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2004

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University of Tennessee, Knoxville

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Articles 1 - 30 of 103

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

An Svd-Based Comparison Of Nine Whole Eukaryotic Genomes Supports A Coelomate Rather Than Ecdysozoan Lineage, Gary W. Stuart, Michael W. Berry Dec 2004

An Svd-Based Comparison Of Nine Whole Eukaryotic Genomes Supports A Coelomate Rather Than Ecdysozoan Lineage, Gary W. Stuart, Michael W. Berry

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- General Biology

Background

Eukaryotic whole genome sequences are accumulating at an impressive rate. Effective methods for comparing multiple whole eukaryotic genomes on a large scale are needed. Most attempted solutions involve the production of large scale alignments, and many of these require a high stringency pre-screen for putative orthologs in order to reduce the effective size of the dataset and provide a reasonably high but unknown fraction of correctly aligned homologous sites for comparison. As an alternative, highly efficient methods that do not require the pre-alignment of operationally defined orthologs are also being explored.

Results

A non-alignment method based on the Singular ...


An Analysis Of The End-Of-Life Choices Of Elderly Patients And Their Healthcare Providers At A Community Hospital In Tennessee, Elizabeth Harder Dobbins Dec 2004

An Analysis Of The End-Of-Life Choices Of Elderly Patients And Their Healthcare Providers At A Community Hospital In Tennessee, Elizabeth Harder Dobbins

Doctoral Dissertations

The Patient Self-Determination Act of 1990 was expected to popularize the use of advance directives (living wills and durable powers of attorney for healthcare (DPOA-HC)). Since the law was passed, researchers have found that the use of the documents has not increased as expected and that the documents, when present, were not always respected by healthcare providers.

The purpose of this study was to analyze the end-of-life choices of elderly patients and their healthcare providers in a community hospital setting. The subjects of this study were 160 patients, aged 65 years and older, who died in a community hospital in ...


A Multi-State Molecular Epidemiological Survey Of 16 Beef, Dairy, Poultry And Swine Farms To Facilitate Risk Assessment Of Listeria Monocytogenes, David Dean Rasmussen Dec 2004

A Multi-State Molecular Epidemiological Survey Of 16 Beef, Dairy, Poultry And Swine Farms To Facilitate Risk Assessment Of Listeria Monocytogenes, David Dean Rasmussen

Doctoral Dissertations

Listeria monocytogenes s an intracellular pathogen that poses serious risks for immuno-compromised individuals. On the farm risk assessment is needed to reduce exposure of such individuals to this pathogen. Base line epidemiological surveys for this pathogen are needed to identify common ecological reservoirs and sources. A 21 month survey of 4 animal farm types for L. monocytogenes in five different states was conducted to determine the level of occurrence in various environments. An overall occurrence of 1.4% (20/1432 samples) for L. monocytogenes was observed in this 21 month survey. Each sample type (soil, bedding/litter, feed/grass and ...


The Role Of History In The Diversification Of The Funnel-Web Spiders, Agelenopsis Aperta, And Its Congeners, Nadia Antoine Ayoub Dec 2004

The Role Of History In The Diversification Of The Funnel-Web Spiders, Agelenopsis Aperta, And Its Congeners, Nadia Antoine Ayoub

Doctoral Dissertations

Identifying the influence of history on the diversity of life is an important goal of evolutionary biology, whether it is an historical event that is extrinsic to the organism such as past climate change or an intrinsic event such as a single switch in behavior. Phylogenetic trees offer an indirect record of the history of diversification in a group of organisms and can be used in conjunction with other information to deduce the multiple roles of history affecting a particular group. Intra- and inter-specific phylogenetic relationships in the spider genus Agelenopsis Geibel (Araneae: Agelenidae) were analyzed using sequence data from ...


