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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Follicular Development And Maturation In Gilts Selected For An Index Of High Ovulation Rate And High Prenatal Survival, H.-W. Yen, J. J. Ford, D. R. Zimmerman, R. K. Johnson Nov 2004

Follicular Development And Maturation In Gilts Selected For An Index Of High Ovulation Rate And High Prenatal Survival, H.-W. Yen, J. J. Ford, D. R. Zimmerman, R. K. Johnson

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Seventy-one 10th-generation gilts from White Line-1 (WL-1 = randomly selected control line) and White Line-2 (WL-2 = selected for an index of ovulation rate and prenatal survival rate) were used to compare the pattern of follicular development and atresia during the follicular phase of the estrous cycle. Gilts were treated with PGF on d 13 of the estrous cycle (d 0 of induced follicular development) to induce luteolysis and assigned randomly within line and sire for ovary recovery on d 0, 2, 3, 4, 5, and the day after estrus. Ovaries were evaluated for numbers of corpora albicantia and small (2 ...


Microarray Profiling For Differential Gene Expression In Ovaries And Ovarian, A. R. Caetano, R. K. Johnson, J. J. Ford, Daniel Pomp Nov 2004

Microarray Profiling For Differential Gene Expression In Ovaries And Ovarian, A. R. Caetano, R. K. Johnson, J. J. Ford, Daniel Pomp

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

A unique index line of pigs created by long-term selection ovulates on average 6.7 more ova than its randomly selected control line. Expression profiling experiments were conducted to identify differentially expressed genes in ovarian tissues of the index and control lines during days 2–6 of the follicular phase of the estrous cycle. Fluorescently labeled cDNAs derived from ovary and follicle RNA were cohybridized on microarray slides (n = 90) containing 4608 follicle-derived probes printed in duplicate. Statistical analysis of the resulting ~1.6 million data points with a mixed-model approach identified 88 and 74 unique probes, representing 71 and ...


A Large-Sample Qtl Study In Mice: Iii. Reproduction, Joao L. Rocha, Eugene J. Eisen, Frank Siewerdt, L. Dale Van Vleck, Daniel Pomp Nov 2004

A Large-Sample Qtl Study In Mice: Iii. Reproduction, Joao L. Rocha, Eugene J. Eisen, Frank Siewerdt, L. Dale Van Vleck, Daniel Pomp

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Using lines of mice having undergone long-term selection for high and low growth, a large-sample (n ≈ 1000 F2) experiment was conducted to gain further understanding of the genetic architecture of complex polygenic traits. Composite interval mapping on data from 10-week-old F2 females (n = 439) detected 15 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on 5 chromosomes that influence reproduction traits characterized at day 16 of gestation. These QTL are broadly categorized into two groups: those where effects on the number of live fetuses (LF) were accompanied by parallel effects on the number of dead fetuses (DF), and those free of such undesirable ...


A Genome Scan For Quantitative Trait Loci And Imprinted Regions Affecting Reproduction In Pigs, J. W. Holl, J. P. Cassady, D. Pomp, R. K. Johnson Nov 2004

A Genome Scan For Quantitative Trait Loci And Imprinted Regions Affecting Reproduction In Pigs, J. W. Holl, J. P. Cassady, D. Pomp, R. K. Johnson

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Quantitative trait loci for reproductive traits in a three-generation resource population of a cross between low-indexing pigs from a control line and high-indexing pigs from a line selected 10 generations for increased index of ovulation rate and embryonic survival are reported. Phenotypic data were collected in F2 females for birth weight (BWT, n = 428), weaning weight (WWT, n = 405), age at puberty (AP, n = 295), ovulation rate (OR, n = 423), number of fully formed pigs (FF, n = 370), number of pigs born alive (NBA, n = 370), number of mummified pigs (MUM, n = 370), and number of stillborn pigs (NSB, n ...


