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2004

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Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

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Feedlot Performance And Carcass Traits Of Serially Slaughtered Finishing Heifers, R.L. Hale, G.L. Bishop, J.R. Brethour, T.T. Marston Jan 2004

Feedlot Performance And Carcass Traits Of Serially Slaughtered Finishing Heifers, R.L. Hale, G.L. Bishop, J.R. Brethour, T.T. Marston

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Two experiments were conducted at the KSU Agricultural Research Southeast Agricultural Research Center Center, Hays, Kansas, to measure feedlot gain and carcass traits of serially slaughtered, yearling crossbred heifers. In Exp. 1, 159 heifers averaging 792 lbs were randomly assigned to one of four slaughter groups, and slaughtered at 21-day intervals beginning at 92 days on feed. In Exp. 2, 181 heifers averaging 759 lbs were randomly assigned to one of four slaughter groups, and slaughtered at intervals of 19, 23 and 21 day, respectively, starting at 127 days. In both experiments, final weight, gain, and carcass weight increased with ...


The Effects Of Different Feed-Grade Antibiotics On Growth Performance Of Weanling Pigs In A Research Environment, R O. Gottlob, C W. Hastad, C N. Groesbeck, K R. Lawrence, Joel M. Derouchey, Michael D. Tokach, Robert D. Goodband, Jim L. Nelssen, Steven S. Dritz Jan 2004

The Effects Of Different Feed-Grade Antibiotics On Growth Performance Of Weanling Pigs In A Research Environment, R O. Gottlob, C W. Hastad, C N. Groesbeck, K R. Lawrence, Joel M. Derouchey, Michael D. Tokach, Robert D. Goodband, Jim L. Nelssen, Steven S. Dritz

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A total of 168 weanling pigs (initially 13.8 lb and 21 ± 3 d of age, PIC) were used to determine the effects of different feed-grade antibiotics on nursery-pig performance. Pigs were fed one of four experimental diets: control with no antibiotics; or the control diet with added Denagard/CTC (35 g/ton Denagard™, 400 g/ton Chlortetracycline); Neo-Terramycin® (140 g/ton Neomycin Sulfate, 140 g/ton Oxytetracycline HCl); or Mecadox® (Carbadox, 50 g/ton). Overall (d 0 to 28 after weaning), pigs fed diets containing Denagard/ CTC or Neo-Terramycin® had greater ADG and ADFI (P<0.05) than did pigs fed all other diets, and had improved F/G (P<0.05), compared with that of pigs fed the control diet. Also, pigs fed diets containing Mecadox® had improved ADG and F/G (P<0.05) compared with those of pigs fed the control diet. The addition of feed-grade antibiotics in swine diets resulted in improved growth performance, and pigs fed Denagard/CTC or Neo-Terramycin® had the greatest improvement in growth performance.; Swine Day, 2004, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, 2004


Feeding L-Carnitine To Gestating Sows Alters The Insulin-Like Growth-Factor System In Cultured Porcine Embryonic Muscle Cells Isolated From Fetal Skeletal Muscle, A T. Waylan, B J. Johnson, D P. Gnad, J C. Woodworth Jan 2004

Feeding L-Carnitine To Gestating Sows Alters The Insulin-Like Growth-Factor System In Cultured Porcine Embryonic Muscle Cells Isolated From Fetal Skeletal Muscle, A T. Waylan, B J. Johnson, D P. Gnad, J C. Woodworth

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The objective was to determine the effects of L-carnitine on cell proliferation and on messenger RNA (mRNA) concentrations in the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system. Cultured porcine embryonic myoblasts (PEM) were isolated from fetuses at mid-gestation from sows fed a common gestation diet with a 50-g top dress of 0 (control, n = 6) or 100 mg of L-carnitine (n = 6). Proliferation of PEM was evaluated at 36, 48, 60, and 72 h postplating. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to determine growth factor mRNA concentrations in culture. The number of cells/cm2 did not differ (P>0.05) from sows fed ...


