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Articles 1 - 9 of 9

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Pinyon Jays Use Transitive Inference To Predict Social Dominance, Guillermo Paz-Y-Miño C, Alan B. Bond, Alan Kamil, Russell P. Balda Aug 2004

Pinyon Jays Use Transitive Inference To Predict Social Dominance, Guillermo Paz-Y-Miño C, Alan B. Bond, Alan Kamil, Russell P. Balda

Papers in Behavior and Biological Sciences

Living in large, stable social groups is often considered to favor the evolution of enhanced cognitive abilities, such as recognizing group members, tracking their social status and inferring relationships among them. An individual’s place in the social order can be learned through direct interactions with others, but conflicts can be time-consuming and even injurious. Because the number of possible pairwise interactions increases rapidly with group size, members of large social groups will benefit if they can make judgments about relationships on the basis of indirect evidence. Transitive reasoning should therefore be particularly important for social individuals, allowing assessment of ...


A Conceptual Framework For Non-Kin Food Sharing: Timing And Currency Of Benefits, Jeffrey R. Stevens, Ian C. Gilby Jan 2004

A Conceptual Framework For Non-Kin Food Sharing: Timing And Currency Of Benefits, Jeffrey R. Stevens, Ian C. Gilby

Jeffrey Stevens Papers & Publications

Many animal species, from arthropods to apes, share food. This paper presents a new framework that categorizes nonkin food sharing according to two axes: (1) the interval between sharing and receiving the benefits of sharing, and (2) the currency units in which benefits accrue to the sharer (especially food versus nonfood). Sharers can obtain immediate benefits from increased foraging efficiency, predation avoidance, mate provisioning, or manipulative mutualism. Reciprocity, trade, status enhancement and group augmentation can delay benefits. When benefits are delayed or when food is exchanged for nonfood benefits, maintaining sharing can become more difficult because animals face discounting and ...


The Selfish Nature Of Generosity: Harassment And Food Sharing In Primates, Jeffrey R. Stevens Jan 2004

The Selfish Nature Of Generosity: Harassment And Food Sharing In Primates, Jeffrey R. Stevens

Jeffrey Stevens Papers & Publications

Animals may share food to gain immediate or delayed fitness benefits. Previous studies of sharing have concentrated on delayed benefits such as reciprocity, trade and punishment. This study tests an alternative model (the harassment or sharing–under–pressure hypothesis) in which a food owner immediately benefits because sharing avoids costly harassment from a beggar. I present an experiment that varies the potential ability of the beggar to harass, and of the owner to defend the food, to examine the effects of harassment on food sharing in two primate species: chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis). For both species ...


Social Play In Kaka (Nestor Meridionalis) With Comparisons To Kea (Nestor Notabilis), Judy Diamond, Alan B. Bond Jan 2004

Social Play In Kaka (Nestor Meridionalis) With Comparisons To Kea (Nestor Notabilis), Judy Diamond, Alan B. Bond

Papers in Behavior and Biological Sciences

Social play in the kaka (Nestor meridionalis), a New Zealand parrot, is described and contrasted with that of its closest relative, the kea (Nestor notabilis), in one of the first comparative studies of social play in closely related birds. Most play action patterns were clearly homologous in these two species, though some contrasts in the form of specific play behaviors, such as kicking or biting, could be attributed to morphological differences. Social play in kakas is briefer, more predictable, and less sequentially diverse than that shown by keas. Kaka play also appears to be restricted to fledglings and juveniles, while ...


Sociality And The Evolution Of Intelligence, Alan Kamil Jan 2004

Sociality And The Evolution Of Intelligence, Alan Kamil

Papers in Behavior and Biological Sciences

Two recently published studies provide important new data relevant to the evolution of human intelligence. Both studies of social behavior in baboons, Bergman et al. demonstrated that baboons use two criteria simultaneously to classify other troop members, and Silk et al. showed that highly social female baboons have higher reproductive success than less social females. Taken together, these studies provide strong evidence for the importance of social context in cognitive evolution.


The Geometry Of Foraging Patterns: Components Of Thoroughness In Random Searching, Alan B. Bond Jan 2004

The Geometry Of Foraging Patterns: Components Of Thoroughness In Random Searching, Alan B. Bond

Papers in Behavior and Biological Sciences

A Monte Carlo simulation of the movements of a randomly-searching predator was used to develop a novel geometrical measure, the "thoroughness" of the search, and to investigate the effects of meander, turn asymmetry, and path length. Thoroughness varied directly with the meander and the square of the asymmetry measure and remained relatively invariant with path length. The regularity of its relationship to the generating parameters of the search and the ease with which it may be estimated from field data recommend thoroughness for use in characterizing empirical search patterns and in testing for the occurrence of systematic searching.


Clark’S Nutcrackers (Nucifraga Columbiana) And The Effects Of Goal-Landmark Distance On Overshadowing, Aleida J. Goodyear, Alan Kamil Jan 2004

Clark’S Nutcrackers (Nucifraga Columbiana) And The Effects Of Goal-Landmark Distance On Overshadowing, Aleida J. Goodyear, Alan Kamil

Papers in Behavior and Biological Sciences

Three groups of Clark’s nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) were trained to find a goal location defined by an array of 4 landmarks that varied in goal–landmark distance. The arrays for each group differed in the distance of the closest landmark and contained goal–landmark distances that were common across groups, allowing for the examination of the effects of both relative and absolute goal–landmark distance on encoding of a landmark array. All 3 groups readily learned the task and were subsequently tested in probe tests with only single landmarks from the array available. Search error in tests with single ...


Record High Wolf, Canis Lupus, Pack Density, L. David Mech, Shawn Tracy Jan 2004

Record High Wolf, Canis Lupus, Pack Density, L. David Mech, Shawn Tracy

USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

This report documents a year-around Wolf (Canis lupus) density of 18.2/100 km2 and a summer density of 30.8/100 km2, in a northeastern Minnesota Wolf pack. The previous record was a summer density of 14.1/100 km2, for a Wolf pack on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada.


Unusual Behavior By Bison, Bison Bison, Toward Elk, Cervus Elaphus, And Wolves, Canis Lupus, L. David Mech, Rick T. Mcintyre, Douglas W. Smith Jan 2004

Unusual Behavior By Bison, Bison Bison, Toward Elk, Cervus Elaphus, And Wolves, Canis Lupus, L. David Mech, Rick T. Mcintyre, Douglas W. Smith

USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

Incidents are described of Bison (Bison bison) in Yellowstone National Park mauling and possibly killing a young Elk (Cervus elaphus) calf, chasing wolves (Canis lupus) off Elk they had just killed or were killing, and keeping the wolves away for extended periods. During one of the latter cases, the Bison knocked a wolf-wounded Elk down. Bison were also seen approaching wolves that were resting and sleeping, rousting them, following them to new resting places and repeating this behavior. These behaviors might represent some type of generalized hyper-defensiveness that functions as an anti-predator strategy.