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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Heat And Moisture Production Of Poultry And Their Housing Systems: Pullets And Layers, H. Justin Chepete, Hongwei Xin, Manuel C. Puma, Richard S. Gates Oct 2004

Heat And Moisture Production Of Poultry And Their Housing Systems: Pullets And Layers, H. Justin Chepete, Hongwei Xin, Manuel C. Puma, Richard S. Gates

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Heat and moisture production rates (HP, MP) of modern pullets and laying hens were measured using large-scale indirect calorimeters that mimic commercial production settings. The experimental birds were Hy-Line W-36 strain at 1-5, 10, 21, 37, and 64 weeks of age and Hy-Line W-98 strain at 1-5 weeks of age. Total HP (THP) was partitioned into latent and sensible HP (LHP, SHP) at bird level (excluding moisture evaporation from feces) or room level (including fecal moisture evaporation from feces). The W-98 and W-36 pullets reached their metabolic peak at about 10 and 14 days of age, respectively. The W-98 pullet ...


Heat And Moisture Production Of Poultry And Their Housing Systems: Molting Hens, H. Justin Chepete, Hongwei Xin Oct 2004

Heat And Moisture Production Of Poultry And Their Housing Systems: Molting Hens, H. Justin Chepete, Hongwei Xin

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Heat and moisture production rates (HP, MP) of modern 68- to 75-week-old Hy-Line W-36 laying hens during molting were measured using large-scale indirect calorimeters that mimic commercial production settings. The measurements were performed continuously during acclimation, fasting, restricted feeding, and post-molt. Total HP (THP) was partitioned into latent and sensible HP (LHP, SHP) that incorporated influence of fecal moisture evaporation. THP during fasting (averaging 4.8 W/kg) and restricted feeding (averaging 6.0 W/kg) averaged 29% and 13% lower than that during post-molt (averaging 6.8 W/kg). Correspondingly, LHP averaged 1.9 W/kg and 1.8 ...


Quantitative Exposure Assessment For Confinement Of Maize Biogenic Systems, Jeffrey D. Wolt, Yuh Yuan Shyy, Paul Christiansen, Karin S. Dorman, Manjit K. Misra Oct 2004

Quantitative Exposure Assessment For Confinement Of Maize Biogenic Systems, Jeffrey D. Wolt, Yuh Yuan Shyy, Paul Christiansen, Karin S. Dorman, Manjit K. Misra

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The development of transgenic crops as production platforms for biogenic agents will largely depend on the success of efforts to confine the genes and their expressed proteins in field environments. We have used quantitative exposure assessment to evaluate how management practices affect materials escape due to outcrossing by pollen flow or grain loss during harvest operations. Specifically, we study the use of maize to produce biogenic agents within field-confined systems. Decision trees representing simplified schemes of fully conforming (designed to comply with current regulatory standards for field confined trials), partially conforming, and non-conforming management practices were developed. Exemplifying assumptions and ...


Student Perceptions Of Web-Based Supplemental Information, Steven A. Freeman, Dennis W. Field Oct 2004

Student Perceptions Of Web-Based Supplemental Information, Steven A. Freeman, Dennis W. Field

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

No abstract provided.


Holistic Assessment Of Students In Undergraduate Industrial Technology Programs, Dennis W. Field, Steven A. Freeman, Michael J. Dyrenfurth Oct 2004

Holistic Assessment Of Students In Undergraduate Industrial Technology Programs, Dennis W. Field, Steven A. Freeman, Michael J. Dyrenfurth

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

No abstract provided.


Progress In Research Into Ammonia And Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Animal Production Facilities, Soeren Pedersen, Gert-Jan Monteny, Hongwei Xin, Hisamitsu Takai Aug 2004

Progress In Research Into Ammonia And Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Animal Production Facilities, Soeren Pedersen, Gert-Jan Monteny, Hongwei Xin, Hisamitsu Takai

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

On 1-4 June 2003, the Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences (DIAS) hosted the International Symposium on Gaseous and Odour Emissions from Animal Production Facilities. This symposium can be considered a follow-up of the first special symposium on gaseous and odour emissions, held in 1997 in Vinkeloord, the Netherlands (Voermans and Monteny, 1997). The organizers of the 2003 symposium were Section II (Buildings) of the Commission International du Genie Rurale (CIGR), the European Association of Agricultural Engineers (EurAgEng), and the Nordic Association of Agricultural Scientists (NJF). A total of 93 participants from 22 nations got together to share the latest advancement ...