Effects On Overall Performance Of Feeding Commercially Grown Pigs Less Or More Than Their Lysine Requirement In Early And Late Finishing, R G. Main, Michael D. Tokach, Robert D. Goodband, Jim L. Nelssen, Steven S. Dritz Jan 2004

Effects On Overall Performance Of Feeding Commercially Grown Pigs Less Or More Than Their Lysine Requirement In Early And Late Finishing, R G. Main, Michael D. Tokach, Robert D. Goodband, Jim L. Nelssen, Steven S. Dritz

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A total of 1154 gilts (PIC L337 × C22, initially 72.3 ± 1.7 lb) were used to determine effects on subsequent growth performance of feeding less than or at the estimated lysine requirement for optimal growth and feed efficiency in early finishing (70 to170 lb). From d 0 to 27 and d 27 to 55, pigs were fed a diet containing 2.75 and 2.25 g lysine/Mcal ME, respectively, which was less than their estimated requirement. Pigs fed at their estimated requirements were provided diets containing 3.30 and 2.75 g lysine/Mcal ME from ...


Grazing Cattle On Winter Cereal Pasture On The Sandy Soils Of South-Central Kansas, Victor L. Martin, R. Hale Jan 2004

Grazing Cattle On Winter Cereal Pasture On The Sandy Soils Of South-Central Kansas, Victor L. Martin, R. Hale

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Rye, wheat, and triticale pasture were evaluated during the winters of 2000-01, 2001-02, and 2002-03 for their ability to increase cattle weight from late fall through mid-spring. Large-scale studies were conducted on two 80-acre sites divided into either 25- or 40-acre pastures. Cattle at these sites were stocked at one head per acre, with an average initial weight between 500 and 550 lb. At the Sandyland Experiment Field, small-scale studies were conducted by using the same winter cereals for forage, but at greater stocking rates, ranging from two to three head per acre. Supplemental feeding, as necessary, included summer annual ...


Effects Of Increasing Extruded Soy-Protein Concentrate On Growth Performance Of Nursery Pigs, N A. Lenehan, N Z. Frantz, C N. Groesbeck, K R. Lawrence, Robert D. Goodband, Michael D. Tokach, Joel M. Derouchey, Jim L. Nelssen, Steven S. Dritz Jan 2004

Effects Of Increasing Extruded Soy-Protein Concentrate On Growth Performance Of Nursery Pigs, N A. Lenehan, N Z. Frantz, C N. Groesbeck, K R. Lawrence, Robert D. Goodband, Michael D. Tokach, Joel M. Derouchey, Jim L. Nelssen, Steven S. Dritz

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Two hundred and forty barrows and gilts (initially 13.0 lb and 18 ± 2 d of age at weaning) were blocked by initial weight and were allotted randomly to one of five dietary treatments. There were eight replications (pens) per treatment, with six pigs per pen. Pigs were fed experimental diets from d 0 to 14 after weaning that included a control diet containing 40% soybean meal and diets containing 7.1, 14.3, 21.4, or 28.6% extruded soy-protein concentrate. From d 14 to 28, all pigs were fed a similar diet to determine if any carry-over ...


Effects Of Lactobacillus Acidophilus And Propionibacterium Freudenreichii On Growth Performance And Carcass Characteristics Of Finishing Beef Cattle, M.A. Greenquist, B. Dicke, G.E. Erickson, T.J. Klopfenstein, James S. Drouillard Jan 2004

Effects Of Lactobacillus Acidophilus And Propionibacterium Freudenreichii On Growth Performance And Carcass Characteristics Of Finishing Beef Cattle, M.A. Greenquist, B. Dicke, G.E. Erickson, T.J. Klopfenstein, James S. Drouillard

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

There have been contradicting reports of the efficacy of direct-fed microbials in finishing cattle diets. Some researchers have observed improvements in daily gain and feed efficiency when direct-fed microbials are included in finishing diets, whereas others have reported no differences in dry matter intake or ruminal and blood pH. Many of these studies have been conducted on a relatively small scale and used few animals per pen compared with that of typical commercial feedlot operations. In our study, yearling crossbred beef steers and heifers (n=3,539; 796 lb body weight) were used in an experiment conducted at a commercial ...


