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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Interferon Regulatory Factor 7 Is Associated With Epstein-Barr Virus-Transformed Central Nervous System Lymphoma And Has Oncogenic Properties, Luwen Zhang, Jun Zhang, Que Lambert, Channing J. Der, Luis Del Valle, Judith Miklossy, Kamel Kahlili, You Zhou, Joseph S. Pagano Dec 2004

Interferon Regulatory Factor 7 Is Associated With Epstein-Barr Virus-Transformed Central Nervous System Lymphoma And Has Oncogenic Properties, Luwen Zhang, Jun Zhang, Que Lambert, Channing J. Der, Luis Del Valle, Judith Miklossy, Kamel Kahlili, You Zhou, Joseph S. Pagano

Virology Papers

EBV transforms primary B cells, and the major EBV oncoprotein, latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1), is required for the process. LMP-1 both induces the expression of IRF-7 and activates the IRF-7 protein by phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. Here we report that the expression of IRF-7 is increased in EBV-immortalized B lymphocytes compared with that in primary B cells. IRF-7 was phosphorylated and predominantly localized in the nucleus in the immortalized cells. The expression of IRF-7 was detected in 19 of 27 specimens of primary lymphomas of the human central nervous system by immunohistochemical analysis. The association between LMP-1 and IRF-7 ...


Infectious Molecular Clone Of A Recently Transmitted Pediatric Human Immunodeficiency Virus Clade C Isolate From Africa: Evidence Of Intraclade Recombination, Ricky D. Grisson, Agnes-Laurence Chenine, Lan-Yu Yeh, Jun He, Charles Wood, Ganapati J. Bhat, Weidong Zu, Chipepo Kankasa, Ruth M. Ruprecht Dec 2004

Infectious Molecular Clone Of A Recently Transmitted Pediatric Human Immunodeficiency Virus Clade C Isolate From Africa: Evidence Of Intraclade Recombination, Ricky D. Grisson, Agnes-Laurence Chenine, Lan-Yu Yeh, Jun He, Charles Wood, Ganapati J. Bhat, Weidong Zu, Chipepo Kankasa, Ruth M. Ruprecht

Virology Papers

Although human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) clade C continues to dominate the pandemic, only two infectious clade C proviral DNA clones have been described (N. Mochizuki, N. Otsuka, K. Matsuo, T. Shiino, A. Kojima, T. Kurata, K. Sakai, N. Yamamoto, S. Isomura, T. N. Dhole, Y. Takebe, M. Matsuda, and M. Tatsumi, AIDS Res. Hum. Retrovir. 15:1321–1324, 1999; T. Ndung’u, B. Renjifo, and M. Essex, J. Virol. 75:4964–4972, 2001). We have generated an infectious molecular clone of a pediatric clade C strain, HIV1084i, which was isolated from a Zambian infant infected either intrapartum or ...


The Latent Membrane Protein 1 Of Epstein-Barr Virus Establishes An Antiviral State Via Induction Of Interferon-Stimulated Genes, Jun Zhang, Subash C. Das, Catherine Kotalik, Asit K. Pattnaik, Luwen Zhang Oct 2004

The Latent Membrane Protein 1 Of Epstein-Barr Virus Establishes An Antiviral State Via Induction Of Interferon-Stimulated Genes, Jun Zhang, Subash C. Das, Catherine Kotalik, Asit K. Pattnaik, Luwen Zhang

Virology Papers

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is associated with several human cancers. Latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) is one of the key viral proteins required for transformation of primary B cells in vitro and establishment of EBV latency. In this report, we show that LMP-1 is able to induce the expression of several interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes (ISGs) with antiviral properties such as 2’-5’ oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS), stimulated trans-acting factor of 50 kDa (STAF- 50), and ISG-15. LMP-1 inhibits vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) replication at low multiplicity of infection (0.1 pfu/cell). The antiviral effect of LMP-1 is associated with ...


Cd8+ T Cells Responding To Influenza Infection Reach And Persist At Higher Numbers Than Cd4+ T Cells Independently Of Precursor Frequency, Timothy J. Powell, Deborah M. Brown, Joseph A. Hollenbaugh, Tina Charbonneau, Roslyn A. Kemp, Susan L. Swain, Richard Dutton Oct 2004

Cd8+ T Cells Responding To Influenza Infection Reach And Persist At Higher Numbers Than Cd4+ T Cells Independently Of Precursor Frequency, Timothy J. Powell, Deborah M. Brown, Joseph A. Hollenbaugh, Tina Charbonneau, Roslyn A. Kemp, Susan L. Swain, Richard Dutton

Virology Papers

The activation, localization, phenotypic changes, and function of CFSE-labeled naive influenza-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells following influenza infection were examined. Response of adoptively transferred CD8+ T cells was seen earliest in draining lymph node. Highly activated cells were found later in the lung, airways, and spleen, were cytolytic, and expressed IFN-γ upon restimulation. Similar amounts of division at early time points, but higher numbers of CD8+ T cells, were detected at 9 and 30 days postinfection after cotransfer of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells followed by infection. Transfer of much smaller numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells led ...