National Pork Producers Council Maternal Line Genetic Evaluation: A Comparison Of Growth And Carcass Traits In Terminal Progeny, J. P. Cassidy, O. W. Robison, R. K. Johnson, J. W. Mabry, L. L. Christian, M. D. Tokach, R. K. Miller, R. N. Goodwin Nov 2004

National Pork Producers Council Maternal Line Genetic Evaluation: A Comparison Of Growth And Carcass Traits In Terminal Progeny, J. P. Cassidy, O. W. Robison, R. K. Johnson, J. W. Mabry, L. L. Christian, M. D. Tokach, R. K. Miller, R. N. Goodwin

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

The objective of this study was to compare growth and carcass traits of 1,252 progeny of six commercially available dam lines included in the National Pork Producers Council Maternal Line Evaluation Project. Lines compared included one maternal line supplied by each of American Diamond Swine Genetics (ADSG), Danbred NA (DB), two lines supplied by Monsanto Choice Genetics (DK and GPK347), Newsham Hybrids (NH), and Landrace × Large White females supplied by the National Swine Registry (NSR). All females were mated to DB, Duroc-Hampshire terminal sires. Traits analyzed were ADG from 56 to 115 kg live weight, days to 115 kg ...


Heterosis For Grain Yield And Other Agronomic Traits In Foxtail Millet, M. M. Siles, William K. Russell, Lenis Alton Nelson, David D. Baltensperger, Blaine Johnson, L. Dale Van Vleck, Stanley G. Jensen, Gary L. Hein Oct 2004

Heterosis For Grain Yield And Other Agronomic Traits In Foxtail Millet, M. M. Siles, William K. Russell, Lenis Alton Nelson, David D. Baltensperger, Blaine Johnson, L. Dale Van Vleck, Stanley G. Jensen, Gary L. Hein

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.] is a largely self-pollinating species that is used as a warm-season annual in the USA. Nearly all cultivars of this species grown in the USA are selections from land races. This research was undertaken to determine whether sufficient high-parent heterosis is expressed in foxtail millet for grain yield and other key traits to justify the development and use of varietal crosses. Seven diverse parents and 21 F2s and 21 F3s produced from biparental crosses were evaluated in five environments in 1996. Genotype x environment interaction was highly significant for ...


Evaluation Of Gene Expression In Pigs Selected For Enhanced Reproduction Using Differential Display Pcr And Human Microarrays: I. Ovarian Follicles, C. D. Gladney, G. R. Bertani, R. K. Johnson, Daniel Pomp Oct 2004

Evaluation Of Gene Expression In Pigs Selected For Enhanced Reproduction Using Differential Display Pcr And Human Microarrays: I. Ovarian Follicles, C. D. Gladney, G. R. Bertani, R. K. Johnson, Daniel Pomp

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Differential display PCR (ddPCR) and complementary DNA microarray analyses were used to evaluate gene expression differences in porcine ovarian follicles between a line of pigs selected for an index of ovulation rate and embryo survival (Line I) and its randomly selected control line (Line C). Follicles (4.0 to 7.0 mm) were dissected from ovaries of multiparous sows (n = 27) at either 2 or 4 d following PGF2α analog injection on d 12 to 14 of the estrous cycle. Using ddPCR, differentially expressed bands (n = 282) were excised from gels and 107 were sequenced, yielding 84 unique porcine follicle ...


Comparison Of Models Including Cytoplasmic Effects For Traits Of Rambouillet Sheep, G. D. Snowder, K. J. Hanford, L. Dale Van Vleck Oct 2004

Comparison Of Models Including Cytoplasmic Effects For Traits Of Rambouillet Sheep, G. D. Snowder, K. J. Hanford, L. Dale Van Vleck

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

The objective was to determine appropriate analytical models considering cytoplasmic inheritance for birth weight (BWT, n = 35,604), weaning weight (WWT, n = 34,114), fleece weight (FWT, n = 38,113) and number born (NB, n = 39,029) for Rambouillet sheep. For BWT, models that included dam by year, dam by number born, and sire by dam effects, in addition to direct and maternal effects, were significantly better than the basic maternal effects model. For WWT, variances due to direct, maternal, and maternal permanent environmental effects (0.05 of variance) were not zero. For FWT, heritability was 0.55 for all ...


Heritability Estimates For Carcass Traits Of Cattle: A Review, Angel Rios Utrera, L. Dale Van Vleck Sep 2004

Heritability Estimates For Carcass Traits Of Cattle: A Review, Angel Rios Utrera, L. Dale Van Vleck

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

We present estimates of heritability for carcass traits of cattle published in the scientific literature. Seventy-two papers published form 1962 to 2004, which reported estimates of heritability for carcass traits, were reviewed. The unweighted means of estimates of heritability for 14 carcass traits by slaughter end point (age, weight, and fat depth) were calculated. Among the three end points, carcass weight, backfat thickness, longissimus muscle area, and marbling score were the carcass traits with the most estimates of heritability (56≤n≤66). The averages for these traits indicate that they are similarly and moderately heritable (0.40, 0.36, 0 ...