Near Infrared Spectroscopy As A Potential Method To Detect Bovine Respiratory Disease, J.T. Fox, M.F. Spire Jan 2004

Near Infrared Spectroscopy As A Potential Method To Detect Bovine Respiratory Disease, J.T. Fox, M.F. Spire

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Bovine respiratory disease continues to be the leading cause of illness and death loss from weaning through finishing. There is no objective method to evaluate a live animal's severity of sickness or their response to treatment. A pilot study was conducted at a commercial feedyard to evaluate the ability of near infrared spectroscopy to differentiate between cattle identified as healthy and those identified as having undifferentiated Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD). At processing, 215 randomly selected 900 lb heifers were evaluated to determine tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) levels. Mean ranks of the StO2 values were 176.86 ± 5.50. One ...


Effect Of Corn Endosperm Type And Corn Containing The Cry1f Protein On Performance Of Beef Heifers Fed Finishing Diets Based On Steam-Flaked Corn, J.J. Sindt, E.R. Loe, T.J. Kessen, M.J. Sulpizio, Sean P. Montgomery, F.N. Owens, James S. Drouillard Jan 2004

Effect Of Corn Endosperm Type And Corn Containing The Cry1f Protein On Performance Of Beef Heifers Fed Finishing Diets Based On Steam-Flaked Corn, J.J. Sindt, E.R. Loe, T.J. Kessen, M.J. Sulpizio, Sean P. Montgomery, F.N. Owens, James S. Drouillard

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Eighty beef heifers (initial body weight = 795 ± 18 lb) were individually fed finishing diets based on steam-flaked corn for 118 days. Dietary treatments consisted of corn hybrids containing vitreous (HARD), opaque (SOFT), or intermediate (INT) types of corn endosperm. Within the HARD endosperm type, a transgenic hybrid (HARD-GMO) containing the Herculex I Cry1F protein was compared with its nontransgenic, conventional (HARDCONV) counterpart. Dry matter intake, average daily gain, and gain efficiencies were similar among treatments. Likewise, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, and ribeye area were unaffected by dietary treatment. Heifers fed HARD-CONV were fatter than heifers fed HARD-GMO, having fewer ...


In Vitro Evaluation Of Fibrolytic Enzymes To Increase Digestion Of Fibrous Feedstuffs, E.A. Elwakeel, B.J. Johnson, Evan C. Titgemeyer Jan 2004

In Vitro Evaluation Of Fibrolytic Enzymes To Increase Digestion Of Fibrous Feedstuffs, E.A. Elwakeel, B.J. Johnson, Evan C. Titgemeyer

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Fermentations were conducted to identify enzyme activities and amounts that would optimize digestion of high-fiber feed ingredients (soybean hulls, alfalfa, corn silage, and corn gluten feed). In general, adding enzymes increased in vitro dry matter disappearance, but total volatile fatty acid concentrations were not improved by enzyme treatments. The response to enzymes was similar across substrate, suggesting that substrate specificity of the enzymes is not important. The most effective enzyme preparation had greater cellulase activity than the other enzyme preparations, suggesting that cellulase might be the most important enzymatic activity for improving digestion of fibrous feedstuffs.