Detection And Quantitation Of Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus Using Real-Time Quantitative Rt-Pcr And Quantitative Competitive Rt-Pcr Assays, Jenna Achenbaum, Christina L. Topliff, Ventzislav B. Vassilev, Ruben O. Donis, Kent M. Eskridge, Clayton L. Kelling Oct 2004

Detection And Quantitation Of Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus Using Real-Time Quantitative Rt-Pcr And Quantitative Competitive Rt-Pcr Assays, Jenna Achenbaum, Christina L. Topliff, Ventzislav B. Vassilev, Ruben O. Donis, Kent M. Eskridge, Clayton L. Kelling

Virology Papers

A single tube, fluorogenic probe-based, real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (Q-RT-PCR) assay was developed for detection and quantitation of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) using BioRad’s iCycler iQ™. Real-time Q-RT-PCR was compared with quantitative competitive RT-PCR (QC-RT-PCR) and viral titers. Viral mRNA levels were measured in BRSV-infected bovine turbinate cell lysate harvested at eight time points (1.5, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 h) post-infection. A homologous BRSV cRNA standard was used for quantitation of the mRNA by plotting a standard curve of cycle threshold (Ct) values versus standard 10-fold dilutions of cRNA of known concentrations ...


In Vitro Expression Of Full-Length And Truncated Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus G Proteins And Their Antibody Responses In Balb/C Mice, Ryan P. Brady, Christina L. Topliff, Clayton L. Kelling Sep 2004

In Vitro Expression Of Full-Length And Truncated Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus G Proteins And Their Antibody Responses In Balb/C Mice, Ryan P. Brady, Christina L. Topliff, Clayton L. Kelling

Virology Papers

Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is a primary cause of lower respiratory tract disease in calves. Protection is incomplete following vaccination or natural infection, as re-infections are common. The objectives of this study were to create plasmid DNA constructs encoding the full-length, secreted, or conserved region of the BRSV G glycoprotein, and to compare and evaluate their expression in cell culture and potential to induce antibody responses in BALB/c mice. Transfection of COS-7 cells with plasmid DNA resulted in expression of the BRSV G region from each of the plasmid DNA constructs. Following inoculation of BALB/c mice with ...


Heat Shock Protein 70 Protects Cells From Cell Cycle Arrest And Apoptosis Induced By Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Viral Protein R, Yuqi Zhao, Larisa Dubrovsky, Tatiana Iordanskaya, Mongzhong Chen, Dong Liang, Michael Bukrinsky, Sergey Iordanskiy Sep 2004

Heat Shock Protein 70 Protects Cells From Cell Cycle Arrest And Apoptosis Induced By Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Viral Protein R, Yuqi Zhao, Larisa Dubrovsky, Tatiana Iordanskaya, Mongzhong Chen, Dong Liang, Michael Bukrinsky, Sergey Iordanskiy

Virology Papers

Viral protein R (Vpr) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is an accessory protein that plays an important role in viral pathogenesis. This pathogenic activity of Vpr is related in part to its capacity to induce cell cycle G2 arrest and apoptosis of target T cells. A screening for multicopy suppressors of these Vpr activities in fission yeast identified heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) as a suppressor of Vpr-induced cell cycle arrest. Hsp70 is a member of a family of molecular chaperones involved in innate immunity and protection from environmental stress. In this report, we demonstrate that HIV-1 ...


Prion Infection Of Skeletal Muscle Cells And Papillae In The Tongue, Ellyn R. Mulcahy, Jason C. Bartz, Anthony E. Kincaid, Richard Bessen Jul 2004

Prion Infection Of Skeletal Muscle Cells And Papillae In The Tongue, Ellyn R. Mulcahy, Jason C. Bartz, Anthony E. Kincaid, Richard Bessen

Virology Papers

The presence of the prion agent in skeletal muscle is thought to be due to the infection of nerve fibers located within the muscle. We report here that the pathological isoform of the prion protein, PrPSc, accumulates within skeletal muscle cells, in addition to axons, in the tongue of hamsters following intralingual and intracerebral inoculation of the HY strain of the transmissible mink encephalopathy agent. Localization of PrPSc to the neuromuscular junction suggests that this synapse is a site for prion agent spread between motor axon terminals and muscle cells. Following intracerebral inoculation, the majority of PrPSc ...


