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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Atrazine Runoff In The Blue River Basin: Geomorphology, Rainfall, And Agronomic Practices, Kundan Dhakal Dec 2004

Atrazine Runoff In The Blue River Basin: Geomorphology, Rainfall, And Agronomic Practices, Kundan Dhakal

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Atrazine concentrations in the Big Blue River Basin (BRB) in Nebraska and Kansas periodically exceed the U.S. EPA Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 3 µg L-1. The present study is focused on watershed variables influencing surface runoff of atrazine. The assessment includes the impact of corn and sorghum planting progress (indicating atrazine application), rainfall, antecedent soil water content, and soil restrictive layer on stream-measured weekly atrazine load in independent BRB subwatersheds for 1997 - 2004. Maximum atrazine loading occurred after most of the corn had been planted but during sorghum planting from mid-May to early June, immediately following multiple ...


Validación De Variedades: Fotosensitivas De Sorgo En El Norte De Nicaragua, Sergio A. Cuadra C. Jul 2004

Validación De Variedades: Fotosensitivas De Sorgo En El Norte De Nicaragua, Sergio A. Cuadra C.

INTSORMIL Presentations

Objetivo General:

Desarrollar variedades de millón en condiciones agro climáticas marginales, que logren garantizar la seguridad alimentaría (humana y animal), de las familias rurales que dependen de este cultivo.

Específicos:

Identificar las variedades de millón con mejor comportamiento agronómico mediante análisis de adaptabilidad y riesgo que permitan realizar recomendaciones con criterios técnicos y cualitativos. Comparar los beneficios económicos entre las diferentes alternativas tecnológicas propuestas y la testigo.

Conclusiones y Recomendaciones

La superioridad productiva de los genotipos ES 790 y 85 SCP 805 sobre la variedad INTA Segovia (testigo) es significativa, teniendo un incremento del 20.3 y 18.8% respectivamente ...


Manure Matters, Volume 10, Number 6, Charles S. Wortmann Jan 2004

Manure Matters, Volume 10, Number 6, Charles S. Wortmann

Manure Matters (newsletter)

Phosphorous Runoff Risk During Years following Manure Application

Manure application may result in increased water infiltration and reduced runoff but it can also lead to excessive soil P levels and increased P concentration in runoff. Research was conducted to determine the residual effects of composted manure on runoff loss of water, sediment and phosphorus, and to evaluate soil P tests in prediction of P concentration in runoff. The residual effects of previously applied composted feedlot manure were studied from 2001 to the spring of 2004 at a runoff facility established in 1998 at the UNL Agricultural Research and Development Center ...


Manure Matters, Volume 10, Number 5, Christopher G. Henry, Jeff Arnold Jan 2004

Manure Matters, Volume 10, Number 5, Christopher G. Henry, Jeff Arnold

Manure Matters (newsletter)

Land Area Available in Cuming County to Expand Livestock Operations based on Zoning Setback Requirement

A GIS was used to study the spatial impact that 1/4, 3/8, 1/2, 3/4, and 1 mile setbacks have on the area available to the livestock industry in Cuming County, Nebraska. A geographic information system was used to analyze the amount of land available under the current zoning requirements in Cuming county, Nebraska. The colored area of these maps represent the land areas that are excluded from livestock construction or expansion. These maps graphically represent the impact zoning setbacks have on ...


Manure Matters, Volume 10, Number 4, Mike Brumm, Al Prosch, Rod Johnson Jan 2004

Manure Matters, Volume 10, Number 4, Mike Brumm, Al Prosch, Rod Johnson

Manure Matters (newsletter)

Rural Development Through Pork Production: The Nebraska Model

Nebraska’s producers of pork are striving to create systems of production that are environmentally, economically & socially acceptable.
This is no small challenge. While attempting to comply with environmental rules, producers are faced with the rules changing as they implement adoption. Social acceptance varies with locale but is generally less positive than in the past. And, Fewer operations have livestock and fewer people in the rural population rely on livestock for their livelihoods—which makes any livestock production operation less acceptable.
The issues facing all agricultural producers today are more complex and ...


Manure Matters, Volume 10, Number 3 Jan 2004

Manure Matters, Volume 10, Number 3

Manure Matters (newsletter)

New BSE Rule Will Change Re-Feeding of Poultry Litter to Ruminants

The Food and Drug Administration announced on January 26, 2004 several new public health measures, to be implemented, to strengthen significantly the multiple existing firewalls that protect Americans from exposure to the agent thought to cause bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, also known as mad cow disease) and that help prevent the spread of BSE in U.S. cattle. One of those changes will impact how re-feeding of waste to animals is allowed.
To implement these new protections, FDA will publish two interim final rules that will take effect immediately ...