Evaluation Of Expresstm 5-Phm And Titanium® 5-Phm Bac®-1 On High-Risk Receiving Steers, M.P. Epp, Larry C. Hollis, B.B. Barnhardt, Dale A. Blasi Jan 2004

Evaluation Of Expresstm 5-Phm And Titanium® 5-Phm Bac®-1 On High-Risk Receiving Steers, M.P. Epp, Larry C. Hollis, B.B. Barnhardt, Dale A. Blasi

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

One backgrounding field study was conducted at two locations to compare the health and performance of high-risk receiving steers given an ExpressTM 5-Pasteurella Haemolytica- Multocida (PHM) vaccine or a Titanium® 5-PHM Bac®-1 vaccine. At one location, calves given the Titanium 5-PHM vaccination had fewer first and second repulls (P<0.05). At the other location, calves given the Express 5-PHM vaccination had fewer initial pulls for respiratory disease and more hospital pen days at initial pull (P<0.05) than those given Titanium 5-PHM. No differences were measured at either location for mortality and average daily gain.


Update On Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, Larry C. Hollis Jan 2004

Update On Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, Larry C. Hollis

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, commonly called "mad cow disease" by members of the media, found its way into the United States and was diagnosed in December, 2003, in a Holstein dairy cow of Canadian origin. A significant disruption to the beef cattle industry immediately followed the announcement of this finding; within a matter of weeks, however, a degree of normalcy began to return to the industry. When consumers and cattle producers alike learned of the extensive firewall system that had been put in place years earlier by the USDA and the FDA to reduce the likelihood of entry of this disease ...


Changes In Breeding Soundness Evaluation During A Breeding Season, A.W. Thompson, T.T. Marston, M. Sanderson, P. Chenoweth Jan 2004

Changes In Breeding Soundness Evaluation During A Breeding Season, A.W. Thompson, T.T. Marston, M. Sanderson, P. Chenoweth

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Breeding-soundness evaluations are a common tool in the beef industry to test a bull's potential fertility. These evaluations place a bull into one of three categories: satisfactory, unsatisfactory, or deferred. These categories only refer to the bull at a specific time, and his status can and will change over time. The purpose of this report is to explain and demonstrate the changes in a bull's breeding- soundness evaluations during a breeding season.


Fffect Of Freezing The Beef Longissimus Muscle On Warner-Bratzler Shear Force, J.W. Homm, John A. Unruh Jan 2004

Fffect Of Freezing The Beef Longissimus Muscle On Warner-Bratzler Shear Force, J.W. Homm, John A. Unruh

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Seventy-two ribeye rolls (IMPS 112) were used to compare Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) from fresh steaks and previously frozen steaks. Ribeye rolls were aged (32ºF) in vacuum-packaged bags for 14 days postmortem and fabricated into 1-inch thick longissimus muscle (ribeye) steaks. Steaks from each ribeye roll were either cooked fresh (158ºF) or stored at -20ºF before they were thawed and cooked for WBSF determination. Sensory panel determinations were also conducted on steaks stored frozen before cooking. Previously frozen steaks had lesser WBSF values (were more tender) than fresh (not previously frozen) steaks. Sensory panel attributes of myofibrillar tenderness, connective tissue ...


Using Regumate To Control Estrus In Swine, Duane L. Davis Jan 2004

Using Regumate To Control Estrus In Swine, Duane L. Davis

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Altrenogest, marketed for use in horses as Regumate, is a synthetic progestin that is marketed for use in pigs as MATRIX. It effectively regulates the occurrence of estrus in randomly cycling gilts if it is provided for 14 or more days at a daily dose of 15 mg/day. It is important to assure that each gilt receives her full dose; otherwise problems of cystic follicles and reduced fertility may be observed.; Swine Day, 2004, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, 2004


Using Mixer Efficiency Testing To Evaluate Feed Segregation In Feed Lines, C N. Groesbeck, Robert D. Goodband, Michael D. Tokach, Jim L. Nelssen, Steven S. Dritz Jan 2004

Using Mixer Efficiency Testing To Evaluate Feed Segregation In Feed Lines, C N. Groesbeck, Robert D. Goodband, Michael D. Tokach, Jim L. Nelssen, Steven S. Dritz

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

An experiment was conducted to evaluate potential diet segregation in feed lines by measuring coefficient of variation (CV) and mean salt concentration. The facility was a 1500-head gestation barn with nine feed lines, transected by a central feed line that conveyed feed from one of two bulk bins. Quantab® chloride titrators were used to analyze the chloride concentration (salt) from samples collected at pre-determined feed line locations at various distances from the bulk bins. Thirty samples were collected from three feed lines (row 1, 5, and 9), ten samples were collected from drop boxes close to the central feed line ...


