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The Phosphorus Index, U.S. Department Of Agriculture Dec 2004

The Phosphorus Index, U.S. Department Of Agriculture

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The Phosphorus Index is a tool used to assess the potential for phosphorus (P) to move from agricultural fields to surface water. It uses an integrated approach that considers soil and landscape features as well as soil conservation and P management practices in individual fields. These characteristics include source factors such as soil test P; total soil P; rate, method, and timing of P application from commercial fertilizer, manure, and other organic sources; and erosion. Transport factors include sediment delivery, relative field location in the watershed, soil conservation practices, precipitation, runoff, and tile flow/subsurface drainage. Erosion, runoff and drainage ...


Marketing Opportunities For Organic And Non-Gmo Crops, Kathleen Delate, Robert Turnbull, Jerry Dewitt Dec 2004

Marketing Opportunities For Organic And Non-Gmo Crops, Kathleen Delate, Robert Turnbull, Jerry Dewitt

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

According to the USDA Economic Research Service, Iowa ranks fifth in the U.S. in terms of organic production acres (USDA-ERS, 2004). The U.S. organic industry continues to grow at a rate of 20% annually (OTA, 2004) and is currently a $13 billion industry. Projected growth puts U.S. organic sales at $20 billion by 2006. There were approximately 100,000 acres of organic production reported to the Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship (IDALS, 2003). This figure reflects only acreage reported by those farmers who returned their survey; thus, more acres are believed to go unreported. This ...


With High Fertilizer Prices Is It Business As Usual Or Should Fertilization Practices Change?, John E. Sawyer Dec 2004

With High Fertilizer Prices Is It Business As Usual Or Should Fertilization Practices Change?, John E. Sawyer

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

After the spike in natural gas price in the winter of 2000-2001 the price of natural gas and N fertilizers have fluctuated, but remained above previous historic levels. Seasonal trends have also resulted in both N product availability and high cost issues, including this fall. Recently, similar problems have hit phosphate and potash fertilizers where world demand and production problems (hurricanes affecting phosphate production in Florida) have negatively affected product price and supply in the United States. With these trends, are there fertilizer use practices that should change, or does crop response to fertilization pay no matter the cost? Crop ...


Iron Deficiency Chlorosis: Management For Hot Spots And Whole Fields, Seth Naeve Dec 2004

Iron Deficiency Chlorosis: Management For Hot Spots And Whole Fields, Seth Naeve

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Iron Deficiency Chlorosis impacts soybean yields primarily in the Western Corn Belt. Iron Deficiency Chlorosis (more commonly iron chlorosis) is a complex plant disorder that is driven primarily by a nutrient deficiency (iron), usually manifested where soil pH is greater than 7.5. Although Midwestern soils are abundant in iron, higher pH soils cause iron to be in a form that is less available to plants, i.e. it cannot be absorbed. Iron chlorosis, however, does not occur in all high pH soils. A multitude of other soil factors interact to impact iron chlorosis in soybean. Soil chemical properties such ...


Soybean Aphid Management Update: What To Select From A Variety Of Pest Management Tools?, Matt O'Neal, Kevin Johnson Dec 2004

Soybean Aphid Management Update: What To Select From A Variety Of Pest Management Tools?, Matt O'Neal, Kevin Johnson

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Soybean aphid experience in Iowa: Like most of the Midwest, Iowa soybean growers were introduced to a new pest when the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Homoptera: Aphididae), arrived in 2000. And like many other states, Iowa has experienced large populations of aphids (>2,000/plant) in two of the past five years that the aphid has been in the state (Lang 2003, M. O'Neal unpublished). Although not well understood, there is an apparent oscillation in aphid populations between years with large populations occurring in 2001 and 2003, and low populations (<500 aphids per plant) occurring in 2002 and 2004.


Do We Really Need To Inoculate Our Fields?, Palle Pedersen Dec 2004

Do We Really Need To Inoculate Our Fields?, Palle Pedersen

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Currently, there is a lot of interest in soybean seed inoculation. Several new products have entered the market and created a renewed interest in seed inoculation even on fields that have a history of soybean production. As a result of this renewed interest and the lack of information from Iowa, a soybean inoculant evaluation trial was initiated this year in Iowa to evaluate these products. Our objective was to determine if we need to adjust our current recommendations when using inoculants. Twelve different inoculants were tested at two locations (Ames and Vincent) in Iowa. Averaged across locations, none of the ...