Evaluation Of Botanical Oil Formulations For Management Of Powdery Mildew And Mites, Adriane Lorraine Cannon Dec 2004

Evaluation Of Botanical Oil Formulations For Management Of Powdery Mildew And Mites, Adriane Lorraine Cannon

Masters Theses

Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of newly created soybean oil formulations on powdery mildew (Erysiphe pulphra ), photosynthesis, phytotoxicity, and broad mites (Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks)) on dogwood ( Cornus florida (L.) 'Cloud Nine') trees, and to evaluate the amounts of formulations that are deposited and washed off of peach (Prunus persica, (L.)) leaves, dormant oak (Quercus phellos, (L.) ), and viburnum ( Viburnum x juddii) twigs after simulated rainfall. Oil treatments were applied using a back pack mist blower sprayed pre- and post- inoculation of powdery mildew to evaluate powdery mildew, photosynthesis, and phytotoxicity. Oil treatments were also applied to the dogwood ...


Antimicrobial Activity And Effect Of Selected Essential Oil Components On Cell Membrane Lipids, Valerie W. Ling Dec 2004

Antimicrobial Activity And Effect Of Selected Essential Oil Components On Cell Membrane Lipids, Valerie W. Ling

Doctoral Dissertations

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of essential oil components (EOC) against Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes and evaluate changes in bacterial membrane composition by observing changes in the fatty acids of Salmonella associated with exposure and adaptation to (or growth in the presence of) cinnamaldehyde (CIN) and carvacrol (CRV) EOC. Ten EOC were tested for efficacy using the broth microdilution and macrodilution methods. Beta-caryophyllene, limonene, alpha-pinene, and thymol were not lethal to Salmonella and Listeria at 2800mg/L. Dose-response models showed that the most effective EOC against Salmonella were CIN and CRV (50% probability ...


Immunotoxicological Study Of Depleted Uranium, Bin Wan Dec 2004

Immunotoxicological Study Of Depleted Uranium, Bin Wan

Doctoral Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine toxicity of depleted uranium (DU) to the immune system and the gene expression profile of DU-exposed immune cells including peritoneal macrophages, primary CD4+ T-cells and T Cell Hybridoma (TCH) PLP1 5B6. Flow cytometry analysis of annexin-V and Propidium Iodide (PI) binding revealed that DU causes death in those cells at various concentrations. The non-cytotoxic concentrations of DU determined in macrophages, primary CD4+ T-cells, and T cells hybridoma are 50µM, 100 µM, and 500 µM, respectively. Findings also revealed that DU-exposed macrophages are able to promote CD4+ T-cell proliferation in a concentration dependent ...


Online Atmospherics: An Investigation Of Feeling And Internet Purchase Intention, Kelly Price Rankin Dec 2004

Online Atmospherics: An Investigation Of Feeling And Internet Purchase Intention, Kelly Price Rankin

Doctoral Dissertations

This study examines the online atmospheric cues of color and music and their impact upon feeling, attitude and purchase intention of consumers in the online environment. The research design was experimental and used data from a questionnaire. A pilot test of the instrument was conducted. The final questionnaire contained 39 items and a demographic section. A total of 200 questionnaires were collected. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four groups. Each group of 50 participants was exposed to a specific set of online atmospheric elements. The results indicated that Hypotheses 1, 3 and 4 were rejected while Hypotheses 2 ...


Seasonal Abundance Of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) At A High And Low Prevalence Site For La Crosse Encephalitis In Eastern Tennessee, Nathan David Caldwell Dec 2004

Seasonal Abundance Of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) At A High And Low Prevalence Site For La Crosse Encephalitis In Eastern Tennessee, Nathan David Caldwell

Masters Theses

La Crosse (LAC), a California (CAL) serogroup bunyavirus, is the most prevalent pediatric arboviral disease in the United States and accounts for virtually all encephalitis cases associated with CAL serogroup arboviruses. In Tennessee, USA, prior to the drastic increase of confirmed La Crosse (LAC) encephalitis cases in 1997, the sum of documented cases reported to the Tennessee Department of Health totaled 9. During subsequent years in Tennessee (1997 to 2003), an average of 12 cases has been reported annually. Approximately 62% of these reported cases have occurred in the months of July and August. The native, container-inhabiting mosquito Ochlerotatus triseriatus ...