The Optimal True-Ileal-Digestible Lysine And Threonine Requirements For Growing-Finishing Pigs From 80 To 130 And 170 To 230 Pounds, N Z. Frantz, J L. Usry, Michael D. Tokach, Robert D. Goodband, Jim L. Nelssen, Joel M. Derouchey, Steven S. Dritz Jan 2004

The Optimal True-Ileal-Digestible Lysine And Threonine Requirements For Growing-Finishing Pigs From 80 To 130 And 170 To 230 Pounds, N Z. Frantz, J L. Usry, Michael D. Tokach, Robert D. Goodband, Jim L. Nelssen, Joel M. Derouchey, Steven S. Dritz

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A total of 4388 pigs (PIC 337 × C22; Exp. 1: 1070 gilts, initially 79 lb BW; Exp. 2: 3318 pigs, initially 170 lb BW) were used in 28-d growth assays to examine both the true-ileal-digestible (TID) lysine and threonine requirements, and then determine the appropriate TID threonine-to-lysine ratio in growing-finishing pigs from 80 to 130 lb and 170 to 230 lb. In Exp. 1, four TID lysine (0.71. 0.81, 0.91, and 1.01%) and five TID threonine (0.50, 0.56, 0.62, 0.68 and 0.74%) concentrations were evaluated. In Exp. 2, four TID ...


Effects Of Ammonia Load On Amino Acid Utilization By Growing Steers, M.S. Awawdeh, K.C. Mccuistion, D.P. Gnad, Evan C. Titgemeyer Jan 2004

Effects Of Ammonia Load On Amino Acid Utilization By Growing Steers, M.S. Awawdeh, K.C. Mccuistion, D.P. Gnad, Evan C. Titgemeyer

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Ruminally cannulated steers were used in two experiments to study effects of rumen ammonia load on methionine and leucine utilization. All steers were limit-fed a diet based on soybean hulls, received ruminal infusions of volatile fatty acids and abomasal infusions of glucose to provide energy, and received an abomasal infusion containing a mixture of all essential amino acids except methionine in Exp. 1 or leucine in Exp. 2. Treatments were arranged as 3 x 2 factorials and included urea (0, 40, or 80 g/day) infused ruminally and methionine (2 or 5 g/day) infused abomasally in Exp. 1 and ...


Effects Of Route Of Administration Of A Commercially Available Mannheimia (Pasteurella) Haemolytica Vaccine On Titer Levels, T.T. Marston, Donald A. Llewellyn, Gerald L. Stokka, Larry C. Hollis Jan 2004

Effects Of Route Of Administration Of A Commercially Available Mannheimia (Pasteurella) Haemolytica Vaccine On Titer Levels, T.T. Marston, Donald A. Llewellyn, Gerald L. Stokka, Larry C. Hollis

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

One hundred thirteen Hereford x Angus heifer calves (average weight = 515 lb) were allotted to one of three treatments: 1) control, no vaccine; 2) a 2-cc subcutaneous injection of One-Shot® (Pfizer Animal Health), a Mannheimia (pasteurella) haemolytica vaccine, three weeks before weaning; or 3) a ½-cc intradermal injection of One-Shot, three weeks before weaning. All heifers were weighed and blood samples harvested at time of injection, three weeks later at weaning, and then 28 days later. After weaning, heifers were confined to a common pen and fed free-choice brome hay and approximately 5 lb/head daily of a concentrate. Blood ...