Effects Of Sire Misidentification On Estimates Of Genetic Parameters For Birth And Weaning Weights In Hereford Cattle, S. L. Senneke, M. D. Macneil, L. Dale Van Vleck Jul 2004

Effects Of Sire Misidentification On Estimates Of Genetic Parameters For Birth And Weaning Weights In Hereford Cattle, S. L. Senneke, M. D. Macneil, L. Dale Van Vleck

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Birth weights (4,155) and weaning weights (3,884) of Line 1 Herefords collected at the Fort Keogh Livestock and Range Research Laboratory in Miles City, MT, between the years of 1935 to 1989 were available. To study the effect of misidentification on estimates of genetic parameters, the sire identification of calf was randomly replaced by the identification of another sire based on the fraction of progeny each sire contributed to a yearly calf crop. Misidentification rates ranged from 5 to 50% with increments of 5%. For each rate of misidentification, 100 replicates were obtained and analyzed with single-trait and ...


Number Of Calves Born, Number Of Calves Weaned, And Cumulative Weaning Weight As Measures Of Lifetime Production For Hereford Cows, G. E. Martinez, R. M. Koch, L. V. Cundiff, K. E. Gregory, L. Dale Van Vleck Jun 2004

Number Of Calves Born, Number Of Calves Weaned, And Cumulative Weaning Weight As Measures Of Lifetime Production For Hereford Cows, G. E. Martinez, R. M. Koch, L. V. Cundiff, K. E. Gregory, L. Dale Van Vleck

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Genetic parameters for lifetime production for cows with the opportunity to produce from 2 through 7 yr of age, as measured by the number of calves born (NB2, …, NB7), the number of calves weaned (NW2, …, NW7), and cumulative weaning weight (CW2,…, CW7), were estimated using data from 3,064 Hereford cows from a selection experiment with a control line (CTL) and three lines selected for weaning weight (WWL), yearling weight (YWL), and an index of yearling weight and muscle score (IXL). Weaning weights were adjusted to 200 d of age and for sex and age of dam. Estimates of heritability ...


Genetic Parameters For Six Measures Of Length Of Productive Life And Three Measures Of Lifetime Production By 6 Yr After First Calving For Hereford Cows, R. M. Koch, L. V. Cundiff, K. E. Gregory, L. Dale Van Vleck Jun 2004

Genetic Parameters For Six Measures Of Length Of Productive Life And Three Measures Of Lifetime Production By 6 Yr After First Calving For Hereford Cows, R. M. Koch, L. V. Cundiff, K. E. Gregory, L. Dale Van Vleck

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Genetic parameters for length of productive life given the opportunity (LPL|O), measured as days between first calving and disposal conditioned on one of six opportunity groups, L1 through L6 (e.g., L2 is length of productive life in days given the opportunity to live 2 yr after first calving), and lifetime production (LP), measured as the number of calves born (NB), number of calves weaned (NW), and cumulative weaning weight (CW) by 6 yr after first calving, were estimated using records of 1,886 Hereford cows from a selection experiment with three selected lines and a control line. Weaning ...


Responses To 19 Generations Of Litter Size Selection In The Ne Index Line. Ii. Growth And Carcass Responses Estimated In Pure Line And Crossbred Litters, D. B. Petry, J. W. Holl, R. K. Johnson Jun 2004

Responses To 19 Generations Of Litter Size Selection In The Ne Index Line. Ii. Growth And Carcass Responses Estimated In Pure Line And Crossbred Litters, D. B. Petry, J. W. Holl, R. K. Johnson

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Our objective was to estimate responses in growth and carcass traits in the NE Index line (I) that was selected for 19 generations for increased litter size. Differences between Line I and the randomly selected control line (C) were estimated in pure line litters and in F1 and three-way cross litters produced by mating I and C females with males of unrelated lines. Contrasts of means were used to estimate the genetic difference between I and C and interactions of line differences with mating type. In Exp 1, 694 gilts that were retained for breeding, including 538 I and ...