Relationships Between Muskrats And Freshwater Mussels Prior To River Otter Restoration At Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky, Kimberly Ann Asmus Dec 2004

Relationships Between Muskrats And Freshwater Mussels Prior To River Otter Restoration At Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky, Kimberly Ann Asmus

Masters Theses

The southeastern United States has a great diversity of freshwater mussel species, many of which are threatened with extinction. The muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) is one of the few animals to extensively prey on freshwater mussels, and it has been implicated in retarding the recovery of, or further threatening, some endangered mussel populations. Muskrat predation on mussels may be significant at Mammoth Cave National Park (MCNP) where a river otter (Lontra canadensis) restoration has been proposed. Anecdotal observations suggest that the reintroduction of river otters dramatically reduces muskrat populations, which, in tum, may reduce the number of mussels consumed by muskrats ...


Using A Bioluminescent Bacterial Bioreporter To Assess Iron Bioavailability In The Oceans, Cecile Elise Mioni Dec 2004

Using A Bioluminescent Bacterial Bioreporter To Assess Iron Bioavailability In The Oceans, Cecile Elise Mioni

Doctoral Dissertations

Recent improvements in modern analytical methods have considerably increased our understanding of Fe biogeochemistry in the Ocean. Compiled data have shown that Fe concentrations are low in most open ocean surface waters and that the bioavailability of this Fe is influenced by organic complexation. Of presumed biotic origin, the importance of this organic complexation to Fe availability remains to be elucidated. Unfortunately, current analytical tools do not allow for a linkage to be established between Fe speciation to Fe bioavailability.

To supplement chemical analyses, we have developed a bioanalytical tool: a heterotrophic bacterial bioluminescent reporter system that responds quantitatively to ...


In Vitro Propagation, Regeneration, Attempted Tetraploid Induction, And Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation Of Euphorbia Pulchurrima ‘Winter Rose’™, Kimberly Ann Pickens Dec 2004

In Vitro Propagation, Regeneration, Attempted Tetraploid Induction, And Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation Of Euphorbia Pulchurrima ‘Winter Rose’™, Kimberly Ann Pickens

Doctoral Dissertations

Poinsettia, Euphorbia pulchurrima, is the number one potted flowering plant in the United States. ‘Winter Rose’™ is a very popular cultivar with more than one million plants sold each year. To further improve this cultivar, particularly for larger flower heads and free branching, this research aimed at establishing some in vitro systems for application of biotechnology to poinsettia genetic improvement.

A protocol was established for in vitro axillary bud proliferation using greenhouse grown terminal buds. Buds were placed on Murashige-Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with benzlyaminopurine (BA). Explants produced the greatest number of axillary buds on medium containing between 2 ...


Effect Of Resin And Wax Ratio On Osb Properties, Trairat Neimsuwan Dec 2004

Effect Of Resin And Wax Ratio On Osb Properties, Trairat Neimsuwan

Masters Theses

Oriented Strandboard (OSB) was made for construction purpose. Mat structure especially resin and wax ratio had an influence on major panel properties such as bending strength properties, stiffness properties, internal bonding, water absorption, thickness swell and so on. Thickness swell was an important property of OSB for using in construction and outdoor facilities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of resin and wax ratio on OSB properties and rapidly predict OSB properties using near infrared spectroscopy. The laboratory OSB panels were fabricated as a multiple layer (three layers) mat structure including, orientation, resin types (phenol formaldehyde ...


“Participation And Life Skill Development Of The Tennessee Junior Livestock Skillathon Programs, Amy Margaret Powell Dec 2004

“Participation And Life Skill Development Of The Tennessee Junior Livestock Skillathon Programs, Amy Margaret Powell

Masters Theses

This study examined the Tennessee Junior Livestock Skillathon Program and its objectives. Research was conducted to determine what motivates or deters youth participation, how youth prepare for the skillathon and life skill development in the areas of communication, critical thinking and self-confidence. A self-developed, eleven question, likert scale survey was mailed to 200 randomly selected youth that exhibited livestock in the 2003 Tennessee Junior Livestock beef, sheep or market hog shows. Fifty-two percent (112) participants responded.

Youth that participate in the skillathon do so because they want to see how much they know about their project and they felt the ...