Failure To Eliminate The Carrier State Of Anaplasma Marginale By Using Long-Acting Injectable Oxytetracycline, D. Gnad, T. Marston, Donald A. Llewellyn, G. Palmer, Larry C. Hollis Jan 2004

Failure To Eliminate The Carrier State Of Anaplasma Marginale By Using Long-Acting Injectable Oxytetracycline, D. Gnad, T. Marston, Donald A. Llewellyn, G. Palmer, Larry C. Hollis

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Thirty-four Anaplasma marginale seropositive cows from a herd of 236 were allocated to treatments: 5 animals served as untreated controls, and 29 animals were treated with three injections of long-acting oxytetracycline at three-day intervals. Fourteen days after initiation of treatment, 100% of control cows and 89% of treated cows were found to have Anaplasma marginale present. Seventyfour days after initiation of treatment, 100% of control cows and 86% of treated cows were found to have Anaplasma marginale present. Use of injectable long-acting oxytetracycline was not effective in eliminating the carrier state of Anaplasma marginale from infected animals.


Effects Of Increasing Pantothenic Acid On Growth Performance And Carcass Characteristics Of Finish Pigs Reared In A Commercial Environment, C N. Groesbeck, Robert D. Goodband, Michael D. Tokach, Jim L. Nelssen, Joel M. Derouchey, Steven S. Dritz Jan 2004

Effects Of Increasing Pantothenic Acid On Growth Performance And Carcass Characteristics Of Finish Pigs Reared In A Commercial Environment, C N. Groesbeck, Robert D. Goodband, Michael D. Tokach, Jim L. Nelssen, Joel M. Derouchey, Steven S. Dritz

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A total of 1080 pigs (PIC), initially 89.0 ± 5.1 lb were used to determine the effects of increasing pantothenic acid on growth performance and carcass characteristics of growfinish pigs. Pigs were blocked by weight and gender, and were randomly allotted to treatment. Pigs were fed, in meal form, the experimental corn-soybean meal, added-fat diets in four phases. Dietary treatments consisted of a control diet (no added pantothenic acid), or the control diet with 22.5, 45.0, or 90.0 ppm added pantothenic acid from d-calcium pantothenate. Dietary treatments were fed from d 0 to 98 (89 ...


Effects Of Salt Particle Size And Sample Preparation On Results Of Mixer-Efficiency Testing, C N. Groesbeck, Robert D. Goodband, Michael D. Tokach, Jim L. Nelssen, Joel M. Derouchey, Steven S. Dritz Jan 2004

Effects Of Salt Particle Size And Sample Preparation On Results Of Mixer-Efficiency Testing, C N. Groesbeck, Robert D. Goodband, Michael D. Tokach, Jim L. Nelssen, Joel M. Derouchey, Steven S. Dritz

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of using salt with different particle sizes and of using different samplepreparation methods on mixer-efficiency testing (time required to achieve a coefficient of variation (CV) of 10% or less among 10 feed samples). A 3000-lb capacity horizontal ribbon mixer was used to mix batches of feed. Ten samples were collected at eight times during mixing (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.5, 5.5, 8.0, and 10.5 min) after all ingredients were added from pre-determined locations in the mixer. Coefficient of variation was used to measure mixer ...


Director's Report Of Research In Kansas 2003, Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station Jan 2004

Director's Report Of Research In Kansas 2003, Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

This report contains the title, author, and publication information for manuscripts published by station scientists. It also contains a list of the research projects that were active during that period and a financial statement for the fiscal year.


Short-Term Progestin Estrus Synchronization With Timed Insemination For Beef Heifers: Cidr Vs. Mga, A.W. Thompson, D.R. Eborn, L.D. Keenan, David M. Grieger Jan 2004

Short-Term Progestin Estrus Synchronization With Timed Insemination For Beef Heifers: Cidr Vs. Mga, A.W. Thompson, D.R. Eborn, L.D. Keenan, David M. Grieger

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Recently, a new product, Eazi-Breed CIDR (a vaginal insert containing progesterone), was approved for estrus synchronization in beef heifers. In previous studies the CIDR has produced excellent estrus synchrony, but it is more costly than the commonly used progestin, melengestrol acetate (MGA). Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the CIDR to MGA in a shorter-term timed breeding program. Seventy-seven commercial beef replacement heifers were assigned to one of two treatments, CIDR (n=38) or MGA (n=39). Each heifer in the CIDR treatment group received a CIDR on day 1, which was removed on day 7. The ...