Responses To 19 Generations Of Litter Size Selection In The Nebraska Index Line. I. Reproductive Responses Estimated In Pure Line And Crossbred Litters, D. B. Petry, Rodger K. Johnson Mar 2004

Responses To 19 Generations Of Litter Size Selection In The Nebraska Index Line. I. Reproductive Responses Estimated In Pure Line And Crossbred Litters, D. B. Petry, Rodger K. Johnson

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Our objective was to estimate responses in reproductive traits in the Nebraska Index line (I) after 19 generations of selection for increased litter size. Responses were estimated in dams producing pure line, F1, and three-way cross litters. A total of 850 litters were produced over six year-seasons, including 224 pure line litters, 393 F1 litters produced from I and C females mated with DanbredNALandrace (L) or Duroc- Hampshire (T) boars, and 233 litters by F1 L x I and L x C females mated with T boars. Contrasts of means were used to estimate the genetic difference ...


Age-Of-Dam Adjustment Factors For Birth And Weaning Weight Records Of Beef Cattle: A Review, Janice M. Rumpf, L. Dale Van Vleck Feb 2004

Age-Of-Dam Adjustment Factors For Birth And Weaning Weight Records Of Beef Cattle: A Review, Janice M. Rumpf, L. Dale Van Vleck

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Age-of-dam adjustment factors are used to pre-adjust birth and weaning weight data for national beef cattle genetic evaluations. Adjustments are used in order to make the means of the different age-of-dam subclasses similar so that a fair comparison of animals can be performed. A review was made of various research studies that have estimated age-of-dam adjustment factors for birth weight and weaning weight of beef cattle. In general, birth weight age-of-dam adjustment factors are the same across the sexes, but weaning weight age-of-darn adjustment factors differ across the sexes, with heifer calves receiving smaller adjustments than their male counterparts. Additionally ...


Genetic Relationships Between Sex-Specific Traits In Beef Cattle: Mature Weight, Weight Adjusted For Body Condition Score, Height And Body Condition Score Of Cows, And Carcass Traits Of Their Steer Relatives, K. A. Nephawe, L. V. Cundiff, M. E. Dikeman, J. D. Crouse, L. Dale Van Vleck Feb 2004

Genetic Relationships Between Sex-Specific Traits In Beef Cattle: Mature Weight, Weight Adjusted For Body Condition Score, Height And Body Condition Score Of Cows, And Carcass Traits Of Their Steer Relatives, K. A. Nephawe, L. V. Cundiff, M. E. Dikeman, J. D. Crouse, L. Dale Van Vleck

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Data from the first four cycles of the Germplasm Evaluation Program at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC) were used to investigate genetic relationships between mature weight (MW, n = 37,710), mature weight adjusted for body condition score (AMW, n = 37,676), mature height (HT, n = 37,123), and BCS (n = 37,676) from 4- to 8-yr old cows (n = 1,800) and carcass traits (n = 4,027) measured on their crossbred paternal half-sib steers. Covariance components among traits were estimated using REML. Carcass traits were adjusted for age at slaughter. Estimates of heritability for hot carcass weight ...


Genetic Response To Selection For Weaning Weight Or Yearling Weight Or Yearling Weight And Muscle Score In Hereford Cattle: Efficiency Of Gain, Growth, And Carcass Characteristics, R. M. Koch, L. V. Cundiff, K. E. Gregory, L. Dale Van Vleck Feb 2004

Genetic Response To Selection For Weaning Weight Or Yearling Weight Or Yearling Weight And Muscle Score In Hereford Cattle: Efficiency Of Gain, Growth, And Carcass Characteristics, R. M. Koch, L. V. Cundiff, K. E. Gregory, L. Dale Van Vleck

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

An experiment involving crosses among selection and control lines was conducted to partition direct and maternal additive genetic response to 20 yr of selection for 1) weaning weight, 2) yearling weight, and 3) index of yearling weight and muscle score. Selection response was evaluated for efficiency of gain, growth from birth through market weight, and carcass characteristics. Heritability and genetic correlations among traits were estimated using animal model analyses. Over a time-constant interval, selected lines were heavier, gained more weight, consumed more ME, and had more gain/ME than the control. Over a weight-constant interval, selected lines required fewer days ...