Renewed Interest In Foliar Fungicide Use On Field Crops, Laura E. Sweets Dec 2004

Renewed Interest In Foliar Fungicide Use On Field Crops, Laura E. Sweets

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Although the use of chemicals or fungicides to control plant diseases can be traced back as far as 1000 B.C., it was not until the 1930's- 1960's that substantial efforts were devoted to the development of non-corrosive and non-phytotoxic fungicides. Among the first of the "modern" fungicides were the dithiocarbamate fungicides such as thiram, maneb, and zineb. These materials have broad-spectrum activity but are contact, protectant fungicides. Dithiocarbamate fungicides were used for control of field crop diseases and there still are several formulations labeled for use on field crops. Their use has declined because they are protectants ...


Poulty Manure Impacts On Water Quality, Melissa R. Cheatham, R. S. Kanwar, J. Lorimor, H. Xin, C. Pedersen Dec 2004

Poulty Manure Impacts On Water Quality, Melissa R. Cheatham, R. S. Kanwar, J. Lorimor, H. Xin, C. Pedersen

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Iowa's egg industry continues to grow each year. In 2001, Iowa became the number one egg producing state in the US, producing 8.69 billion eggs (USDA, 2003; USDA 2002). Iowa broke its record the following year producing 10.1 billion eggs which it topped again in 2003 producing 10.1 billion eggs, thus maintaining its position as number one egg producing state in the US (USDA, 2003; USDA, 2004). With this success comes the added weight of maintaining this status, as well as, managing for all the manure that is generated by being the number one producer. Poultry ...


Ecology And Management Of Diseases Of Soybean That Occurred In Iowa During The 2004 Season. Part Ii: Stem And Root Diseases, Alison Robertson, X. B. Yang Dec 2004

Ecology And Management Of Diseases Of Soybean That Occurred In Iowa During The 2004 Season. Part Ii: Stem And Root Diseases, Alison Robertson, X. B. Yang

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The 2004 season growing season had cooler than normal temperatures associated with frequent rainfalls. The weather conditions were favorable for the occurrence of many soybean diseases. This season, we saw the worst ever outbreaks of white mold and sudden death syndrome, which resulted in considerable damage for many soybean producers. Both diseases were reported in two-to-three weeks earlier in the growing season than usual. Severe white mold outbreaks were found in eastern Iowa, especially from Interstate 80 north. Our quick-and-dirty survey indicates about 20% of soybean fields were affected with white mold in that region, and some fields were up ...


Pesticide Use And Water Quality, Rich Pope, Mary Skopec, Jim Ellerhoff Dec 2004

Pesticide Use And Water Quality, Rich Pope, Mary Skopec, Jim Ellerhoff

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Understanding use rates and use patterns of pesticides is valuable to the agricultural industry for manufacturers, registrants, regulatory agencies, environmental interests and pesticide end-users. There are several sources of data, including surveys of pesticide users, monitoring of pesticide detections in the environment, and indirect measures including tracking pesticide sales. The Iowa Groundwater Protection Act of 1987 directed the Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship (IDALS) to collect pesticide sales data from pesticide dealers. The dollar sales data, which is confidential business information, is being used to calculate approximate pounds of active ingredients for pesticides which might impact surface or ...


Helping Your Livestock Clients Meet Dnr's New Mmp And Phosphorus Requirements, Jeremy Klatt Dec 2004

Helping Your Livestock Clients Meet Dnr's New Mmp And Phosphorus Requirements, Jeremy Klatt

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The DNR recently revised its manure management plan (MMP) content requirements to implement the phosphorus (P) index for determination of application rates as required by Iowa law. This presentation will help you assist your clients who are required by state law to have an MMP confinement animal feeding operations with more than 500 animal units.