Evaluation Of Nitrogen Availability In Liquid Feedstuffs, E.A. Elwakeel, Evan C. Titgemeyer, James S. Drouillard Jan 2004

Evaluation Of Nitrogen Availability In Liquid Feedstuffs, E.A. Elwakeel, Evan C. Titgemeyer, James S. Drouillard

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

We developed an in vitro assay to assess ruminal availability of protein in liquid feeds containing soluble protein/nitrogen. Microbial mass accumulating as a result of assimilation of dietary nitrogen by ruminal microbes during an in vitro fermentation is measured. In the assay, microbial growth is most limited by the availability of protein/nitrogen, so microbial mass is proportional to the amount of available nitrogen in the sample. In liquid feeds that we generated in the laboratory, ruminal nitrogen availability decreased in response to mild heating, and the decline was greater for feedstuffs containing true protein rather than urea. Addition ...


Effects Of Energy Level On Methionine Utilization By Growing Steers, G.F. Schroeder, M.S. Awawdeh, D.P. Gnad, Evan C. Titgemeyer Jan 2004

Effects Of Energy Level On Methionine Utilization By Growing Steers, G.F. Schroeder, M.S. Awawdeh, D.P. Gnad, Evan C. Titgemeyer

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of energy level on amino acid utilization in growing steers. Six ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (503 lb) were limit-fed (6.2 lb/day dry matter) a diet based on soybean hulls (83%), wheat straw (7.6%), and cane molasses (4.1%). The treatments consisted of the infusion of two methionine levels (0 or 3 g/d) and three energy levels (0, 1.3, or 2.6 Mcal ME/day) in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement. Energy was supplied through ruminal infusion of acetate, propionate, and butyrate and through abomasal ...


Plasma Metabolites Of Receiving Heifers And The Relationship Between Bovine Respiratory Disease, Weight Gain, And Carcass Characteristics, Sean P. Montgomery, J.J. Sindt, M.A. Greenquist, W.F. Miller, J.N. Pike, E.J. Good, E.R. Loe, M.J. Sulpizio, T.J. Kessen, James S. Drouillard Jan 2004

Plasma Metabolites Of Receiving Heifers And The Relationship Between Bovine Respiratory Disease, Weight Gain, And Carcass Characteristics, Sean P. Montgomery, J.J. Sindt, M.A. Greenquist, W.F. Miller, J.N. Pike, E.J. Good, E.R. Loe, M.J. Sulpizio, T.J. Kessen, James S. Drouillard

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Six hundred sixty-five crossbred beef heifers initially weighing 495 lb were used to evaluate rectal temperature and plasma glucose, lactate, and urea nitrogen at initial processing as indicators of health status of newly arrived receiving cattle. We also evaluated the relationship between bovine respiratory disease (BRD), weight gain, and carcass characteristics. An increased number of treatments for BRD was associated with lower (linear, P<0.01) plasma glucose and lactate concentrations at initial processing. Elevated rectal temperatures at initial processing were associated with a greater number of treatments for BRD (linear, P<0.03). Initial body weight, final body weight, and average daily gain during the receiving period were progressively less (linear, P<0.01) as the number of treatments for BRD increased, whereas grazing-period gain was progressively greater with more frequent treatment for BRD during the receiving period (linear, P<0.01). Finishing-period gain, final body weight, hot carcass weight, fat thickness, and marbling score were linearly decreased (P<0.05) with increased treatmentfor BRD during the receiving period. These data suggest that initial plasma glucose and lactate concentrations might be associated with the health of newly arrived receiving cattle and that increased incidence of BRD in cattle is associated with lower weight gain and carcass quality.