A Large-Sample Qtl Study In Mice: I. Growth, Joao L. Rocha, Eugene J. Eisen, L. Dale Van Vleck, Daniel Pomp Jan 2004

A Large-Sample Qtl Study In Mice: I. Growth, Joao L. Rocha, Eugene J. Eisen, L. Dale Van Vleck, Daniel Pomp

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

By use of long-term selection lines for high and low growth, a large-sample (n = ~1,000 F2) experiment was conducted in mice to further understand the genetic architecture of complex polygenic traits. In combination with previous work, we conclude that QTL analysis has reinforced classic polygenic paradigms put in place prior to molecular analysis. Composite interval mapping revealed large numbers of QTL for growth traits with an exponential distribution of magnitudes of effects and validated theoretical expectations regarding gene action. Of particular significance, large effects were detected on Chromosome (Chr) 2. Regions on Chrs 1, 3, 6, 10, 11 ...


A Large-Sample Qtl Study In Mice: Ii. Body Composition, Joao L. Rocha, Eugene J. Eisen, L. Dale Van Vleck, Daniel Pomp Jan 2004

A Large-Sample Qtl Study In Mice: Ii. Body Composition, Joao L. Rocha, Eugene J. Eisen, L. Dale Van Vleck, Daniel Pomp

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Using lines of mice having undergone long-term selection for high and low growth, a large-sample (n = ~1,000 F2) experiment was conducted to gain further understanding of the genetic architecture of complex polygenic traits. Composite interval mapping on data from male F2 mice (n = 552) detected 50 QTL on 15 chromosomes impacting weights of various organ and adipose subcomponents of growth, including heart, liver, kidney, spleen, testis, and subcutaneous and epididymal fat depots. Nearly all aggregate growth QTL could be interpreted in terms of the organ and fat subcomponents measured. More than 25% of QTL detected map to MMU2 ...


New Alleles In Calpastatin Gene Are Associated With Meat Quality Traits In Pigs, Daniel C. Ciobanu, John W. M. Vleck, S. M. Lonergan, H. Thomsen, J. C. M. Dekkers, G. S. Plastows, M. F. Rothschild Jan 2004

New Alleles In Calpastatin Gene Are Associated With Meat Quality Traits In Pigs, Daniel C. Ciobanu, John W. M. Vleck, S. M. Lonergan, H. Thomsen, J. C. M. Dekkers, G. S. Plastows, M. F. Rothschild

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Suggestive QTL affecting raw firmness scores and average Instron force, tenderness, juiciness, and chewiness on cooked meat were mapped to pig chromosome 2 using a three-generation intercross between Berkshire and Yorkshire pigs. Based on its function and location, the calpastatin (CAST) gene was considered to be a good candidate for the observed effects. Several missense and silent mutations were identified in CAST and haplotypes covering most of the coding region were constructed and used for association analyses with meat quality traits. Results demonstrated that one CAST haplotype was significantly associated with lower Instron force and cooking loss and higher juiciness ...


National Pork Producers Council Maternal Line Genetic Evaluation: A Comparison Of Growth And Carcass Traits In Terminal Progeny, J. D. Cassady, O. W. Berg, Rodger K. Johnson, J. W. Mabry, L. L. Christian, M. D. Tokach, R. K. Miller, R. N. Goodwin Jan 2004

National Pork Producers Council Maternal Line Genetic Evaluation: A Comparison Of Growth And Carcass Traits In Terminal Progeny, J. D. Cassady, O. W. Berg, Rodger K. Johnson, J. W. Mabry, L. L. Christian, M. D. Tokach, R. K. Miller, R. N. Goodwin

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

The objective of this study was to compare growth and carcass traits of 1,252 progeny of six commercially available dam lines included in the National Pork Producers Council Maternal Line Evaluation Project. Lines compared included one maternal line supplied by each of American Diamond Swine Genetics (ADSG), Danbred NA (DB), two lines supplied by Monsanto Choice Genetics (DK and GPK347), Newsham Hybrids (NH), and Landrace × Large White females supplied by the National Swine Registry (NSR). All females were mated to DB, Duroc-Hampshire terminal sires. Traits analyzed were ADG from 56 to 115 kg live weight, days to 115 kg ...