Manure Matters, Volume 10, Number 2, John Sweeten, Ron Miner, Brent Auvermann Jan 2004

Manure Matters, Volume 10, Number 2, John Sweeten, Ron Miner, Brent Auvermann

Manure Matters (newsletter)

Alternative Treatment Systems

The February 13, 2003 Federal Register revised the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) “Part 412-Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFO) Point Source Category,” which described the revised Effluent Limitations Guidelines (ELG) and New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). The regulation applies to manure, litter, and/or process wastewater discharges resulting from CAFOs. Subpart C addresses dairy cows and cattle other than veal calves, which includes dairy operations and beef cattle feedlots. Subpart D addresses swine, poultry, and veal calves. Baseline ELGs in the revised rule prohibit discharge of process waste waters except ...


Manure Matters, Volume 10, Number 1, John Sweeten, Ron Miner, Carrie Tengman Jan 2004

Manure Matters, Volume 10, Number 1, John Sweeten, Ron Miner, Carrie Tengman

Manure Matters (newsletter)

A Brief History and Background of the EPA CAFO Rule

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rules affecting animal feeding operations (AFOs) have evolved from the 1972 Federal Clean Water Act (CWA). Section 502 of the CWA specifically defined “feedlots” as “point sources” along with dozens of other industries such as meat processing and fertilizer manufacturing. The goal of the 1972 CWA was to restore “fishable, swimmable” quality of lakes, streams, and estuaries in the United States.
A federal permit program termed the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) was created for point sources that discharged into “waters of the ...


Manure Matters, Volume 10, Number 9, Charles S. Wortmann Jan 2004

Manure Matters, Volume 10, Number 9, Charles S. Wortmann

Manure Matters (newsletter)

New Manure Use Planning Tools for Nebraska


Manure Matters, Volume 10, Number 8, Charles S. Wortmann Jan 2004

Manure Matters, Volume 10, Number 8, Charles S. Wortmann

Manure Matters (newsletter)

The Value of Manure for Crop Production

Manure has value for crop production when it provides nutrients or soil amendments needed for optimal crop yields. Crop producers can in many cases justify paying animal feeding operations to apply manure to their land. A recent extension publication “Calculating the Value of Manure for Crop Production


Manure Matters, Volume 10, Number 7, Bahman Eghball Jan 2004

Manure Matters, Volume 10, Number 7, Bahman Eghball

Manure Matters (newsletter)

Reducing Phosphorus Concentration of Ethanol Distiller Byproducts by Using Low Grain Phosphorus Corn

Ethanol production plants are using about 800 million bu of corn each year to produce ethanol. In the ethanol production system, the starch is converted to ethanol and CO2 and the remaining grain material is called distiller byproduct (wet distiller grain plus soluble or dry distiller grain plus soluble). This byproduct is high in energy, protein, and P contents and is usually fed to feedlot cattle and other livestock. Removal of starch from grain concentrates P in the byproduct and when this high P material is added ...


Intsormil 2004 Annual Report, John M. Yohe, Thomas Crawford Jr., Kimberly Christiansen, Joan Frederick Jan 2004

Intsormil 2004 Annual Report, John M. Yohe, Thomas Crawford Jr., Kimberly Christiansen, Joan Frederick

INTSORMIL Impacts and Bulletins

The 2004 INTSORMIL Annual Report presents the progress and notable achievements by the SorghumlMillet CRSP during the period of July 1, 2003 - June 30, 2004. These results are an outcome of partnerships between scientists at six U.S. Land Grant Universities (Kansas State University, Mississippi State University, University of Nebraska, Purdue University, Texas A&M University and West Texas A&M University) and scientists of the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture at Tifton, Georgia and National Agricultural Research Systems (NARS) and National Universities in nineteen countries in Central America, West Africa, East Africa and Southern ...


Seed Quality Qtl In A Prominent Soybean Population, D. L. Hyten Jr., V. R. Pantalone, C. E. Sams, A. M. Saxon, D. Landau-Ellis, T. R. Stefaniak, M. E. Schmidt Jan 2004

Seed Quality Qtl In A Prominent Soybean Population, D. L. Hyten Jr., V. R. Pantalone, C. E. Sams, A. M. Saxon, D. Landau-Ellis, T. R. Stefaniak, M. E. Schmidt

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is a versatile crop due to its multitude of uses as a high protein meal and vegetable oil. Soybean seed traits such as seed protein and oil concentration and seed size are important quantitative traits. The objective of this study was to identify representative protein, oil, and seed size quantitative trait loci (QTL) in soybean. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population consisting of 131 F6-derived lines was created from two prominent ancestors of North American soy-beans (‘Essex’ and ‘Williams’) and the RILs were grown in six environments. One hundred simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers spaced ...