Managing Scn With Resistant Soybean Varieties: It's Not Just About This Year's Yield, Greg Tylka Dec 2004

Managing Scn With Resistant Soybean Varieties: It's Not Just About This Year's Yield, Greg Tylka

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Soybean cyst nematode (SeN), Heterodera glycines, is a widespread pest of soybeans in Iowa. The nematode is estimated to be present in three out of every four fields in Iowa (Workneh et al., 1999). The nematode is a serious threat to soybean production because it reproduces very quickly, survives in the soil for many years in the absence of a soybean crop, and can cause substantial yield losses, particularly in dry years. Resistance is a very effective strategy for managing SeN, producing acceptable yields yet suppressing reproduction of the nematode. The number of soybean varieties with genetic resistance to SeN ...


Iowa: Viticulture (Grapes) 101, Michael L. White Dec 2004

Iowa: Viticulture (Grapes) 101, Michael L. White

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Iowa has a rich and long history of grape production. Grapes were grown in the Council Bluffs area as early as 1857. In 1900 the US Agriculture Census showed that Iowa produced 7,403,900 pounds of grapes and 76,301 gallons of farm-processed wine. Iowa ranked sixth in grape production in 1919 in the United States with more that 12 million pounds. Iowa grape production peaked in 1929 with a yield of 15.8 million pounds. The 1997 Census of Agriculture listed only 56,536 pounds of grapes harvested.


Iowa's Plans And Preparations For The Possible Arrival Of Asian Soybean Rust In 2005, Greg Tylka, Alison Robertson Dec 2004

Iowa's Plans And Preparations For The Possible Arrival Of Asian Soybean Rust In 2005, Greg Tylka, Alison Robertson

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Asian soybean rust, caused by the fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi, can seriously reduce soybean yields and/or significantly increase the cost of soybean production when the disease occurs with high incidence and severity Until most recently, the continental United States was the only major soybean-producing area of the world where the disease was not known to exist. But on November 10, 2004, all that changed. On that date, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and subsequently the Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship announced that Asian soybean rust had been confirmed near Baton Rouge, Louisiana. The fields where the ...


The Neonicotinoid Insecticides - Insect Management With Seed Treatments In Corn, Marlin E. Rice Dec 2004

The Neonicotinoid Insecticides - Insect Management With Seed Treatments In Corn, Marlin E. Rice

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Com producers battle a variety of soil dwelling insect pests. Seedcorn maggots, wireworms, white grubs and several species of cutworms can attack either the seed or seedling plants and reduce the plant stand. Corn rootworm larvae feed on corn roots during midsummer and can significantly reduce the uptake of moisture and nutrients. Extensive feeding by com rootworm larvae can reduce the roots to a point where wind causes the plants to lodge. Lodged plants slow harvest and grain yields can be reduced from both the root injury and the lodging.


Conservation Tillage, Soil Erosion And Water Quality, John M. Laflen Dec 2004

Conservation Tillage, Soil Erosion And Water Quality, John M. Laflen

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Conservation tillage has a great effect on soil erosion and water quality. This effect is perhaps best understood by understanding of the runoff, erosion and sediment delivery processes, and how these are impacted by conservation tillage. Tillage is an operation that disturbs the soil. Each tool acts differently. Major impacts of tillage may be to invert the soil, to bury residue, to mix materials on the surface with materials below the surface, to change soil density at various levels within the soil depth, to apply materials on and into the soil. Wind erosion and groundwater quality will not be covered ...


Eastern Movement Of The Western Bean Cutworm, Marlin E. Rice, David Dorhout, Rich Pope Dec 2004

Eastern Movement Of The Western Bean Cutworm, Marlin E. Rice, David Dorhout, Rich Pope

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The western bean cutworm, Richia albicosta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is native to North America. It was first reported as a pest of Colorado pinto beans in 1915 and later, in 1954, it was identified as pest of corn in southern Idaho. Since its discovery in the late 1800's, it has slowly and steadily expanded its known distribution eastward from Arizona to southern Minnesota and central Iowa. The western bean cutworm was known to occasionally occur in western Iowa prior to 1970, but it was not until 2000 that an economically damaging population was found in field corn. Since then, it ...