Levels And Patterns Of Genetic Diversity In The Rare And Endangered Cumberland Stitchwort, Minuartia Cumberlandensis (Caryophyllaceae), Charles Thomas Winder Dec 2004

Levels And Patterns Of Genetic Diversity In The Rare And Endangered Cumberland Stitchwort, Minuartia Cumberlandensis (Caryophyllaceae), Charles Thomas Winder

Masters Theses

Sequences of a highly variable nuclear gene (G3pdh) were used to characterize genetic diversity within and among populations of the endangered rockhouse endemic, Minuartia cumberlandensis (Wofford and Kral) McNeill (Caryophyllaceae), and compared to a widespread and abundant related species, M. glabra (Michaux) McNeill. By reconstructing phylogenetic relationships among G3pdh variants (haplotypes) and observing the geographical distribution of those ordered variants, an attempt was made to gauge the effects of historical and contemporary population processes acting within the species, particularly those with potential implications for long-term conservation. Both M. cumberlandensis and M. glabra were found to have high overall genetic (haplotype ...


Insulin Sensitivity And The Onset Of Hyperphagia In Fatty Rats, Holiday Agnes Durham Dec 2004

Insulin Sensitivity And The Onset Of Hyperphagia In Fatty Rats, Holiday Agnes Durham

Masters Theses

Hyperphagia emerges suddenly after 22 days of age in Zucker fatty (fa/fa) rats, and fatties become visibly obese within days. This rapid increase in growth rate is likely to be associated with substantial changes in glucose metabolism. The objective of these experiments was to determine the relationship between insulin resistance and the onset of hyperphagia. Insulin tolerance tests showed that fatties were remarkably insulin resistant prior to the onset of hyperphagia, hyperinsulinemia, and obesity, but become as insulin sensitive as their lean littermates after the onset of hyperphagia. Furthermore, fatties became increasingly insulin resistant prior to the onset of ...


Physicochemical And Antimicrobial Properties Of Antimicrobials Encapsulated In Surfactant-Based Nanoparticles, Sylvia Gaysinksy Segura Dec 2004

Physicochemical And Antimicrobial Properties Of Antimicrobials Encapsulated In Surfactant-Based Nanoparticles, Sylvia Gaysinksy Segura

Masters Theses

Phytophenols, components of essential oil extracts, are antimicrobials that may inhibit the growth of foodborne pathogens. However, their antimicrobial activity in food systems is low because of low water solubility and association with other food components. Incorporation of phytophenols in nanoscale surfactant micelles may offer a potential solution to increase solubility and improve activity in food systems. The objectives of this study were to determine the stability and physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of micellar antimicrobial-surfactant systems.

Carvacrol and eugenol containing micelles were prepared by dispersing Surfynol® 485W and Surfynol® 465 in water at room temperature. Stability was determined by UV-visible ...


Structure–Function Studies Of The Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Α–Mating Factor Pheromone Receptor Ste2p, Ayça Akal–Strader Dec 2004

Structure–Function Studies Of The Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Α–Mating Factor Pheromone Receptor Ste2p, Ayça Akal–Strader

Doctoral Dissertations

G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) are seven transmembrane domain cell surface proteins that respond to a variety of environmental cues. Response of these receptors to their cognate stimuli on the extracellular region of the cell results in a concurrent activation of a complex series of intracellular signaling pathways that prepare the cell for the required adjustments through regulation of gene expression levels. Participation of GPCRs in such intricate signal transduction pathways renders them important players in human diseases. The GPCR family of proteins therefore represents one of the largest classes of proteins to be targeted in the development of drug ...


Antimicrobial Activity Of Trypsin And Pepsin Hydrolysates Derived From Acid-Precipitated Bovine Casein, Kellie Parks Burris Dec 2004

Antimicrobial Activity Of Trypsin And Pepsin Hydrolysates Derived From Acid-Precipitated Bovine Casein, Kellie Parks Burris

Masters Theses

Foodborne pathogens are a major concern to the food industry and consumers but they may be controlled with antimicrobials. Naturally occurring antimicrobials may be isolated from a variety of plant, animal and microbial sources. Previous studies have demonstrated that peptides isolated from enzyme hydrolyzed milk proteins may have in vivo and in vitro antimicrobial activity. Such compounds could be of use as inhibitors of foodborne pathogens. The objectives of this study were to determine the antimicrobial effectiveness against Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes of digests of bovine acid-precipitated casein with the enzymes pepsin and trypsin and to determine if these ...