Using Multi-Spectral Imagery To Evaluate Corn Grown Under Nitrogen And Drought Stressed Conditions, Shannon L. Osborne, James S. Schepers, Mike R. Schlemmer Jan 2004

Using Multi-Spectral Imagery To Evaluate Corn Grown Under Nitrogen And Drought Stressed Conditions, Shannon L. Osborne, James S. Schepers, Mike R. Schlemmer

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

The in-season estimation of crop stresses which have the potential of adversely affecting crop yield and/or quality could allow producers to make in-season management decisions to correct for the particular stress. A field study was conducted to evaluate the use of multispectral imagery for estimating corn (Zea mays L.) grain yield, in-season biomass and nitrogen (N) concentration under varying N and drought stresses. The experiment was a split-plot design with three replications using a factorial arrangement of treatments. Three irrigation (whole-plot) treatments included dry land, irrigation based on 0.5, and full evapotranspiration (ET). Sub-plot treatments included five ...


Molecular Mapping And Identification Of Soybean Fatty Acid Modifier Quantitative Trait Loci, D. L. Hyten Jr., Vincent R. Pantalone, Arnold M. Saxton, Michael E. Schmidt, Carl E. Sams Jan 2004

Molecular Mapping And Identification Of Soybean Fatty Acid Modifier Quantitative Trait Loci, D. L. Hyten Jr., Vincent R. Pantalone, Arnold M. Saxton, Michael E. Schmidt, Carl E. Sams

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Altering FA content in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] oil for improved functionality is a research goal of many soybean breeders. Several of the genes that alter palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids are modifier genes with small effects, causing these FA traits to act as quantitative traits. The objective of this study was to identify modifier FA quantitative trait loci (QTL) in soybean. A recombinant inbred line population was created from two prominent ancestors of currently avail-able U.S. cultivars (Essex and Williams) and grown in five environments. One hundred simple se-quence repeat markers spaced throughout the genome ...


Expression Of A Putative Flavonoid 3'-Hydroxylase In Sorghum Mesocotyls Synthesizing 3-Deoxyanthocyanidin Phytoalexins, Jayanand Boddu, Catherine Svabek, Rajandeep Sekhon, Amanda Gevens, Ralph L. Nicholson, A. Daniel Jones, Jeffrey F. Pedersen, David L. Gustine, Surinder Chopra Jan 2004

Expression Of A Putative Flavonoid 3'-Hydroxylase In Sorghum Mesocotyls Synthesizing 3-Deoxyanthocyanidin Phytoalexins, Jayanand Boddu, Catherine Svabek, Rajandeep Sekhon, Amanda Gevens, Ralph L. Nicholson, A. Daniel Jones, Jeffrey F. Pedersen, David L. Gustine, Surinder Chopra

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

In sorghum, ingress of Cochliobolus heterostrophus stimulates the synthesis of 3-deoxyanthocyanidins that act as phytoalexins. Apigeninidin and luteolinidin are two major phytoalexins induced in the first 24 h after infection. In an attempt to understand genetic regulation of the biosynthesis of sorghum phytoalexins, we isolated a differentially expressed partial cDNA. Characterization and comparison showed that this cDNA sequence corresponds to a putative flavonoid 3-hydroxylase. Full length sequence characterization allowed us to establish that the sorghum putative f3h cDNA encodes a peptide of 517 amino acids that has domains conserved among cytochrome P450 proteins functioning in the flavonoid biosynthetic ...


Predicting Phenological Development In Winter Wheat, Qingwu Xue, Albert Weiss, P. Stephen Baenziger Jan 2004

Predicting Phenological Development In Winter Wheat, Qingwu Xue, Albert Weiss, P. Stephen Baenziger

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Accurate prediction of phenological development is important in the winter wheat Triticum aestivum agroecosystem. From a practical perspective, applications of pesticides and fertilizers are carried out at specific phenological stages. In crop-simulation modeling, the prediction of yield components (kernel number and kernel weight) and wheat-grain yield relies on accurate prediction of phenology. In this study, a nonlinear multiplicative model by Wang & Engel (WE) for predicting phenological development in differing winter wheat cultivars was evaluated using data from a 3 yr field experiment. In the vegetative phase (emergence to anthesis) the daily development rate (r) was simulated based on the product ...