Evaluation Of Procedures To Predict Fat-Free Lean In Swine Carcasses, Rodger K. Johnson, E. P. Johnson, R. Goodwin, J. W. Mabry, R. K. Miller, O. W. Robison, H. Sellers, M. D. Tokach Jan 2004

Evaluation Of Procedures To Predict Fat-Free Lean In Swine Carcasses, Rodger K. Johnson, E. P. Johnson, R. Goodwin, J. W. Mabry, R. K. Miller, O. W. Robison, H. Sellers, M. D. Tokach

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

The objectives were to develop equations for predicting fat-free lean in swine carcasses and to estimate the prediction bias that was due to genetic group, sex, and dietary lysine level. Barrows and gilts (n = 1,024) from four projects conducted by the National Pork Board were evaluated by six procedures, and their carcass fat-free lean was determined. Pigs of 16 genetic groups were fed within weight groups one of four dietary regimens that differed by 0.45% in lysine content and slaughtered at weights between 89 and 163 kg. Variables in equations included carcass weight and measures of backfat depth ...


Comparisons Of Angus, Charolais, Galloway, Hereford, Longhorn, Nellore, Piedmontese, Salers, And Shorthorn Breeds For Weight, Weight Adjusted For Condition Score, Height, And Condition Score Of Cows, Jesus Arango, L. V. Cundiff, L. Dale Van Vleck Jan 2004

Comparisons Of Angus, Charolais, Galloway, Hereford, Longhorn, Nellore, Piedmontese, Salers, And Shorthorn Breeds For Weight, Weight Adjusted For Condition Score, Height, And Condition Score Of Cows, Jesus Arango, L. V. Cundiff, L. Dale Van Vleck

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Breed differences for weight (CW), height (CH), and condition score (CS) were estimated from records (n &#;&#;12,188) of 2- to 6-yr-old cows (n &#; 744) from Cycle IV of the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center’s Germplasm Evaluation (GPE) Program. Cows were produced from mating Angus and Hereford dams to Angus, Hereford, Charolais, Shorthorn, Galloway, Longhorn, Nellore, Piedmontese, and Salers sires. Samples of Angus and Hereford sires were 1) reference sires born from 1962 through 1970 and 2) 1980s sires born in 1980 through 1987. The mixed model included cow age, season of measurement and their interactions, year of ...


Covariance Functions And Random Regression Models For Cow Weight In Beef Cattle, Jesus Arango, L. V. Cundiff, L. Dale Van Vleck Jan 2004

Covariance Functions And Random Regression Models For Cow Weight In Beef Cattle, Jesus Arango, L. V. Cundiff, L. Dale Van Vleck

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Data from the first four cycles of the Germplasm Evaluation program at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center were used to evaluate weights of Angus, Hereford, and F1 cows produced by crosses of 22 sire and 2 dam (Angus and Hereford) breeds. Four weights per year were available for cows from 2 through 8 yr of age (AY) with age in months (AM). Weights (n &#;&#;61,798) were analyzed with REML using covariance function-random regression models (CF-RRM), with regression on orthogonal (Legendre) polynomials of AM. Models included fixed regression on AM and effects of cow line, age in years ...


Evaluation Of Gene Expression In Pigs Selected For Enhanced Reproduction Using Differential Display Pcr And Human Microarrays: I. Ovarian Follicles, C. D. Gladney, G. R. Bertani, R. K. Johnson, Daniel Pomp Jan 2004

Evaluation Of Gene Expression In Pigs Selected For Enhanced Reproduction Using Differential Display Pcr And Human Microarrays: I. Ovarian Follicles, C. D. Gladney, G. R. Bertani, R. K. Johnson, Daniel Pomp

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Differential display PCR (ddPCR) and complementary DNA microarray analyses were used to evaluate gene expression differences in porcine ovarian follicles between a line of pigs selected for an index of ovulation rate and embryo survival (Line I) and its randomly selected control line (Line C). Follicles (4.0 to 7.0 mm) were dissected from ovaries of multiparous sows (n = 27) at either 2 or 4 d following PGF analog injection on d 12 to 14 of the estrous cycle. Using ddPCR, differentially expressed bands (n = 282) were excised from gels and 107 were sequenced, yielding 84 unique porcine ...