The Dynamics, Distribution, And Activity Of Viruses In Lake Erie, Amanda Dean Dec 2004

The Dynamics, Distribution, And Activity Of Viruses In Lake Erie, Amanda Dean

Masters Theses

As viruses-- specifically pervasive pathogens of aquatic microorganisms-- are now included in most studies of aquatic food webs and nutrient cycles, presented here is new information from samples collected in July 2003 which demonstrates that bacteria lysed by viruses released 122 - 1080 nM of phosphorus per day throughout Lake Erie, implying that viruses acted as a major mechanism of phosphorus recycling in the lake. Viruses have been shown to be ubiquitous throughout Lake Erie, with a weak correlation between their distribution and the distribution of bacteria. Moreover, evidence suggests that virus production rates are tightly tied to the growth rate ...


Prostaglandin E2 Secretion And Effect On Adipocyte Lipogenesis, Patrick Allen Wortman Dec 2004

Prostaglandin E2 Secretion And Effect On Adipocyte Lipogenesis, Patrick Allen Wortman

Masters Theses

With the current focus on the role of n-3 PUFAs as beneficial dietary interventions in the fields of cardiovascular disease and cancer, there has been a vastly increased awareness and focus on the mechanism of action for these essential fatty acids.

Many of the effects of PUFAs are mediated via changes in prostaglandin (PG) levels. One primary substrate for PGs is arachidonic acid (AA) (20:4 n-6), which results in the production of 2-series PGs. Increased concentrations of AA have been shown to increase levels of PGE2 in vitro and in vivo. The omega-3 fatty acid EPA (20:5 ...


Assessing Capacity For Collaborative Land Management In A Western Tennessee Community, Leslie Ann Horner Dec 2004

Assessing Capacity For Collaborative Land Management In A Western Tennessee Community, Leslie Ann Horner

Masters Theses

Human and natural alterations resulting in sedimentation, flooding, and hardwood tree mortality in western Tennessee’s Hatchie River watershed represent a landscape-level natural resource problem. Flooding and tree mortality have significant negative economic impacts on the residents of the watershed’s communities. Efforts to address these ecological problems will need to be conducted at a landscape level, across various boundaries, involving multiple private landowners. In order to succeed in a cross-boundary restoration approach, the needs of the people and the ecosystem must be addressed. Collaboration in natural resource management has emerged as one tool for discovering and maintaining a balance ...


Occurrence Of Escherichia Coli0157:H7 In Diverse Farm Environments In Five States, Carl Andrew Doane Dec 2004

Occurrence Of Escherichia Coli0157:H7 In Diverse Farm Environments In Five States, Carl Andrew Doane

Masters Theses

In the United States, foodborne outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 illness have often been linked to the consumption of contaminated, undercooked ground beef. However, the occurrence of E. coli O157:H7 in other animals has also been reported. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of E. coli O157:H7 in cattle, swine, poultry, and farm environments. Environmental samples (n=576) and fecal swab samples (n=1686) from sixteen locations in the U.S. were collected over 22 months. Overall, in fecal swabs E. coli O157:H7 was positive (serologically confirmed) in 4.7% of beef ...


Tnh1005-Routine Health Care For Horses, The University Of Tennessee Agriculture Extension Service Oct 2004

Tnh1005-Routine Health Care For Horses, The University Of Tennessee Agriculture Extension Service

Animals/Livestock

Health and well being in animals cannot be achieved by use of vaccines and feed additives alone. Healthy horses are fed well and kept in facilities in good repair. They are seen by their caregivers often, and small problems are not allowed to become big ones. Healthy horses also receive animal health products that have been properly stored and are used according to label directions. The three most frequent veterinary complaints in horses are colic, lacerations and lameness. Special attention should be paid to preventing these problems. Horse health care need not be expensive but does need to be comprehensive ...