Fertilizer Application: Nh, Opener Losses And Uniformity Issues, H. Mark Hanna, Paul M. Boyd, James L. Baker, Thomas S. Colvin Dec 2004

Fertilizer Application: Nh, Opener Losses And Uniformity Issues, H. Mark Hanna, Paul M. Boyd, James L. Baker, Thomas S. Colvin

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Anhydrous ammonia (NH3) is injected below the soil surface during application to limit loss to the atmosphere. Application at a shallower depth may reduce tractor horsepower or allow greater speed which could increase field capacity of equipment if NH3 losses are held to acceptable levels. Losses of NH3 during, and for one hour after, field application were measured from a typical knife injector treatment operated at a 15-cm (6-in.) depth and 8 km/h (5 mi/h) travel speed and from a single-disc injector operated at shallower depths (5 and 10 cm (2 and 4 in.)) and a range of ...


Iowa Edible Bean Production With Direct Marketing To Japan By The Greene Bean Project, Chis Henning, David Ausberger Dec 2004

Iowa Edible Bean Production With Direct Marketing To Japan By The Greene Bean Project, Chis Henning, David Ausberger

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

In January 2001, a group of west-central Iowa farmers and supporters came together to research raising edible beans and other alternative crops. The experiment has grown into the Greene Bean Project, Alternative Crop Enterprises of Iowa, LLC whose members have 1000 acres of alternative crops in 18 Iowa counties. In 2004, the Greene Bean Project farmers produced over 700 acres of azuki (small red edible bean) for export to Japan. This paper will share the cooperatives introduction, progression and issues of azuki production in Iowa and direct marketing to Japan.


Protecting Crop Yields With Postemergence Herbicides, Bob Hartzler Dec 2004

Protecting Crop Yields With Postemergence Herbicides, Bob Hartzler

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Postemergence herbicides are an important component of today's weed management systems. Herbicides introduced in the past 10 years for use in both corn and soybeans are able to kill much larger weeds than earlier products, thus providing farmers with greater flexibility in application timing. However, this benefit may end up costing farmers money if application is delayed too late into the growing season. This article will discuss the importance of application timing in protecting crop yields.


Rusle2, U.S. Department Of Agriculture Dec 2004

Rusle2, U.S. Department Of Agriculture

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Released in 2003, the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation 2 (RUSLE2) estimates soil loss from rill and interrill erosion caused by rainfall on cropland. RUSLE2, like its predecessors, RUSLE and USLE, is used to predict the long-term average rate of rill and interrill erosion for several alternative combinations of crop system and management practice. Lt also considers specified soil types, rainfall patterns, and topography. When these predicted losses are compared with soil loss tolerances, RUSLE2 provides specific guidelines for effective erosion control.


Growing & Marketing Low Linolenic Soybeans - A Value Added Oppportunity, James H. Jensen, Paul Kassel Dec 2004

Growing & Marketing Low Linolenic Soybeans - A Value Added Oppportunity, James H. Jensen, Paul Kassel

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The Food and Drug Administration's statement that trans-fatty acids are undesirable for human health and the requirement that food processors list trans fats on food nutrition labels beginning in 2006 has poised l% low linolenic soybean oil as part of the solution to the trans fat problem. Unhydrogenated soybean oil does not contain trans fat, but most soybean oil is hydrogenated to increase the shelf life of products that use soybean oil as an ingredient. Low linolenic soybean oil is stable enough without requiring hydrogenation, eliminating trans fat and not increasing saturated fat. According to the United Soybean Board ...


Ethanol Industry Outlook, Paul Gallagher Dec 2004

Ethanol Industry Outlook, Paul Gallagher

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The ethanol industry has quickly risen from obscurity to become a major user of U.S. grain. Corn consumption by ethanol processors will soon be 1.6 billion bushels or 16% of U.S. supply when plants under construction begin processing within the next year. In other words, about the same amount of corn is used for ethanol processing and exports. Iowa has shared importantly in the processing expansion, maintaining about a 30% share of national processing capacity throughout the last three decades. Accordingly, the ethanol market review and analysis of growth prospects in this paper may be useful to ...


Double Cropping Field Peas After Winter Wheat For Swine Rations, Jim Fawcett, Tom Miller Dec 2004

Double Cropping Field Peas After Winter Wheat For Swine Rations, Jim Fawcett, Tom Miller

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Most Iowa crop producers now rely on two crops, corn and soybeans, for their livelihood. This has led to many problems, including increased pest problems, such as with bean leaf beetles and soybean aphids, and more vulnerability to adverse weather and poor prices. It has also become increasingly difficult to compete in the world market when these commodities can be produced at a lower cost in other countries, such as Brazil. Crop producers are continually looking for a third crop to include in the rotation, but either the economics are not favorable or there is not a local market for ...