Building Beef Cow Nutritional Programs With The 1996 Nrc Beef Cattle Requirements Model, G. P. Lardy, Don C. Adams, Terry J. Klopfenstein, H. H. Patterson Jan 2004

Building Beef Cow Nutritional Programs With The 1996 Nrc Beef Cattle Requirements Model, G. P. Lardy, Don C. Adams, Terry J. Klopfenstein, H. H. Patterson

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Designing a sound cow-calf nutritional program requires knowledge of nutrient requirements, diet quality, and intake. Effectively using the NRC (1996) beef cattle requirements model (1996 NRC) also requires knowledge of dietary degradable intake protein (DIP) and microbial efficiency. Objectives of this paper are to 1) describe a framework in which 1996 NRC-applicable data can be generated, 2) describe seasonal changes in nutrients on native range, 3) use the 1996 NRC to predict nutrient balance for cattle grazing these forages, and 4) make recommendations for using the 1996 NRC for forage-fed cattle. Extrusa samples were collected over 2 yr on native ...


Effect Of Organic Matter Addition To The Pen Surface And Pen Cleaning Frequency On Nitrogen Mass Balance In Open Feedlots, J. R. Adams, T. B. Farran, Galen Erickson, Terry Klopfenstein, C. N. Macken, C. B. Wilson Jan 2004

Effect Of Organic Matter Addition To The Pen Surface And Pen Cleaning Frequency On Nitrogen Mass Balance In Open Feedlots, J. R. Adams, T. B. Farran, Galen Erickson, Terry Klopfenstein, C. N. Macken, C. B. Wilson

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Three finishing trials were conducted to determine the effects of dietary manipulation and management on N losses from open feedlots. In each experiment, 96 steers were assigned randomly to 12 nutrient balance pens. In Trial 1, calves were fed for 180 d during the winter/spring months; in Trial 2, yearlings were fed for 132 d in the summer. In Trials 1 and 2, N losses from pens were compared directly by adding OM to the pen surface or indirectly by feeding digestible ingredients designed to increase OM excretion. The dietary treatment (BRAN) included 30% corn bran (DM basis) replacing ...


Phosphorus Fractionation In Manure From Swine Fed Traditional And Low-Phytate Corn Diets, Brian J. Wienhold, Phillip S. Miller Jan 2004

Phosphorus Fractionation In Manure From Swine Fed Traditional And Low-Phytate Corn Diets, Brian J. Wienhold, Phillip S. Miller

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Traditional corn (Zea mays L.) (TC), the primary grain used in swine (Sus scrofa) diets, stores a majority of its P as phytate, which is largely unavailable for digestion by nonruminant animals. Low- phytate corn (LPC) contains similar amounts of total P but a smaller percentage of P as phytate. When fed to swine, LPC increases P utilization and reduces P content of manure. While differences in P content between manure from animals fed TC and LPC diets have been documented, solubility and lability of manure P have not been compared. Manure P was characterized in manure from swine fed ...


Fat Supplementation And Reproduction In Beef Females, Richard N. Funston Jan 2004

Fat Supplementation And Reproduction In Beef Females, Richard N. Funston

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Inadequate dietary energy intake and poor body condition can negatively affect reproductive function. Supplemental lipids have been used to increase energy density of the diet and may also have direct positive effects on reproduction in beef cattle. Several fatty acid sources have been studied as they relate to reproductive function. Common sources include sunflower, safflower, cottonseed, rice bran, soybeans, fishmeal, animal tallow, and calcium salts of fatty acids. Fats have been fed before and after calving, during the breeding season, and during heifer development. Response to fat has been investigated through measuring body weight and body condition score, age at ...


Effects Of Concentration And Composition Of Wet Corn Gluten Feed In Steam-Flaked Corn-Based Finishing Diets, C. N. Macken, Galen E. Erickson, Terry Klopfenstein, Rick Stock Jan 2004

Effects Of Concentration And Composition Of Wet Corn Gluten Feed In Steam-Flaked Corn-Based Finishing Diets, C. N. Macken, Galen E. Erickson, Terry Klopfenstein, Rick Stock

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Two finishing experiments were conducted to determine the effects of concentration (Exp. 1) and composition of wet corn gluten feed (Exp. 2) in steam-flaked corn-based diets on feedlot steer performance. In Exp. 1, 192 English × Continental crossbred steer calves (299 ± 0.6 kg) were used in a completely randomized design with six dietary treatments (four pens per treatment). Treatments were six concentrations of wet corn gluten feed (Sweet Bran, Cargill Inc., Blair, NE; 0, 10, 20, 25, 30, and 35%) replacing steam-flaked corn (DM basis). All diets contained 10% corn silage, 5% supplement, and 3.5% tallow (DM basis). Gain ...