Formative And Summative Assessment Techniques For Continuous Agricultural Technology Classroom Improvement, Brian L. Steward, Steven K. Mickelson, Thomas J. Brumm Jun 2004

Formative And Summative Assessment Techniques For Continuous Agricultural Technology Classroom Improvement, Brian L. Steward, Steven K. Mickelson, Thomas J. Brumm

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Four formative and summative learning assessment tools were used in two terms of an agricultural technology course. The formative assessment tools were a weekly e-mail feedback journal and a midterm electronic-survey. The summative assessment tools were a focus group and a student evaluation of instruction form administered at the end of each term. The weekly e-mail feedback journal and midterm e-survey assessments enabled several course adjustments during each course term, e.g., adjusting the content of the next class based on e-mail feedback, offering more real-world examples, and providing more example problems. The focus groups were used to explore more ...


Herbicide And Nitrate In Surface And Ground Water: Results From The Iowa Management Systems Evaluation Area, Thomas B. Moorman, Jerry L. Hatfield, Rameshwar S. Kanwar Apr 2004

Herbicide And Nitrate In Surface And Ground Water: Results From The Iowa Management Systems Evaluation Area, Thomas B. Moorman, Jerry L. Hatfield, Rameshwar S. Kanwar

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Herbicides are transported through subsurface drainage to surface waters from corn-growing areas of the USA and Canada. Herbicide losses are highly variable, ranging between 0.01 to 10 g/ha. The magnitude of herbicide loss results from precipitation patterns, herbicide-soil interactions, and farming practices. This report reviews existing literature and presents new research concerning effects of farming practices on herbicide losses in drainage water. Conservation tillage practices which increase infiltration tend to increase herbicide losses. Increasing intensity of drainage and increased frequency and rate of herbicide use also increase herbicide losses. Banding lowers the application rate and reduces annual losses ...


Spatio-Temporal Analysis Of Subsurface Drainage Flow Volumes, Allah Bakhsh, Ramesh S. Kanwar Jan 2004

Spatio-Temporal Analysis Of Subsurface Drainage Flow Volumes, Allah Bakhsh, Ramesh S. Kanwar

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Understanding the effects of spatio-temporal variability on subsurface drainage volumes will help in minimizing the adverse environmental effects on the health of ecological systems. The objectives were to investigate the spatial structure and temporal stability of subsurface drainage trends using six years (1993 to 1998) of field measured data from 36 experimental plots. Two main components of variability (i.e., the large-scale deterministic structure or trend and the small-scale stochastic component) were studied using the median polishing technique and variography. Normalized trend surfaces indicated that trend patterns were stable over the study period. After subtracting the trend from subsurface drainage ...


Using Rzwqm To Predict Herbicide Leaching Losses In Subsurface Drainage Water, Allah Bakhsh, Liwang Ma, Lajpat R. Ahuja, Jerry L. Hatfield, Ramesh S. Kanwar Jan 2004

Using Rzwqm To Predict Herbicide Leaching Losses In Subsurface Drainage Water, Allah Bakhsh, Liwang Ma, Lajpat R. Ahuja, Jerry L. Hatfield, Ramesh S. Kanwar

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

If you are not an ASABE member or if your employer has not arranged for access to the full-text, Click here for options. USING RZWQM TO PREDICT HERBICIDE LEACHING LOSSES IN SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE WATER

Published by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan www.asabe.org Citation: Transactions of the ASAE. Vol. 47(5): 1415-1426 . (doi: 10.13031/2013.17621) @2004 Authors: A. Bakhsh, L. Ma, L. R. Ahuja, J. L. Hatfield, R. S. Kanwar Keywords: Herbicides, RZWQM, Subsurface drainage, Water quality Improvements have been made in the pesticide component of the Root Zone Water Quality ...


