. Norman Jr., Allen E. Knutson Jan 2004

Potential For Transport Of Boll Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) To The Cotton Gin Within Cotton Modules, Thomas W. Sappington, Alan D. Brashears, Megha N. Parajulee, Stanley C. Carroll, Mark D. Arnold, John W. Norman Jr., Allen E. Knutson

Publications from USDA-ARS / UNL Faculty

There is concern that cotton gins located in boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, eradication zones serving customers in adjacent infested zones may serve as a site for boll weevil reintroductions if weevils are transported alive inside cotton modules. We surveyed fields in three distinct areas of Texas and found that weevils can be present in large numbers in cotton fields that have been defoliated and desiccated in preparation for harvest, both as free adults and as immatures inside unopened bolls. Harvested cotton taken from module builders indicated that ∞100-3,700 adult boll weevils were packed inside modules constructed at ...


Boll Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Survival Through Cotton Gin Trash Fans, Thomas W. Sappington, Alan D. Brashears, Megha N. Parajulee, Stanley C. Carroll, Mark D. Arnold, Roy V. Baker Jan 2004

Boll Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Survival Through Cotton Gin Trash Fans, Thomas W. Sappington, Alan D. Brashears, Megha N. Parajulee, Stanley C. Carroll, Mark D. Arnold, Roy V. Baker

Publications from USDA-ARS / UNL Faculty

There is concern that cotton gins may serve as loci for reintroduction of boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, to eradicated or suppressed zones when processing weevil infested cotton from neighboring zones. Previous work has shown that virtually all weevils entering the gin in the seed cotton will be removed before they reach the gin stand. Those not killed by the seed cotton cleaning machinery will be shunted alive into the trash fraction, which passes through a centrifugal trash fan before exiting the gin. The objective of this study was to determine survival potential of boll weevils passed through a ...


Potential For Escape Of Live Boll Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Into Cottonseed, Motes, And Cleaned Lint At The Cotton Gin, Thomas W. Sappington, Alan D. Brashears, Megha N. Parajulee, Stanley C. Carroll, Mark D. Arnold, Roy V. Baker Jan 2004

Potential For Escape Of Live Boll Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Into Cottonseed, Motes, And Cleaned Lint At The Cotton Gin, Thomas W. Sappington, Alan D. Brashears, Megha N. Parajulee, Stanley C. Carroll, Mark D. Arnold, Roy V. Baker

Publications from USDA-ARS / UNL Faculty

Reintroductions of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, into areas of the United States where it has been eradicated or suppressed are very expensive to mitigate. There is concern that a cotton gin in an eradication zone may serve as a site of boll weevil reintroductions when processing cotton harvested in a neighboring infested zone. Similarly, there is a question whether weevil-free areas can safely import gin products, such as cottonseed and baled lint, from infested areas without risking an introduction. Many countries require fumigation of imported U.S. cotton bales to protect against boll weevil introductions, costing the ...