Estrus Synchronization Of Replacement Beef Heifers By Using Gnrh, Prostaglandin F2Α (Pgf), And Progesterone (Cidr): A Multi-Location Study, J.E. Larson, G.C. Lamb, T.W. Geary, Jeffrey S. Stevenson, Sandra K. Johnson, M.L. Day, D.J. Kesler, J.M. Dejarnette, D.G. Landblom, D. Whittier Jan 2004

Estrus Synchronization Of Replacement Beef Heifers By Using Gnrh, Prostaglandin F2Α (Pgf), And Progesterone (Cidr): A Multi-Location Study, J.E. Larson, G.C. Lamb, T.W. Geary, Jeffrey S. Stevenson, Sandra K. Johnson, M.L. Day, D.J. Kesler, J.M. Dejarnette, D.G. Landblom, D. Whittier

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Our objectives were to determine whether a fixed-timed artificial insemination (TAI) protocol could yield similar fertility rates to a protocol requiring detection of estrus and whether an injection of gonadotropin hormone-releasing hormone (GnRH) at CIDR (vaginal insert containing progesterone) insertion enhances pregnancy rates. Replacement beef heifers (n=2,077) from 12 locations were assigned randomly to each of four estrussynchronization protocols. All heifers received a CIDR for 7 days, and an injection of prostaglandin F2α(PGF) on the day of CIDR removal. For treatment EAI, heifers were observed for estrus for 84 hours after PGF administration and were inseminated 6 ...


Comparison Of Bovine Transfer Factor And Micotil®: Effects On Health And Performance Of Receiving Heifers, Sean P. Montgomery, M.A. Greenquist, J.J. Sindt, W.F. Miller, J.N. Pike, E.J. Good, E.R. Loe, M.J. Sulpizio, T.J. Kessen, James S. Drouillard Jan 2004

Comparison Of Bovine Transfer Factor And Micotil®: Effects On Health And Performance Of Receiving Heifers, Sean P. Montgomery, M.A. Greenquist, J.J. Sindt, W.F. Miller, J.N. Pike, E.J. Good, E.R. Loe, M.J. Sulpizio, T.J. Kessen, James S. Drouillard

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Transfer factors are antigen-specific products of T lymphocytes that are capable of transferring delayed-type hypersensitivity and cell-mediated immunity. We evaluated bovine transfer factor (TF) for use in receiving cattle. Crossbred beef heifers (n = 665) initially weighing 495 lb were used to determine the effects of TF on the health and performance of beef cattle during a 36-day receiving period. Heifers were processed within 24 hours after arrival. Treatments were subcutaneous injection with 1.5 ml of Micotil®/100 lb of body weight or oral administration of 700 mg of TF isolated from bovine colostrum. Heifers given TF during initial processing ...


Growth Performance And Carcass Characteristics Of Finishing Beef Steers Implanted With Component Te-S Or Component Te-S With Tylan, B. Dicke, G.E. Erickson, T.J. Klopfenstein, R.T. Botts, P.T. Anderson, Brandon E. Depenbusch, James S. Drouillard Jan 2004

Growth Performance And Carcass Characteristics Of Finishing Beef Steers Implanted With Component Te-S Or Component Te-S With Tylan, B. Dicke, G.E. Erickson, T.J. Klopfenstein, R.T. Botts, P.T. Anderson, Brandon E. Depenbusch, James S. Drouillard

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Component TE-S and Component TE-S with Tylan growth-promoting implants were compared in an experiment conducted at a commercial feedlot operation (Ward Feed Yard; Larned, Kansas) to evaluate effects on growth performance and carcass characteristics. Crossbred steers (n=1843; 827 lb body weight) were implanted with either Component TE-S or Component TE-S with Tylan and were fed a finishing ration based on steam-flaked corn for an average of 116 days before slaughter. Cattle were assigned randomly to the implant treatments at processing and were allotted to 12 pens, containing an average of 154 steers each. No differences were detected in dry ...