Removal Of Ergot From Barley By Density Separation, Kamal M. Adam, Manjit K. Misra, Dale R. Thoreson Jan 2004

Removal Of Ergot From Barley By Density Separation, Kamal M. Adam, Manjit K. Misra, Dale R. Thoreson

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

A laboratory experiment was conducted to determine the feasibility of density separation for reducing ergot contamination in barley. Four 1.1-m3 (30-bu) lots of contaminated barley were conditioned with an air-screen cleaner followed by density separator. Samples were collected before and after conditioning with each machine. The amount of ergot in collected samples was determined separating and weighing the ergot and calculating the percentage by weight. The ergot contamination level was significantly reduced from 0.52%, 0.16%, 0.10%, and 0.12% to 0.02%, 0.01%, 0.02%, and 0.01%, respectively, for the four contaminated lots near ...


Environmental Effects Of Applying Composted Organics To New Highway Embankments: Part 1. Interrill Runoff And Erosion, Russell Alan Persyn, Thomas D. Glanville, Tom L. Richard, John M. Laflen, Philip M. Dixon Jan 2004

Environmental Effects Of Applying Composted Organics To New Highway Embankments: Part 1. Interrill Runoff And Erosion, Russell Alan Persyn, Thomas D. Glanville, Tom L. Richard, John M. Laflen, Philip M. Dixon

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Construction of new highways can lead to challenges when attempting to re-establish vegetation on right-of-ways. Lack of vegetation can leave soil exposed and subject to increased runoff and soil erosion. Therefore, the Iowa Department of Transportation and the Iowa Department of Natural Resources sponsored a study to evaluate the use of composts applied as mulch blankets to decrease runoff and erosion. This article evaluates interrill runoff and erosion between three types of compost (biosolids, yard waste, and bio-industrial byproducts) and two soil conditions (existing compacted subsoil (control) and imported topsoil) on a 3:1 highway embankment. Composts were applied as ...


Carbon Dioxide Evolution From Fresh And Preserved Soybeans, Ibni Hajar Rukunudin, Carl J. Bern, Manjit K. Misra, Theodore B. Bailey Jan 2004

Carbon Dioxide Evolution From Fresh And Preserved Soybeans, Ibni Hajar Rukunudin, Carl J. Bern, Manjit K. Misra, Theodore B. Bailey

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Carbon dioxide evolution has proven to be a good indicator of deterioration in studies of stored cereal grains and oilseeds. Since little work has been done with stored soybeans, a study was conducted measuring carbon dioxide from stored soybeans using freshly harvested and preserved soybean samples. The objective of the study was to determine the effects of harvesting method, storage temperature, storage moisture content, and storage time on soybean deterioration. Following storage treatment, samples were held under aeration in a respirometer at 26°C and 21% moisture, and evolved carbon dioxide mass was measured until samples had lost 1.0 ...


A Literature Review Of Swine Heat Production, Tami M. Brown-Brandl, John A. Nienaber, Hongwei Xin, Richard S. Gates Jan 2004

A Literature Review Of Swine Heat Production, Tami M. Brown-Brandl, John A. Nienaber, Hongwei Xin, Richard S. Gates

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Current ASAE standards of heat and moisture production (HP, MP) for swine are primarily based on data collected nearly four decades ago. Feedstuffs, management practices, growth rate, and lean percentage of swine have changed HP and MP considerably in that time period. Literature data shows that lean percent increased 1.55% in the last 10 years, resulting in an increase in HP by approximately 15%. Data were compiled into two categories: prior to 1988, and 1988 to present. Analysis of this data revealed that HP increased 12.4% to 35.3% between the two categories, with the largest differences occurring ...


Comparison Of Enteric Methane Emissions In China For Different Ipcc Estimation Methods And Production Schemes, Hongmin Dong, Xiuping Tao, Qing He, Hongwei Xin Jan 2004

Comparison Of Enteric Methane Emissions In China For Different Ipcc Estimation Methods And Production Schemes, Hongmin Dong, Xiuping Tao, Qing He, Hongwei Xin

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Accurate estimation of methane (CH4) emission (ME) from enteric fermentation in China is essential to establishing and maintaining a reliable global ME inventory and developing strategies to mitigate such emissions. Based on modern animal production statistics, i.e., feed quality and quantity data for different feeding systems, enteric methane emissions (EME) in China during the period of 1990 to 1998 were estimated using Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimation methods for various production scenarios. The estimation was conducted based on: (1) Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines) Tier 1, designated M1; (2 ...