Conservation Tillage System Effects On Soil Productivity And Carbon Credit Incentives., Mahdi Al-Kaisi, Mark Licht Dec 2004

Conservation Tillage System Effects On Soil Productivity And Carbon Credit Incentives., Mahdi Al-Kaisi, Mark Licht

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Conservation systems play a significant role in improving soil and water quality. Management of crop residue and soil organic matter is of primary importance in maintaining soil productivity and in minimizing agricultural impacts on the environment. Conservation systems utilize tillage practices that are defined by the percent of residue cover left on the soil surface, such as ridge tillage, strip-tillage, and minimum-tillage. These tillage systems and no-tillage each accounted for one-third of Iowa's corn (Zea Mays L) and soybean (Glycine max L Merr.) cropland in production according to a survey conducted by the Iowa Residue Management Partnership (IRMP) in ...


Can We Increase Both, Emerson D. Nafziger Dec 2004

Can We Increase Both, Emerson D. Nafziger

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The 2002 Farm Bill, price support from increasing industrial usage of corn (primarily ethanol production), and high corn yield and high corn:soybean yield ratio in 2003 have combined to increase corn acreage in Illinois and Iowa. Because corn and soybean occupy such a large percentage of cultivated land in these two states, corn acreage can increase substantially only at the expense of soybean acres, and only by increasing the acreage of corn that follows corn instead of soybean in the crop sequence. Following are some summary points regarding the management of corn following corn:


Crop Weather Cycles: Myth Or Reality?, Elwynn Taylor Dec 2004

Crop Weather Cycles: Myth Or Reality?, Elwynn Taylor

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Serious Corn Belt drought has followed an apparent 19-year cycle for 200 years. What is the risk of severe drought during the coming six years (2005-2010)? The climate is changing and will likely continue to do so, but will this change the size and suitability of the Midwest as far as Corn and Soybean production is concerned? The cycle suggests that risk of drought is greater during the next 6 years (2005-2010) than it was during the past 12, and history shows that the years of reduced yields seem to appear suddenly just when new record highs are being realized ...


Bt Corn, Insecticidal Seed Treatments, And Soil Insecticides For Managing Corn Rootworms: Experiences From 2004, Issues For 2005, Kevin Steffey, Mike Gray, Ron Estes Dec 2004

Bt Corn, Insecticidal Seed Treatments, And Soil Insecticides For Managing Corn Rootworms: Experiences From 2004, Issues For 2005, Kevin Steffey, Mike Gray, Ron Estes

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The corn rootworm management situation in Illinois in 2004 can be characterized with four statements:


Weed Management 2005: Weed Shifts, Herbicide Resistance, Issues And Opportunities, Micheal D. K. Owen Dec 2004

Weed Management 2005: Weed Shifts, Herbicide Resistance, Issues And Opportunities, Micheal D. K. Owen

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

A number of factors influenced the record crop in Iowa during 2004. While weed control was generally good, the cool and wet conditions enhanced potential injury from a number of herbicides. Furthermore, with increase adoption of transgenic glyphosate resistant corn and soybean, changes in weed populations, either weed population shifts or the evolution of resistant weeds, must be given due consideration for a successful 2005 growing season. The paper will describe some of the issues and opportunities facing Iowa growers in the next growing season.


Management Of Soybean Foliar Diseases Which Were Prevalent In Iowa During The 2004 Growing Season, Alison Robertson, X. B. Yang Dec 2004

Management Of Soybean Foliar Diseases Which Were Prevalent In Iowa During The 2004 Growing Season, Alison Robertson, X. B. Yang

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The 2004 growing season was cool and wet, and therefore favorable for the development of a number of soybean foliar diseases. Many of the diseases occurred together in the same area and often on the same plant. Some diseases showed up early in the season, some later in the season and some were present throughout the season. The diseases which showed up early in, and remained present throughout the growing season were brown spot and bacterial blight. Cercospora leaf blight, frogeye leaf spot and downy mildew started in middle of the season and continued until the end of season. Powdery ...