Sp631 Bacterial Wetwood Disease Of Trees, The University Of Tennessee Agricultural Extension Service Sep 2004

Sp631 Bacterial Wetwood Disease Of Trees, The University Of Tennessee Agricultural Extension Service

Forestry, Trees, and Timber

Wetwood is a water-soaked condition of wood in the trunk and branches of trees. This condition has been attributed to bacterial infection in the inner sapwood and outer heartwood area of the tree. Infection is normally associated with wounding or environmental stress on the tree. The bacteria, Enterobactor cloacae, has been implicated as the cause of wetwood in elm, but numerous other bacteria have been associated with this condition in other trees such as cottonwood, willow, ash, maple, birch, hickory, beech, oak, sycamore, cherry and yellow-poplar. Bacteria alter wood cell walls, causing moisture content of the wood to increase. Infected ...


Sp629 Growing Trees From Seed, The University Of Tennessee Agricultural Extension Service Sep 2004

Sp629 Growing Trees From Seed, The University Of Tennessee Agricultural Extension Service

Forestry, Trees, and Timber

Often seedlings or saplings for a desired but uncommon tree are not commercially available for planting. Growing trees from seed is an effective method in obtaining these trees. Some people may wish to preserve offspring of a favored parent tree or just enjoy growing trees from seed as a green thumb project. Knowing when and how to collect and germinate tree seed is essential for success.

Seeds are a primary means of trees perpetuating themselves. The proper handling of seed through the processes of ripening or maturation, collecting, processing, storage (if needed), dormancy, stratification and germination is required for success ...


Sp627 Identification And Control Of Non-Native Invasive Forest Plants In Tennessee, The University Of Tennessee Agricultural Extension Service Sep 2004

Sp627 Identification And Control Of Non-Native Invasive Forest Plants In Tennessee, The University Of Tennessee Agricultural Extension Service

Forestry, Trees, and Timber

Invasive, exotic plants can cause significant displacement of native vegetation. But exactly what are exotic plants? What makes them invasive? To find out, let’s start with some basic definitions.

The vegetation historically found in a local area is termed native vegetation. These plants have traditionally been found in the area and are well-suited to maintain themselves in their environs. Exotic plants are those plants found in a particular area, but which originate from another continent or country. These plants can also be referred to as non-native. However, non-native plants are not always exotic. Non-native plants may also be native ...


Sp630 Bark Splitting On Trees, The University Of Tennessee Agricultural Extension Service Sep 2004

Sp630 Bark Splitting On Trees, The University Of Tennessee Agricultural Extension Service

Forestry, Trees, and Timber

Bark splitting and sloughing results from a number of environmental factors. Sloughing or peeling of the bark is a normal process, especially in the spring when the tree begins to grow, and is more noticeable in some species than in others. The outer layers of bark are dead tissue and cannot grow, so the outer bark must split in order for the tree to grow in diameter. The inner bark is living, and forms a new protective coat as the outer bark pulls apart. If you look closely at normally furrowed bark, you will not be able to see the ...


Pb1585-Annual And Perennial Flower Shade Gardening In Tennessee, The University Of Tennessee Agricultural Extension Service Sep 2004

Pb1585-Annual And Perennial Flower Shade Gardening In Tennessee, The University Of Tennessee Agricultural Extension Service

Home Garden, Lawn, and Landscape

Gardening in the shade can add interest and color to the restful recesses of your landscape, but it can be difficult and challenging. Shade gardening presents a new set of problems as compared to gardening in the sun. Both the homeowner who instructs his or her builder to leave “every tree possible” and the gardener who one day looks up and finds that the maple and oak saplings planted years ago now flood much of the landscape with shade have trouble finding suitable plants which can add color in these areas of their landscapes.

Perennials, plants which flower year after ...


Pb1743-Growing And Managing Successful Food Plots For Wildlife In The Mid-South, The University Of Tennessee Agricultural Extension Service Sep 2004

Pb1743-Growing And Managing Successful Food Plots For Wildlife In The Mid-South, The University Of Tennessee Agricultural Extension Service

Wildlife and Fisheries

Planting food plots is an excellent way to improve available nutrition, increase the carrying capacity and concentrate wildlife on your property. Food plots do not take the place of habitat management in general, but are intended to augment the quantity and quality of food occurring naturally in an area. Whenever habitat improvement is desired, other management practices (e.g., timber management, prescribed burning and discing) should be implemented as well. Food plot plantings should depend upon which wildlife species you want to attract and the seasonal requirements of those species. Not all wildlife species benefi t from all food plot ...