Distribution Of Kaposi Sarcoma–Associated Herpesvirus/Human Herpesvirus 8 In Maternal Saliva And Breast Milk In Zambia: Implications For Transmission, Brad P. Brayfield, Chipepo Kankasa, John T. West, Jubra Muyanga, Ganapati Bhat, Winslow Klaskala, Charles D. Mitchell, Charles Wood Jun 2004

Distribution Of Kaposi Sarcoma–Associated Herpesvirus/Human Herpesvirus 8 In Maternal Saliva And Breast Milk In Zambia: Implications For Transmission, Brad P. Brayfield, Chipepo Kankasa, John T. West, Jubra Muyanga, Ganapati Bhat, Winslow Klaskala, Charles D. Mitchell, Charles Wood

Virology Papers

Background. The seroprevalence of Kaposi sarcoma–associated herpesvirus (KSHV)/human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) in sub-Saharan Africa suggests that multiple routes of transmission exist. In the present study,we examined 2 possible routes of mother-to-child transmission, through breast milk and saliva, during the first 6 months after delivery. Methods. The prevalence of HHV-8 DNA in the breast-milk cells (n=75), milk supernatant (n=56), colostrum (n=2), and saliva cells (n=65) of HHV-8–seropositive mothers who recently gave birth was examined. Polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed for the detection of HHV-8 in cross-sectional samples isolated at 2, 4, and ...


Cd4 T Cell Responses To Influenza Infection, Deborah M. Brown, Eulogia Roman, Susan L. Swain Jun 2004

Cd4 T Cell Responses To Influenza Infection, Deborah M. Brown, Eulogia Roman, Susan L. Swain

Virology Papers

Immune responses to viral infections involve a complex orchestration between innate signals and adaptive responses of specific T and B cells. Anti-viral CD4 cells can direct CD8 responses by secreting a Type 1 panel of cytokines including IFN-γ, IL-2 and TNF- α and can drive B cell production of IgG2a to neutralize infective viral particles. This review will focus specifically on the role of CD4 cells in the immune response to influenza, an acute, localized respiratory viral infection. We suggest that CD4 cells act as direct effectors in protection against influenza, may contribute to immunopathology and generate functionally distinct memory ...


Multiple Signal Transducers And Activators Of Transcription Are Induced By Ebv Lmp-1, Luwen Zhang, Ke Hong, Jun Zhang, Joseph S. Pagano May 2004

Multiple Signal Transducers And Activators Of Transcription Are Induced By Ebv Lmp-1, Luwen Zhang, Ke Hong, Jun Zhang, Joseph S. Pagano

Virology Papers

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) is required for EBV immortalization of primary B cells in vitro. Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) play a pivotal role in the initiation and maintenance of certain cancers. STAT proteins, especially STAT-1, -3, and -5, are persistently tyrosine phosphorylated or activated in many cancers. We show here that EBV-infected type III latency cells, in which the EBV oncoprotein, LMP-1 is expressed, express high levels of four STATs (STAT-1, -2, -3, and -5A) and that LMP-1 is responsible for the induction of three (STAT-1, -2, and -3). In addition, the C-terminal ...


Genomes Of The Parapoxviruses Orf Virus And Bovine Papular Stomatitis Virus, Gustavo A. Delhon, E. R. Tuhlman, C. L. Afonso, Z. Lu, A. De La Concha-Bermejillo, H. D. Lehmkuhl, M. E. Piccone, G. F. Kutish, D. L. Rock Jan 2004

Genomes Of The Parapoxviruses Orf Virus And Bovine Papular Stomatitis Virus, Gustavo A. Delhon, E. R. Tuhlman, C. L. Afonso, Z. Lu, A. De La Concha-Bermejillo, H. D. Lehmkuhl, M. E. Piccone, G. F. Kutish, D. L. Rock

Virology Papers

Bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) and orf virus (ORFV), members of the genus Parapoxvirus of the Poxviridae, are etiologic agents of worldwide diseases affecting cattle and small ruminants, respectively. Here we report the genomic sequences and comparative analysis of BPSV strain BV-AR02 and ORFV strains OV-SA00, isolated from a goat, and OV-IA82, isolated from a sheep. Parapoxvirus (PPV) BV-AR02, OV-SA00, and OV-IA82 genomes range in size from 134 to 139 kbp, with an average nucleotide composition of 64% G+C. BPSV and ORFV genomes contain 131 and 130 putative genes, respectively, and share colinearity over 127 genes, 88 of which ...