Feeding Behaviors Of Laying Hens With Or Without Beak Trimming, Kelly E. Persyn, Hongwei Xin, Dan Nettleton, Atsuo Ikeguchi, Richard S. Gates Jan 2004

Feeding Behaviors Of Laying Hens With Or Without Beak Trimming, Kelly E. Persyn, Hongwei Xin, Dan Nettleton, Atsuo Ikeguchi, Richard S. Gates

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

This study quantifies feeding behavior of W-36 White Leghorn laying hens (77 to 80 weeks old) as influenced by the management practice of beak trimming. The feeding behavior was characterized using a newly developed measurement system and computational algorithm. Non-trimmed (NT) and beak-trimmed (BT) hens showed similar daily feed intake and meal size. However, the BT hens tended to spend longer time feeding (3.3 vs. 2.0 h/d, P < 0.01), which coincided with their slower ingestion rate of 0.43 g/min-kg0.75 vs. 0.79 g/min-kg0.75 for the NT counterparts (P < 0.05). The BT hens had shorter time intervals between meals (101 s vs. 151 s, P < 0.01). Selective feeding, as demonstrated by larger feed particles apparent in the leftover feed, was noted for the BT hens. The leftover feed had a lower crude protein/adjusted crude protein content for the BT birds than that for the NT birds (16.7% vs. 18.7%, P < 0.05). In addition, the leftover feed of the BT birds had lower contents in phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, zinc, and manganese (P < 0.05), although no significant differences were detected in calcium, sodium, or metabolic energy content. Baseline feeding behavior data of this nature may help quantify and ensure the welfare of animals through exercising proper engineering design and/or management considerations.


Automated Control Logic For Naturally Ventilated Agricultural Structures, Steven J. Hoff Jan 2004

Automated Control Logic For Naturally Ventilated Agricultural Structures, Steven J. Hoff

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

An innovative control strategy for a naturally ventilated (NV) swine finishing building was evaluated. Extensive monitoring of an existing NV-controlled swine finishing building indicated that the building temperature control was .3.C of set-point for less than 50% of the time, with 20% of the time greater than .6.C. Based on the experience gained from this monitoring, the building was modified to accommodate testing and development of a new NV control logic. Using the improved NV control logic, the building temperature was .2.C of the set-point for 91% of the time, and, .3.C for 97% of the ...


Single-Kernel Maize Analysis By Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging, Robert P. Cogdill, Charles R. Hurburgh Jr., Glen R. Rippke, Stanley J. Bajic, Roger W. Jones, John F. Mcclelland, Terrance C. Jensen, Junhong Liu Jan 2004

Single-Kernel Maize Analysis By Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging, Robert P. Cogdill, Charles R. Hurburgh Jr., Glen R. Rippke, Stanley J. Bajic, Roger W. Jones, John F. Mcclelland, Terrance C. Jensen, Junhong Liu

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The objectives of this research were: (1) to develop a technique for creating calibrations to predict the constituent concentrations of single maize kernels from near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral image data, and (2) to evaluate the feasibility of an NIR hyperspectral imaging spectrometer as a tool for the quality analysis of single maize kernels. Single kernels of maize were analyzed by hyperspectral transmittance in the range of 750 to 1090 nm. The transmittance data were standardized using an opal glass transmission standard and converted to optical absorbance units. Partial least squares (PLS) regression and principal components regression (PCR) were used to develop ...


Ventilation Rates Of A Laying Hen House Based On New Vs. Old Heat And Moisture Production Data, H. Justin Chepete, Hongwei Xin Jan 2004

Ventilation Rates Of A Laying Hen House Based On New Vs. Old Heat And Moisture Production Data, H. Justin Chepete, Hongwei Xin

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Heat and moisture production rates inside animal confinement provide the basis for design and operation of the building ventilation system. This article describes ventilation rate (VR) requirement by a modern high-rise layer (Hy-Line W-36 breed) house based on sensible heat and moisture production rates (SHP, MP) that were newly collected at the bird level or room level – designated as the new data vs. those collected some years ago – designated as the old data. The effects of bird stocking density on VR and balance temperature, tbal (outside temperature below which supplemental heat is needed to maintain the target house temperature) were ...


Fan Assessment Numeration System (Fans) Design And Calibration Specifications, Richard S. Gates, Kenneth D. Casey, Hongwei Xin, Eileen F. Wheeler, John D. Simmons Jan 2004

Fan Assessment Numeration System (Fans) Design And Calibration Specifications, Richard S. Gates, Kenneth D. Casey, Hongwei Xin, Eileen F. Wheeler, John D. Simmons

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

A device for in-situ fan airflow measurement, known as the Fan Assessment Numeration System (FANS) device, previously developed and constructed at the USDA-ARS Southern Poultry Research Laboratory, was refined at University of Kentucky as part of a project for quantifying building emissions from mechanically ventilated poultry and livestock facilities. The FANS incorporates an array of five propeller anemometers to perform a real-time traverse of the airflow entering fans of up to 137 cm (54 in.) diameter. Details of the updated design, including hardware, software, and calibration methodology are presented. An error analysis of the flow rate, and calibration results from ...


Using Discriminant Analysis And Gis To Delineate Subsurface Drainage Patterns, Allah Bakhsh, Ramesh S. Kanwar Jan 2004

Using Discriminant Analysis And Gis To Delineate Subsurface Drainage Patterns, Allah Bakhsh, Ramesh S. Kanwar

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The contamination of soil and water resources from nutrients, transported in subsurface drainage water having different drainage patterns, has important repercussions on the ecological environment and human health. This study was designed to delineate subsurface drainage patterns using cluster analysis based on six years (1993 to 1998) of field measured data on subsurface drainage flows from thirty-six 0.4 ha field experimental plots. These drainage patterns then were related spatially to the soil and topographic attributes using discriminant analysis and the map overlay capability of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to develop cause-effect relationships. The experimental field plots, under various tillage ...


Environmental Effects Of Applying Composted Organics To New Highway Embankments: Part 2. Water Quality, Thomas D. Glanville, Russell Alan Persyn, Tom L. Richard, John M. Laflen, Philip M. Dixon Jan 2004

Environmental Effects Of Applying Composted Organics To New Highway Embankments: Part 2. Water Quality, Thomas D. Glanville, Russell Alan Persyn, Tom L. Richard, John M. Laflen, Philip M. Dixon

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

An oversupply of composted organics, and imposition of new federal regulations governing stormwater discharges from construction sites, motivated the Iowa Department of Natural Resources (IDNR), and the Iowa Department of Transportation (Iowa DOT) to sponsor a study of the potential water quality impacts of using compost to control runoff and erosion on highway construction sites. Test areas treated with 5 and 10 cm deep blankets (unincorporated) of three types of compost (biosolids, yard waste, and bio-industrial byproducts) were constructed on a new highway embankment with a 3:1 sideslope and subjected to simulated rainfall intensity of approximately 100 mm h-1 ...


Topographic Mapping Through Measurement Of Vehicle Attitude And Elevation, Mark L. Westphalen, Brian L. Steward, Shufeng Han Jan 2004

Topographic Mapping Through Measurement Of Vehicle Attitude And Elevation, Mark L. Westphalen, Brian L. Steward, Shufeng Han

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

A self-propelled agricultural sprayer was equipped with four RTK DGPS receivers and an inertial measurement unit (IMU) to measure vehicle attitude and field elevation as the vehicle was driven across a field. Data were collected in a stop-and-go fashion at 3.05 m (10 ft) intervals, as well as in a continuous fashion at three different speed levels on a 2.3 ha field area with varying topography. Pitch and roll offset angles were estimated to within 95% confidence intervals that ranged from 0.01° to 0.10°. Using ordinary kriging, digital elevation models (DEMs) were interpolated using only elevation ...


Simulating Nitrate Drainage Losses From A Walnut Creek Watershed Field, Allah Bakhsh, Jerry L. Hatfield, Ramesh S. Kanwar, Liwang Ma, Lajpat R. Ahuja Jan 2004

Simulating Nitrate Drainage Losses From A Walnut Creek Watershed Field, Allah Bakhsh, Jerry L. Hatfield, Ramesh S. Kanwar, Liwang Ma, Lajpat R. Ahuja

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

This study was designed to evaluate the improved version of the Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM) using 6 yr (1992–1997) of field-measured data from a field within Walnut Creek watershed located in central Iowa. Measured data included subsurface drainage flows, NO3–N concentrations and loads in subsurface drainage water, and corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] yields. The dominant soil within this field was Webster (fine-loamy, mixed, superactive, mesic Typic Endoaquolls) and cropping system was corn–soybean rotation. The model was calibrated with 1992 data and was validated with 1993 to 1997 data ...


Performance Of Single Point Monitor In Measuring Ammonia And Hydrogen Sulfide Gases, Yi Liang, Hongwei Xin, Steven J. Hoff, Tom L. Richard, Brian J. Kerr Jan 2004

Performance Of Single Point Monitor In Measuring Ammonia And Hydrogen Sulfide Gases, Yi Liang, Hongwei Xin, Steven J. Hoff, Tom L. Richard, Brian J. Kerr

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Performance of Single Point Monitors (SPMs) was evaluated for measuring aerial ammonia (NH3, 0 to 30 ppm) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S, 0 to 90 ppb) under laboratory and field conditions. Calibration gas or NH3/H2S-ladden air at various dew-point temperatures (tdp) were introduced simultaneously to the SPMs under evaluation and a chemiluminescence NH3 analyzer or a pulsed-fluorescence H2S analyzer. Coefficient of variation for “as-is” readings among the SPMs, a measurement of unit interchangeability, was up to 15% for H2S and up to 25% for NH3. Linear relationships existed between readings of the SPMs and those of the respective gas analyzer ...


Challenges Of Managing Liquid Swine Manure, Douglas Karlen, Cynthia A. Cambardella, Rameshwar S. Kanwar Jan 2004

Challenges Of Managing Liquid Swine Manure, Douglas Karlen, Cynthia A. Cambardella, Rameshwar S. Kanwar

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Liquid swine manure can be a resource for providing essential plant nutrients and building soil resources, but its management for maximum productivity with minimum environmental impact is often very difficult. Failure to understand the challenges may result in expectations or even regulations that are impossible to achieve. Our objective is to provide producers and policy makers with information regarding agronomic and environmental challenges of liquid swine manure management based on results from a 6-year study with continuous corn (Zea mays L.) and a corn-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotation in Iowa. Challenges that we encountered are openly discussed to increase ...


Reduced-Dimension Clustering For Vegetation Segmentation, Brian L. Steward, Lei F. Tian, Dan Nettleton, Lie Tang Jan 2004

Reduced-Dimension Clustering For Vegetation Segmentation, Brian L. Steward, Lei F. Tian, Dan Nettleton, Lie Tang

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Segmentation of vegetation is a critical step in using machine vision for field automation tasks. A new method called reduced-dimension clustering (RDC) was developed based on theoretical considerations about the color distribution of field images. RDC performed unsupervised classification of pixels in field images into vegetation and background classes. Bayes classifiers were then trained and used for vegetation segmentation. The performance of the classifiers trained using the RDC method was compared with that of other segmentation methods. The RDC method produced segmentation performance that was consistently high, with average segmentation success rates of 89.6% and 91.9% across both ...


Effects Of Multi-Mode Four-Wheel Steering On Sprayer Machine Performance, Mitchell A. Miller, Brian L. Steward, Mark L. Westphalen Jan 2004

Effects Of Multi-Mode Four-Wheel Steering On Sprayer Machine Performance, Mitchell A. Miller, Brian L. Steward, Mark L. Westphalen

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

A self-propelled agricultural sprayer with four-wheel steering (4WS) was developed. A digital controller was designed and built to control the rear steering angle based on that of the front wheels through electrohydraulic control valves. Three modes of steering were enabled and investigated. Experimental methods were developed to determine what potential 4WS has in improving machine performance. In particular, machine performance of the sprayer was evaluated by measuring turning radius and performance metrics in headland turning and lateral path shift procedures. Coordinated 4WS resulted in smaller turning radii than conventional two-wheel steering (2WS). In the headland turning tests, significant mean increases ...